The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: A priori knowledge:no

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Analytic-synthetic distinction:no0.436
yes no
no
33.5%(58/173)
63.5%(110/173)
yes
77.2%(516/668)
17.5%(117/668)
Response pairs: 910   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge:empiricism0.367
rationalism empiricism
no
12.6%(22/174)
75.2%(131/174)
yes
43%(286/664)
32%(213/664)
Response pairs: 909   p-value: < 0.001
Metaphilosophy:naturalism0.275
naturalism non-naturalism
no
79.2%(130/164)
14.6%(24/164)
yes
47.9%(297/620)
35.9%(223/620)
Response pairs: 845   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:nominalism0.248
Platonism nominalism
no
20.4%(35/171)
69%(118/171)
yes
48.9%(314/642)
42.2%(271/642)
Response pairs: 883   p-value: < 0.001
not Laws of nature:non-Humean0.236
non-Humean Humean
no
43.9%(72/164)
45.7%(75/164)
yes
67.7%(427/630)
23.1%(146/630)
Response pairs: 857   p-value: < 0.001
Mind:physicalism0.225
non-physicalism physicalism
no
12.6%(22/174)
78.1%(136/174)
yes
33.3%(221/663)
55.3%(367/663)
Response pairs: 907   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral anti-realism0.222
moral realism moral anti-realism
no
40.8%(67/164)
51.8%(85/164)
yes
65.4%(427/652)
27.1%(177/652)
Response pairs: 885   p-value: < 0.001
not Moral judgment:cognitivism0.207
cognitivism non-cognitivism
no
57%(93/163)
32.5%(53/163)
yes
76.1%(485/637)
16.6%(106/637)
Response pairs: 865   p-value: < 0.001
Science:scientific anti-realism0.161
scientific realism scientific anti-realism
no
66.8%(115/172)
23.8%(41/172)
yes
81.4%(533/654)
13.4%(88/654)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
God:atheism0.159
theism atheism
no
7.4%(13/174)
86.7%(151/174)
yes
17.8%(118/661)
73.2%(484/661)
Response pairs: 906   p-value: < 0.001
Free will:no free will0.135
no free will free will
no
16.2%(28/172)
74.4%(128/172)
yes
10.9%(71/651)
80.9%(527/651)
Response pairs: 886   p-value: < 0.001
not Free will:libertarianism0.128
libertarianism not libertarianism
no
5.8%(10/172)
84.8%(146/172)
yes
17.2%(112/651)
74.6%(486/651)
Response pairs: 886   p-value: < 0.001
External world:skepticism0.121
skepticism not skepticism
no
8.2%(14/169)
88.7%(150/169)
yes
4.2%(28/663)
92%(610/663)
Response pairs: 904   p-value: < 0.001
Aesthetic value:subjective0.118
subjective objective
no
47.3%(80/169)
40.8%(69/169)
yes
34.9%(225/644)
50.4%(325/644)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: < 0.001
not Truth:correspondence0.112
correspondence not correspondence
no
45%(73/162)
49.3%(80/162)
yes
58.4%(366/626)
35.7%(224/626)
Response pairs: 853   p-value: 0.001
not Normative ethics:deontology0.109
deontology not deontology
no
25.8%(39/151)
62.9%(95/151)
yes
33.3%(194/581)
53.8%(313/581)
Response pairs: 791   p-value: 0.002
Zombies:inconceivable0.104
inconceivable not inconceivable
no
25.4%(39/153)
58.8%(90/153)
yes
16.1%(97/600)
73%(438/600)
Response pairs: 816   p-value: 0.002
not Knowledge claims:invariantism0.102
invariantism not invariantism
no
29.6%(46/155)
61.2%(95/155)
yes
39.8%(230/577)
49.7%(287/577)
Response pairs: 792   p-value: 0.004
not Zombies:metaphysically possible0.101
metaphysically possible not metaphysically possible
no
18.3%(28/153)
66%(101/153)
yes
29.6%(178/600)
59.5%(357/600)
Response pairs: 816   p-value: 0.003
not Perceptual experience:qualia theory0.09
qualia theory not qualia theory
no
10.5%(14/133)
75.1%(100/133)
yes
18%(95/525)
66.8%(351/525)
Response pairs: 712   p-value: 0.016
Normative ethics:consequentialism0.087
consequentialism not consequentialism
no
32.4%(49/151)
56.2%(85/151)
yes
25.9%(151/581)
61.2%(356/581)
Response pairs: 791   p-value: 0.014
Epistemic justification:externalism0.086
