The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: Truth:epistemic

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Science:scientific anti-realism0.227
scientific anti-realism scientific realism
epistemic
32.8%(21/64)
56.2%(36/64)
not epistemic
10.5%(77/733)
83.4%(612/733)
Response pairs: 847   p-value: < 0.001
External world:idealism0.218
idealism not idealism
epistemic
17.7%(11/62)
77.4%(48/62)
not epistemic
3.2%(24/735)
93.6%(688/735)
Response pairs: 848   p-value: < 0.001
External world:skepticism0.167
skepticism not skepticism
epistemic
11.2%(7/62)
83.8%(52/62)
not epistemic
4.2%(31/735)
92.6%(681/735)
Response pairs: 848   p-value: < 0.001
Laws of nature:Humean0.162
Humean non-Humean
epistemic
43.3%(26/60)
50%(30/60)
not epistemic
25.1%(177/703)
66.5%(468/703)
Response pairs: 808   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:nominalism0.151
nominalism Platonism
epistemic
58%(36/62)
33.8%(21/62)
not epistemic
38.1%(277/726)
51.6%(375/726)
Response pairs: 837   p-value: < 0.001
not Knowledge claims:invariantism0.145
invariantism not invariantism
epistemic
24.5%(14/57)
71.9%(41/57)
not epistemic
38.8%(254/654)
50.3%(329/654)
Response pairs: 755   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral anti-realism0.144
moral anti-realism moral realism
epistemic
44.2%(27/61)
49.1%(30/61)
not epistemic
28.5%(206/721)
64.2%(463/721)
Response pairs: 833   p-value: < 0.001
not External world:non-skeptical realism0.141
non-skeptical realism not non-skeptical realism
epistemic
61.2%(38/62)
33.8%(21/62)
not epistemic
85.5%(629/735)
11.2%(83/735)
Response pairs: 848   p-value: < 0.001
Proper names:Fregean0.125
Fregean Millian
epistemic
50%(26/52)
34.6%(18/52)
not epistemic
34.4%(224/650)
50.1%(326/650)
Response pairs: 743   p-value: < 0.001
Epistemic justification:internalism0.119
internalism externalism
epistemic
50.8%(30/59)
37.2%(22/59)
not epistemic
30.8%(218/706)
51.9%(367/706)
Response pairs: 812   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge claims:contextualism0.119
contextualism not contextualism
epistemic
59.6%(34/57)
36.8%(21/57)
not epistemic
44.9%(294/654)
44.1%(289/654)
Response pairs: 755   p-value: 0.001
Mental content:internalism0.11
externalism internalism
epistemic
35.4%(22/62)
45.1%(28/62)
not epistemic
61.2%(429/700)
25.2%(177/700)
Response pairs: 807   p-value: 0.001
Logic:non-classical0.108
non-classical classical
epistemic
46.6%(28/60)
43.3%(26/60)
not epistemic
22%(145/657)
64.3%(423/657)
Response pairs: 759   p-value: 0.002
Trolley problem:don't switch0.104
switch don't switch
epistemic
60.6%(37/61)
26.2%(16/61)
not epistemic
75.9%(525/691)
10.2%(71/691)
Response pairs: 802   p-value: 0.003
Personal identity:psychological view0.098
psychological view not psychological view
epistemic
56.3%(31/55)
32.7%(18/55)
not epistemic
38.1%(252/660)
41.6%(275/660)
Response pairs: 759   p-value: 0.006
not Normative ethics:consequentialism0.086
consequentialism not consequentialism
epistemic
18.1%(10/55)
70.9%(39/55)
not epistemic
29.6%(191/644)
58.2%(375/644)
Response pairs: 743   p-value: 0.019
Perceptual experience:sense-datum theory0.082
sense-datum theory not sense-datum theory
epistemic
7.8%(4/51)
86.2%(44/51)
not epistemic
3.7%(22/591)
81.7%(483/591)
Response pairs: 678   p-value: 0.032
Teletransporter:survival0.08
survival death
epistemic
45.8%(22/48)
27%(13/48)
not epistemic
41.4%(278/670)
37.9%(254/670)
Response pairs: 764   p-value: 0.027
Aesthetic value:subjective0.079
subjective objective
epistemic
45.3%(29/64)
42.1%(27/64)
not epistemic
38.1%(273/716)
47.6%(341/716)
Response pairs: 831   p-value: 0.022
Moral judgment:non-cognitivism0.079
non-cognitivism cognitivism
epistemic
26.5%(17/64)
64%(41/64)
not epistemic
19.4%(137/706)
72.9%(515/706)
Response pairs: 817   p-value: 0.023
Mind:non-physicalism0.074
non-physicalism physicalism
epistemic
43.7%(28/64)
50%(32/64)
not epistemic
