The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: A priori knowledge:yes

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

flip contingency tables

Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Analytic-synthetic distinction:yes0.467
yes no
yes
77.9%(517/663)
16.7%(111/663)
no
32%(57/178)
65.1%(116/178)
Response pairs: 910   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge:rationalism0.383
rationalism empiricism
yes
43.3%(286/659)
31.7%(209/659)
no
12.2%(22/179)
75.4%(135/179)
Response pairs: 909   p-value: < 0.001
Metaphilosophy:non-naturalism0.276
non-naturalism naturalism
yes
34.7%(214/616)
49%(302/616)
no
14.2%(24/168)
79.7%(134/168)
Response pairs: 845   p-value: < 0.001
Laws of nature:non-Humean0.253
non-Humean Humean
yes
68.2%(426/624)
22.9%(143/624)
no
42.9%(73/170)
45.8%(78/170)
Response pairs: 857   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:Platonism0.244
Platonism nominalism
yes
48.8%(311/637)
42.3%(270/637)
no
21.5%(38/176)
67.6%(119/176)
Response pairs: 883   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral realism0.229
moral realism moral anti-realism
yes
65.7%(425/646)
26.9%(174/646)
no
40.5%(69/170)
51.7%(88/170)
Response pairs: 885   p-value: < 0.001
Mind:non-physicalism0.215
non-physicalism physicalism
yes
33.2%(219/659)
55.5%(366/659)
no
13.4%(24/178)
76.9%(137/178)
Response pairs: 907   p-value: < 0.001
Moral judgment:cognitivism0.206
cognitivism non-cognitivism
yes
76.3%(483/633)
16.5%(105/633)
no
56.8%(95/167)
32.3%(54/167)
Response pairs: 865   p-value: < 0.001
Science:scientific realism0.196
scientific realism scientific anti-realism
yes
82.1%(533/649)
12.9%(84/649)
no
64.9%(115/177)
25.4%(45/177)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
God:theism0.16
theism atheism
yes
17.6%(116/656)
73%(479/656)
no
8.3%(15/179)
87.1%(156/179)
Response pairs: 906   p-value: < 0.001
Free will:libertarianism0.135
libertarianism not libertarianism
yes
17.3%(112/647)
74.4%(482/647)
no
5.6%(10/176)
85.2%(150/176)
Response pairs: 886   p-value: < 0.001
Truth:correspondence0.133
correspondence not correspondence
yes
58.8%(366/622)
35.2%(219/622)
no
43.9%(73/166)
51.2%(85/166)
Response pairs: 853   p-value: < 0.001
not Free will:no free will0.125
no free will free will
yes
10.9%(71/647)
80.8%(523/647)
no
15.9%(28/176)
75%(132/176)
Response pairs: 886   p-value: < 0.001
Normative ethics:deontology0.121
deontology not deontology
yes
33.7%(194/575)
53.7%(309/575)
no
24.8%(39/157)
63%(99/157)
Response pairs: 791   p-value: < 0.001
Aesthetic value:objective0.116
objective subjective
yes
49.4%(316/639)
35.8%(229/639)
no
40.2%(70/174)
48.2%(84/174)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: < 0.001
Zombies:metaphysically possible0.11
metaphysically possible not metaphysically possible
yes
29.9%(179/597)
59.4%(355/597)
no
17.3%(27/156)
66%(103/156)
Response pairs: 816   p-value: 0.001
not Zombies:inconceivable0.107
inconceivable not inconceivable
yes
16.2%(97/597)
73.1%(437/597)
no
25%(39/156)
58.3%(91/156)
Response pairs: 816   p-value: 0.002
not External world:skepticism0.106
skepticism not skepticism
yes
4.4%(29/658)
91.9%(605/658)
no
7.4%(13/174)
89%(155/174)
Response pairs: 904   p-value: 0.001
Perceptual experience:qualia theory0.104
qualia theory not qualia theory
yes
18.2%(95/520)
66.7%(347/520)
no
10.1%(14/138)
75.3%(104/138)
Response pairs: 712   p-value: 0.005
Time:A-theory0.102
A-theory B-theory
yes
32.7%(140/428)
45%(193/428)
no
24.2%(25/103)
54.3%(56/103)
Response pairs: 576   p-value: 0.014
Knowledge claims:invariantism0.097
invariantism not invariantism
yes
39.7%(228/574)
50%(287/574)
no
30.3%(48/158)
60.1%(95/158)
Response pairs: 792   p-value: 0.006
External world:non-skeptical realism0.097
non-skeptical realism not non-skeptical realism
yes
83.8%(552/658)
12.4%(82/658)
no
79.8%(139/174)
16.6%(29/174)
Response pairs: 904   p-value: 0.003
Personal identity:further-fact view0.082
further-fact view not further-fact view
yes
16.2%(96/590)
65%(384/590)
no
9.2%(14/151)
69.5%(105/151)
Response pairs: 802   p-value: 0.02
not Truth:deflationary0.08
deflationary not deflationary
yes
24.9%(155/622)
69.1%(430/622)
no
30.1%(50/166)
65%(108/166)
Response pairs: 853   p-value: 0.019
Epistemic justification:internalism0.079
internalism externalism
yes
35.2%(221/627)
46.8%(294/627)
no
30.5%(51/167)
58.6%(98/167)
Response pairs: 858   p-value: 0.02
not Knowledge claims:relativism0.075
relativism not relativism
yes
2.6%(15/574)
87.1%(500/574)
no
5%(8/158)
85.4%(135/158)
Response pairs: 792   p-value: 0.034
Mental content:internalism0.072
internalism externalism
yes
28.5%(178/623)
58.4%(364/623)
no
17.5%(29/165)
65.4%(108/165)
Response pairs: 851   p-value: 0.035
not Normative ethics:consequentialism0.067
consequentialism not consequentialism
yes
26.4%(152/575)
61%(351/575)
no
30.5%(48/157)
57.3%(90/157)
Response pairs: 791   p-value: 0.059
not Truth:epistemic0.064
epistemic not epistemic
yes
5.7%(36/622)
88.2%(549/622)
no
15%(25/166)
80.1%(133/166)
Response pairs: 853   p-value: 0.061
not Knowledge claims:contextualism0.063
contextualism not contextualism
yes
45.1%(259/574)
44.5%(256/574)
no
52.5%(83/158)
37.9%(60/158)
Response pairs: 792   p-value: 0.076
not Personal identity:biological view0.062
biological view not biological view
yes
18.1%(107/590)
63.2%(373/590)
no
25.8%(39/151)
52.9%(80/151)
Response pairs: 802   p-value: 0.079
Politics:communitarianism0.052
communitarianism not communitarianism
yes
18.7%(100/534)
63.4%(339/534)
no
19%(29/152)
69.7%(106/152)
Response pairs: 742   p-value: 0.157