externalism internalism
no
61.3%(100/163)
27.6%(45/163)
yes
48.6%(307/631)
33.5%(212/631)
Response pairs: 858   p-value: 0.011
Knowledge claims:relativism0.084
relativism not relativism
no
5.1%(8/155)
85.8%(133/155)
yes
2.5%(15/577)
87%(502/577)
Response pairs: 792   p-value: 0.018
Time:B-theory0.084
A-theory B-theory
no
25%(25/100)
53%(53/100)
yes
32.4%(140/431)
45.4%(196/431)
Response pairs: 576   p-value: 0.043
Truth:deflationary0.079
deflationary not deflationary
no
29.6%(48/162)
64.8%(105/162)
yes
25%(157/626)
69.1%(433/626)
Response pairs: 853   p-value: 0.021
Knowledge claims:contextualism0.078
contextualism not contextualism
no
54.1%(84/155)
36.7%(57/155)
yes
44.7%(258/577)
44.8%(259/577)
Response pairs: 792   p-value: 0.028
Personal identity:biological view0.075
biological view not biological view
no
25.8%(38/147)
51.7%(76/147)
yes
18.1%(108/594)
63.4%(377/594)
Response pairs: 802   p-value: 0.033
not External world:non-skeptical realism0.072
non-skeptical realism not non-skeptical realism
no
81.6%(138/169)
15.3%(26/169)
yes
83.4%(553/663)
12.8%(85/663)
Response pairs: 904   p-value: 0.03
Truth:epistemic0.069
epistemic not epistemic
no
14.8%(24/162)
79.6%(129/162)
yes
5.9%(37/626)
88.3%(553/626)
Response pairs: 853   p-value: 0.043
Mental content:externalism0.067
internalism externalism
no
18.1%(29/160)
65.6%(105/160)
yes
28.3%(178/628)
58.4%(367/628)
Response pairs: 851   p-value: 0.05
not Personal identity:further-fact view0.065
further-fact view not further-fact view
no
8.8%(13/147)
68.7%(101/147)
yes
16.3%(97/594)
65.3%(388/594)
Response pairs: 802   p-value: 0.065
not Politics:communitarianism0.053
communitarianism not communitarianism
no
18.1%(27/149)
70.4%(105/149)
yes
18.9%(102/537)
63.3%(340/537)
Response pairs: 742   p-value: 0.149

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
metasurvey:accuracy-0.24
accuracy ≥ median accuracy < median
no
37.8%(14/37)
62.1%(23/37)
yes
53.3%(80/150)
46.6%(70/150)
Response pairs: 209   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Quine0.203
Quine not Quine
no
16%(28/175)
84%(147/175)
yes
4%(27/671)
95.9%(644/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.139
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
no
10.2%(18/175)
89.7%(157/175)
yes
2.5%(17/671)
97.4%(654/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Metaphysics0.135
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
no
18.2%(32/175)
81.7%(143/175)
yes
28.7%(193/671)
71.2%(478/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Mill0.131
Mill not Mill
no
9.7%(17/175)
90.2%(158/175)
yes
2.9%(20/671)
97%(651/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Frege0.107
Frege not Frege
no
3.4%(6/175)
96.5%(169/175)
yes
8.9%(60/671)
91%(611/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.001
AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.099
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
no
16.5%(29/175)
83.4%(146/175)
yes
8%(54/671)
91.9%(617/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.002
not AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.091
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
no
2.2%(4/175)
97.7%(171/175)
yes
6.2%(42/671)
93.7%(629/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.005
AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.09
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
no
8.5%(15/175)
91.4%(160/175)
yes
4.7%(32/671)
95.2%(639/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.006
not xian:Aristotle0.083
Aristotle not Aristotle
no
5.7%(10/175)
94.2%(165/175)
yes
14.3%(96/671)
85.6%(575/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.011
xian:Hume0.081
Hume not Hume
no
18.2%(32/175)
81.7%(143/175)
