The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: Epistemic justification:internalism

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Mental content:internalism0.342
internalism externalism
internalism
43.9%(120/273)
41%(112/273)
externalism
14.6%(59/403)
77.6%(313/403)
Response pairs: 822   p-value: < 0.001
Moral motivation:internalism0.19
internalism externalism
internalism
58.2%(144/247)
31.5%(78/247)
externalism
38.2%(137/358)
47.7%(171/358)
Response pairs: 737   p-value: < 0.001
not Personal identity:biological view0.14
biological view not biological view
internalism
12.8%(33/257)
64.9%(167/257)
externalism
24.9%(95/381)
58.5%(223/381)
Response pairs: 770   p-value: < 0.001
Time:A-theory0.128
B-theory A-theory
internalism
43.6%(79/181)
34.2%(62/181)
externalism
54.4%(154/283)
23.6%(67/283)
Response pairs: 562   p-value: 0.002
Truth:epistemic0.119
epistemic not epistemic
internalism
11.4%(30/263)
82.8%(218/263)
externalism
5.4%(22/407)
90.1%(367/407)
Response pairs: 812   p-value: < 0.001
not External world:non-skeptical realism0.106
non-skeptical realism not non-skeptical realism
internalism
78.5%(223/284)
19%(54/284)
externalism
87.5%(365/417)
8.8%(37/417)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.001
Zombies:metaphysically possible0.103
metaphysically possible not metaphysically possible
internalism
33.3%(87/261)
53.6%(140/261)
externalism
23.7%(93/391)
65.7%(257/391)
Response pairs: 786   p-value: 0.003
not Normative ethics:virtue ethics0.101
virtue ethics not virtue ethics
internalism
18.3%(46/251)
70.1%(176/251)
externalism
24.5%(91/371)
63%(234/371)
Response pairs: 753   p-value: 0.005
Metaphilosophy:non-naturalism0.1
naturalism non-naturalism
internalism
50.7%(136/268)
35.4%(95/268)
externalism
60.8%(242/398)
26.3%(105/398)
Response pairs: 807   p-value: 0.004
Analytic-synthetic distinction:yes0.097
yes no
internalism
71.7%(206/287)
23.3%(67/287)
externalism
60.3%(254/421)
34.2%(144/421)
Response pairs: 860   p-value: 0.004
Normative ethics:deontology0.097
deontology not deontology
internalism
36.2%(91/251)
52.1%(131/251)
externalism
27.4%(102/371)
60.1%(223/371)
Response pairs: 753   p-value: 0.007
Science:scientific anti-realism0.097
scientific anti-realism scientific realism
internalism
15.7%(44/280)
76.7%(215/280)
externalism
10.9%(46/419)
84.7%(355/419)
Response pairs: 849   p-value: 0.004
External world:idealism0.094
idealism not idealism
internalism
7.7%(22/284)
89.7%(255/284)
externalism
2.3%(10/417)
94%(392/417)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.005
Perceptual experience:sense-datum theory0.088
sense-datum theory not sense-datum theory
internalism
6%(14/231)
77.9%(180/231)
externalism
3.2%(11/341)
86.2%(294/341)
Response pairs: 693   p-value: 0.02
Knowledge:rationalism0.086
rationalism empiricism
internalism
39%(110/282)
39%(110/282)
externalism
32.5%(137/421)
46.7%(197/421)
Response pairs: 858   p-value: 0.011
not Perceptual experience:disjunctivism0.083
disjunctivism not disjunctivism
internalism
10.8%(25/231)
73.1%(169/231)
externalism
18.4%(63/341)
70.9%(242/341)
Response pairs: 693   p-value: 0.028
Mind:non-physicalism0.08
non-physicalism physicalism
internalism
33.2%(96/289)
55.3%(160/289)
externalism
26.6%(112/421)
62.9%(265/421)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.018
A priori knowledge:yes0.079
yes no
internalism
77%(221/287)
17.7%(51/287)
externalism
70.1%(294/419)
23.3%(98/419)
Response pairs: 858   p-value: 0.02
Perceptual experience:qualia theory0.075
qualia theory not qualia theory
internalism
17.7%(41/231)
66.2%(153/231)
externalism
15.8%(54/341)
73.6%(251/341)
Response pairs: 693   p-value: 0.048
Meta-ethics:moral anti-realism0.074
moral realism moral anti-realism
internalism
55.6%(157/282)
36.1%(102/282)
externalism
62.4%(256/410)
31.9%(131/410)
Response pairs: 840   p-value: 0.031
Personal identity:further-fact view0.073
further-fact view not further-fact view
internalism
17.1%(44/257)
60.7%(156/257)
externalism
13.9%(53/381)
69.5%(265/381)
Response pairs: 770   p-value: 0.042
Proper names:Fregean0.068
Fregean Millian
internalism
37.6%(90/239)
43.9%(105/239)
externalism
37%(139/375)
51.7%(194/375)
Response pairs: 747   p-value: 0.063
External world:skepticism0.063
skepticism not skepticism
internalism
6.3%(18/284)
91.1%(259/284)
externalism
3.3%(14/417)
93%(388/417)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.065
not Zombies:conceivable but not metaphysically possible0.052
conceivable but not metaphysically possible not conceivable but not metaphysically possible
internalism
36.7%(96/261)
50.1%(131/261)
externalism
44.2%(173/391)
45.2%(177/391)
Response pairs: 786   p-value: 0.145
Aesthetic value:subjective0.051
subjective objective
internalism
38.6%(109/282)
46.8%(132/282)
externalism
38.2%(156/408)
50.4%(206/408)
Response pairs: 839   p-value: 0.139