27%(200/739)
62.2%(460/739)
Response pairs: 854   p-value: 0.03
not Personal identity:biological view0.072
biological view not biological view
epistemic
16.3%(9/55)
72.7%(40/55)
not epistemic
19.6%(130/660)
60.1%(397/660)
Response pairs: 759   p-value: 0.047
Knowledge claims:relativism0.071
relativism not relativism
epistemic
8.7%(5/57)
87.7%(50/57)
not epistemic
3%(20/654)
86%(563/654)
Response pairs: 755   p-value: 0.051
Normative ethics:deontology0.071
deontology not deontology
epistemic
38.1%(21/55)
50.9%(28/55)
not epistemic
30.1%(194/644)
57.7%(372/644)
Response pairs: 743   p-value: 0.053
A priori knowledge:no0.069
no yes
epistemic
37.5%(24/64)
57.8%(37/64)
not epistemic
17.4%(129/739)
74.8%(553/739)
Response pairs: 853   p-value: 0.043
Knowledge:empiricism0.061
empiricism rationalism
epistemic
53.9%(34/63)
31.7%(20/63)
not epistemic
41.7%(309/741)
35.8%(266/741)
Response pairs: 854   p-value: 0.074
Free will:no free will0.061
no free will free will
epistemic
12.6%(8/63)
79.3%(50/63)
not epistemic
13%(94/722)
79.3%(573/722)
Response pairs: 833   p-value: 0.078
Analytic-synthetic distinction:no0.059
no yes
epistemic
44.4%(28/63)
53.9%(34/63)
not epistemic
27.3%(203/743)
68.6%(510/743)
Response pairs: 858   p-value: 0.084
Normative ethics:virtue ethics0.05
virtue ethics not virtue ethics
epistemic
29%(16/55)
60%(33/55)
not epistemic
21.4%(138/644)
66.4%(428/644)
Response pairs: 743   p-value: 0.173
Politics:egalitarianism0.05
egalitarianism not egalitarianism
epistemic
50.8%(29/57)
43.8%(25/57)
not epistemic
42.6%(257/603)
39.1%(236/603)
Response pairs: 699   p-value: 0.186

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
tradition:continental0.186
continental analytic
epistemic
14%(9/64)
65.6%(42/64)
not epistemic
2.4%(18/747)
91%(680/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Kant0.131
Kant not Kant
epistemic
29.6%(19/64)
70.3%(45/64)
not epistemic
10.8%(81/747)
89.1%(666/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Normative Ethics0.121
Normative Ethics not Normative Ethics
epistemic
21.8%(14/64)
78.1%(50/64)
not epistemic
13.5%(101/747)
86.4%(646/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Metaphysics0.12
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
epistemic
9.3%(6/64)
90.6%(58/64)
not epistemic
27.7%(207/747)
72.2%(540/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Social and Political Philosophy0.119
Social and Political Philosophy not Social and Political Philosophy
epistemic
20.3%(13/64)
79.6%(51/64)
not epistemic
8.7%(65/747)
91.2%(682/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Rawls0.102
Rawls not Rawls
epistemic
12.5%(8/64)
87.5%(56/64)
not epistemic
3.7%(28/747)
96.2%(719/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.002
not AOS:Philosophy of Language0.096
Philosophy of Language not Philosophy of Language
epistemic
7.8%(5/64)
92.1%(59/64)
not epistemic
19.8%(148/747)
80.1%(599/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.004
not xian:Russell0.093
Russell not Russell
epistemic
~1.5%(~1/64)
~98.4%(~63/64)
not epistemic
7.2%(54/747)
92.7%(693/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.006
not AOS:Logic and Philosophy of Logic0.092
Logic and Philosophy of Logic not Logic and Philosophy of Logic
epistemic
7.8%(5/64)
92.1%(59/64)
not epistemic
10.9%(82/747)
89%(665/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.006
xian:Hegel0.089
Hegel not Hegel
epistemic
4.6%(3/64)
95.3%(61/64)
not epistemic
1.2%(9/747)
98.7%(738/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.008
not AOS:Philosophy of Mind0.088
Philosophy of Mind not Philosophy of Mind
epistemic
10.9%(7/64)
89%(57/64)
not epistemic
22.3%(167/747)
77.6%(580/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.009
not xian:Locke0.087
Locke not Locke
epistemic
~1.5%(~1/64)
~98.4%(~63/64)
not epistemic
4.4%(33/747)
95.5%(714/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.01