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
metasurvey:accuracy0.24
accuracy ≥ median accuracy < median
yes
53.3%(80/150)
46.6%(70/150)
no
37.8%(14/37)
62.1%(23/37)
Response pairs: 209   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Quine0.21
Quine not Quine
yes
3.9%(26/666)
96%(640/666)
no
16.1%(29/180)
83.8%(151/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Metaphysics0.15
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
yes
29.1%(194/666)
70.8%(472/666)
no
17.2%(31/180)
82.7%(149/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Mill0.126
Mill not Mill
yes
3%(20/666)
96.9%(646/666)
no
9.4%(17/180)
90.5%(163/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.117
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
yes
2.7%(18/666)
97.2%(648/666)
no
9.4%(17/180)
90.5%(163/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Frege0.11
Frege not Frege
yes
9%(60/666)
90.9%(606/666)
no
3.3%(6/180)
96.6%(174/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.098
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
yes
4.6%(31/666)
95.3%(635/666)
no
8.8%(16/180)
91.1%(164/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.002
AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.093
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
yes
6.3%(42/666)
93.6%(624/666)
no
2.2%(4/180)
97.7%(176/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.004
not AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.092
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
yes
8.1%(54/666)
91.8%(612/666)
no
16.1%(29/180)
83.8%(151/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.005
AOS:Epistemology0.091
Epistemology not Epistemology
yes
18.7%(125/666)
81.2%(541/666)
no
12.2%(22/180)
87.7%(158/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.005
not AOS:Philosophy of Physical Science0.084
Philosophy of Physical Science not Philosophy of Physical Science
yes
4.8%(32/666)
95.1%(634/666)
no
9.4%(17/180)
90.5%(163/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.01
not xian:Hume0.082
Hume not Hume
yes
13.3%(89/666)
86.6%(577/666)
no
18.3%(33/180)
81.6%(147/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.012
xian:Aristotle0.078
Aristotle not Aristotle
yes
14.2%(95/666)
85.7%(571/666)
no
6.1%(11/180)
93.8%(169/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.018
xian:Moore0.072
Moore not Moore
yes
3.6%(24/666)
96.3%(642/666)
no
~0.5%(~1/180)
~99.4%(~179/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.029
tradition:analytic0.071
analytic continental
yes
89.9%(599/666)
3.9%(26/666)
no
83.8%(151/180)
3.8%(7/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.031
not xian:Rawls0.071
Rawls not Rawls
yes
3.6%(24/666)
96.3%(642/666)
no
7.7%(14/180)
92.2%(166/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.031
not AOS:Philosophy of Social Science0.065
Philosophy of Social Science not Philosophy of Social Science
yes
1.6%(11/666)
98.3%(655/666)
no
2.7%(5/180)
97.2%(175/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.048
AOS:Philosophy of Mind0.06
Philosophy of Mind not Philosophy of Mind
yes
21.9%(146/666)
78%(520/666)
no
16.1%(29/180)
83.8%(151/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.069
not xian:Socrates0.058
Socrates not Socrates
yes
1%(7/666)
98.9%(659/666)
no
2.7%(5/180)
97.2%(175/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.079
xian:Husserl0.057
Husserl not Husserl
yes
1.3%(9/666)
98.6%(657/666)
no
~0.5%(~1/180)
~99.4%(~179/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.084
not xian:Wittgenstein0.053
Wittgenstein not Wittgenstein
yes
6.9%(46/666)
93%(620/666)
no
9.4%(17/180)
90.5%(163/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.108
not xian:Nietzsche0.053
Nietzsche not Nietzsche
yes
1.8%(12/666)
98.1%(654/666)
no
3.3%(6/180)
96.6%(174/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.108
not AOS:Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality0.052
Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality not Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality
yes
1.5%(10/666)
98.4%(656/666)
no
2.7%(5/180)
97.2%(175/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.115