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
AOS:Epistemology0.121
Epistemology not Epistemology
internalism
25.2%(73/289)
74.7%(216/289)
externalism
14.3%(61/424)
85.6%(363/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Kant0.103
Kant not Kant
internalism
15.9%(46/289)
84%(243/289)
externalism
8.7%(37/424)
91.2%(387/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.002
not AOS:Philosophy of Language0.098
Philosophy of Language not Philosophy of Language
internalism
14.1%(41/289)
85.8%(248/289)
externalism
22.4%(95/424)
77.5%(329/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.003
not AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.094
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
internalism
3.4%(10/289)
96.5%(279/289)
externalism
8.9%(38/424)
91%(386/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.005
AOS:Meta-Ethics0.089
Meta-Ethics not Meta-Ethics
internalism
14.8%(43/289)
85.1%(246/289)
externalism
7.5%(32/424)
92.4%(392/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.008
not AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.072
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
internalism
2.4%(7/289)
97.5%(282/289)
externalism
5.1%(22/424)
94.8%(402/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.033
not AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.071
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
internalism
6.5%(19/289)
93.4%(270/289)
externalism
11.3%(48/424)
88.6%(376/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.036
not xian:Davidson0.071
Davidson not Davidson
internalism
3.1%(9/289)
96.8%(280/289)
externalism
7%(30/424)
92.9%(394/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.036
xian:Carnap0.07
Carnap not Carnap
internalism
6.9%(20/289)
93%(269/289)
externalism
3%(13/424)
96.9%(411/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.039
not AOS:Philosophy of Mathematics0.069
Philosophy of Mathematics not Philosophy of Mathematics
internalism
3.1%(9/289)
96.8%(280/289)
externalism
5.4%(23/424)
94.5%(401/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.042
xian:Hegel0.061
Hegel not Hegel
internalism
2.4%(7/289)
97.5%(282/289)
externalism
0.9%(4/424)
99%(420/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.072
AOS:17th/18th Century Philosophy0.058
17th/18th Century Philosophy not 17th/18th Century Philosophy
internalism
12.4%(36/289)
87.5%(253/289)
externalism
10.1%(43/424)
89.8%(381/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.087
xian:Descartes0.058
Descartes not Descartes
internalism
3.1%(9/289)
96.8%(280/289)
externalism
1.6%(7/424)
98.3%(417/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.087
xian:Hume0.057
Hume not Hume
internalism
16.2%(47/289)
83.7%(242/289)
externalism
12.5%(53/424)
87.5%(371/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.093
AOS:Normative Ethics0.05
Normative Ethics not Normative Ethics
internalism
17.3%(50/289)
82.6%(239/289)
externalism
12.9%(55/424)
87%(369/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.141

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
affil:region:United States0.077
United States not United States
internalism
65.3%(189/289)
34.6%(100/289)
externalism
57%(242/424)
42.9%(182/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.023
nationality_region:United States0.06
United States not United States
internalism
55%(159/289)
44.9%(130/289)
externalism
47.1%(200/424)
52.8%(224/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.077
not affil:region:Europe0.056
Europe not Europe
internalism
5.5%(16/289)
94.4%(273/289)
externalism
8.2%(35/424)
91.7%(389/424)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.099