not AOS:Epistemology0.086
Epistemology not Epistemology
epistemic
10.9%(7/64)
89%(57/64)
not epistemic
18.4%(138/747)
81.5%(609/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.011
AOS:19th Century Philosophy0.083
19th Century Philosophy not 19th Century Philosophy
epistemic
12.5%(8/64)
87.5%(56/64)
not epistemic
3.6%(27/747)
96.3%(720/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.014
not xian:Carnap0.083
Carnap not Carnap
epistemic
~1.5%(~1/64)
~98.4%(~63/64)
not epistemic
5.4%(41/747)
94.5%(706/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.014
xian:Spinoza0.075
Spinoza not Spinoza
epistemic
9.3%(6/64)
90.6%(58/64)
not epistemic
2%(15/747)
97.9%(732/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.027
xian:Nietzsche0.075
Nietzsche not Nietzsche
epistemic
6.2%(4/64)
93.7%(60/64)
not epistemic
1.7%(13/747)
98.2%(734/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.027
xian:Mill0.072
Mill not Mill
epistemic
10.9%(7/64)
89%(57/64)
not epistemic
4.1%(31/747)
95.8%(716/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.034
not xian:Quine0.068
Quine not Quine
epistemic
4.6%(3/64)
95.3%(61/64)
not epistemic
7%(53/747)
92.9%(694/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.045
AOS:17th/18th Century Philosophy0.067
17th/18th Century Philosophy not 17th/18th Century Philosophy
epistemic
25%(16/64)
75%(48/64)
not epistemic
10.5%(79/747)
89.4%(668/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.049
not AOS:Philosophy of Mathematics0.065
Philosophy of Mathematics not Philosophy of Mathematics
epistemic
~1.5%(~1/64)
~98.4%(~63/64)
not epistemic
4.1%(31/747)
95.8%(716/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.056
xian:Hume0.064
Hume not Hume
epistemic
17.1%(11/64)
82.8%(53/64)
not epistemic
13.9%(104/747)
86%(643/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.06
AOS:Applied Ethics0.064
Applied Ethics not Applied Ethics
epistemic
6.2%(4/64)
93.7%(60/64)
not epistemic
4.1%(31/747)
95.8%(716/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.06
xian:Marx0.058
Marx not Marx
epistemic
4.6%(3/64)
95.3%(61/64)
not epistemic
1.3%(10/747)
98.6%(737/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.088

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
gender:female0.147
female male
epistemic
33.8%(20/59)
66.1%(39/59)
not epistemic
15.6%(112/715)
84.3%(603/715)
Response pairs: 819   p-value: < 0.001
year_of_phd0.08
year_of_phd ≥ median year_of_phd < median
epistemic
48.8%(22/45)
51.1%(23/45)
not epistemic
49.2%(287/583)
50.7%(296/583)
Response pairs: 673   p-value: 0.038
year_of_birth0.072
year_of_birth ≥ median year_of_birth < median
epistemic
46.6%(28/60)
53.3%(32/60)
not epistemic
49.9%(351/703)
50%(352/703)
Response pairs: 808   p-value: 0.04
nationality_region:Europe0.069
Europe not Europe
epistemic
21.8%(14/64)
78.1%(50/64)
not epistemic
12.3%(92/747)
87.6%(655/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.042
not phd_region:United States0.066
United States not United States
epistemic
42.1%(27/64)
57.8%(37/64)
not epistemic
53.6%(401/747)
46.3%(346/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.052
not affil:region:United States0.064
United States not United States
epistemic
57.8%(37/64)
42.1%(27/64)
not epistemic
60.9%(455/747)
39%(292/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.06
not nationality_region:Australasia0.058
Australasia not Australasia
epistemic
~1.5%(~1/64)
~98.4%(~63/64)
not epistemic
6.1%(46/747)
93.8%(701/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.088
not nationality_region:United States0.058
United States not United States
epistemic
50%(32/64)
50%(32/64)
not epistemic
50.8%(380/747)
49.1%(367/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.088
phd_region:Europe0.057
Europe not Europe
epistemic
7.8%(5/64)
92.1%(59/64)
not epistemic
4.9%(37/747)
95%(710/747)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.094