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
affil:region:United Kingdom0.135
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
yes
23.4%(156/666)
76.5%(510/666)
no
10.5%(19/180)
89.4%(161/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
gender:male0.115
male female
yes
83.8%(528/630)
16.1%(102/630)
no
74.2%(127/171)
25.7%(44/171)
Response pairs: 869   p-value: < 0.001
year_of_phd0.103
year_of_phd ≥ median year_of_phd < median
yes
52.5%(269/512)
47.4%(243/512)
no
46%(65/141)
53.9%(76/141)
Response pairs: 711   p-value: 0.005
year_of_birth0.076
year_of_birth ≥ median year_of_birth < median
yes
51.5%(322/625)
48.4%(303/625)
no
45.8%(77/168)
54.1%(91/168)
Response pairs: 857   p-value: 0.026
not phd_region:Canada0.07
Canada not Canada
yes
2.2%(15/666)
97.7%(651/666)
no
3.8%(7/180)
96.1%(173/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.033
nationality_region:United Kingdom0.061
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
yes
18.4%(123/666)
81.5%(543/666)
no
12.2%(22/180)
87.7%(158/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.064
not phd_region:Australasia0.052
Australasia not Australasia
yes
2.8%(19/666)
97.1%(647/666)
no
5.5%(10/180)
94.4%(170/180)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.115