yes
13.4%(90/671)
86.5%(581/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.014
xian:Rawls0.076
Rawls not Rawls
no
8%(14/175)
92%(161/175)
yes
3.5%(24/671)
96.4%(647/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.021
not AOS:Epistemology0.076
Epistemology not Epistemology
no
13.1%(23/175)
86.8%(152/175)
yes
18.4%(124/671)
81.5%(547/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.021
not xian:Moore0.07
Moore not Moore
no
~0.5%(~1/175)
~99.4%(~174/175)
yes
3.5%(24/671)
96.4%(647/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.033
AOS:Philosophy of Social Science0.068
Philosophy of Social Science not Philosophy of Social Science
no
2.8%(5/175)
97.1%(170/175)
yes
1.6%(11/671)
98.3%(660/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.039
not xian:Leibniz0.068
Leibniz not Leibniz
no
~0.5%(~1/175)
~99.4%(~174/175)
yes
2%(14/671)
97.9%(657/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.039
xian:Socrates0.061
Socrates not Socrates
no
2.8%(5/175)
97.1%(170/175)
yes
1%(7/671)
98.9%(664/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.064
AOS:Philosophy of Physical Science0.061
Philosophy of Physical Science not Philosophy of Physical Science
no
8.5%(15/175)
91.4%(160/175)
yes
5%(34/671)
94.9%(637/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.064
not AOS:Philosophy of Mind0.06
Philosophy of Mind not Philosophy of Mind
no
16%(28/175)
84%(147/175)
yes
21.9%(147/671)
78%(524/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.069
xian:Nietzsche0.056
Nietzsche not Nietzsche
no
3.4%(6/175)
96.5%(169/175)
yes
1.7%(12/671)
98.2%(659/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.089
tradition:continental0.056
continental analytic
no
3.4%(6/175)
84.5%(148/175)
yes
4%(27/671)
89.7%(602/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.089
not xian:Husserl0.056
Husserl not Husserl
no
~0.5%(~1/175)
~99.4%(~174/175)
yes
1.3%(9/671)
98.6%(662/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.089
AOS:Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality0.055
Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality not Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality
no
2.8%(5/175)
97.1%(170/175)
yes
1.4%(10/671)
98.5%(661/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.095

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
not affil:region:United Kingdom0.128
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
no
10.8%(19/175)
89.1%(156/175)
yes
23.2%(156/671)
76.7%(515/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
gender:female0.116
female male
no
25.9%(43/166)
74%(123/166)
yes
16.2%(103/635)
83.7%(532/635)
Response pairs: 869   p-value: < 0.001
year_of_phd-0.106
year_of_phd ≥ median year_of_phd < median
no
46.3%(64/138)
53.6%(74/138)
yes
52.4%(270/515)
47.5%(245/515)
Response pairs: 711   p-value: 0.004
phd_region:Canada0.093
Canada not Canada
no
4.5%(8/175)
95.4%(167/175)
yes
2%(14/671)
97.9%(657/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.004
year_of_birth-0.076
year_of_birth ≥ median year_of_birth < median
no
46%(75/163)
53.9%(88/163)
yes
51.4%(324/630)
48.5%(306/630)
Response pairs: 857   p-value: 0.026
phd_region:Australasia0.074
Australasia not Australasia
no
6.2%(11/175)
93.7%(164/175)
yes
2.6%(18/671)
97.3%(653/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.024
not nationality_region:United Kingdom0.063
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
no
12%(21/175)
88%(154/175)
yes
18.4%(124/671)
81.5%(547/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.056
affil:region:Australasia0.06
Australasia not Australasia
no
9.7%(17/175)
90.2%(158/175)
yes
4.9%(33/671)
95%(638/671)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.069