The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: Knowledge:empiricism

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Metaphilosophy:naturalism0.312
naturalism non-naturalism
empiricism
70.7%(257/363)
17.6%(64/363)
rationalism
38.3%(112/292)
48.2%(141/292)
Response pairs: 847   p-value: < 0.001
Mind:physicalism0.302
non-physicalism physicalism
empiricism
14.9%(57/381)
75%(286/381)
rationalism
45.2%(142/314)
43.9%(138/314)
Response pairs: 908   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:nominalism0.268
nominalism Platonism
empiricism
53.3%(201/377)
38.9%(147/377)
rationalism
25%(76/304)
66.4%(202/304)
Response pairs: 885   p-value: < 0.001
Laws of nature:Humean0.261
Humean non-Humean
empiricism
40%(146/365)
51.5%(188/365)
rationalism
14.7%(43/291)
78.3%(228/291)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral anti-realism0.258
moral anti-realism moral realism
empiricism
40.1%(149/371)
52.2%(194/371)
rationalism
18%(56/310)
76.7%(238/310)
Response pairs: 887   p-value: < 0.001
A priori knowledge:no0.247
no yes
empiricism
31.7%(121/381)
60.3%(230/381)
rationalism
10.1%(32/315)
85.3%(269/315)
Response pairs: 909   p-value: < 0.001
Moral judgment:non-cognitivism0.243
non-cognitivism cognitivism
empiricism
27.7%(100/361)
62.8%(227/361)
rationalism
11.1%(34/305)
84.9%(259/305)
Response pairs: 866   p-value: < 0.001
Aesthetic value:subjective0.237
subjective objective
empiricism
50.2%(187/372)
37.3%(139/372)
rationalism
27.1%(84/309)
60.5%(187/309)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: < 0.001
Normative ethics:consequentialism0.199
consequentialism not consequentialism
empiricism
35.3%(116/328)
53.6%(176/328)
rationalism
20.6%(58/281)
68.3%(192/281)
Response pairs: 792   p-value: < 0.001
God:atheism0.152
atheism theism
empiricism
79.2%(301/380)
12.6%(48/380)
rationalism
68.2%(213/312)
25.3%(79/312)
Response pairs: 905   p-value: < 0.001
Epistemic justification:externalism0.142
externalism internalism
empiricism
58.6%(213/363)
24.5%(89/363)
rationalism
44.1%(132/299)
40.1%(120/299)
Response pairs: 858   p-value: < 0.001
Free will:compatibilism0.142
compatibilism not compatibilism
empiricism
66.5%(249/374)
25.9%(97/374)
rationalism
53%(163/307)
38.7%(119/307)
Response pairs: 889   p-value: < 0.001
Personal identity:psychological view0.127
psychological view not psychological view
empiricism
43.7%(148/338)
35.2%(119/338)
rationalism
36.3%(101/278)
49.6%(138/278)
Response pairs: 805   p-value: < 0.001
Science:scientific anti-realism0.125
scientific anti-realism scientific realism
empiricism
15.6%(59/377)
77.4%(292/377)
rationalism
9.2%(29/313)
86.2%(270/313)
Response pairs: 898   p-value: < 0.001
not Normative ethics:deontology0.125
deontology not deontology
empiricism
24.6%(81/328)
64.3%(211/328)
rationalism
38%(107/281)
50.8%(143/281)
Response pairs: 792   p-value: < 0.001
not Free will:libertarianism0.118
libertarianism not libertarianism
empiricism
11.4%(43/374)
81%(303/374)
rationalism
20.8%(64/307)
71%(218/307)
Response pairs: 889   p-value: < 0.001
not Personal identity:further-fact view0.115
further-fact view not further-fact view
empiricism
8.5%(29/338)
70.4%(238/338)
rationalism
22.3%(62/278)
63.6%(177/278)
Response pairs: 805   p-value: 0.001
not Zombies:metaphysically possible0.107
metaphysically possible not metaphysically possible
empiricism
22.2%(76/342)
65.7%(225/342)
rationalism
32.5%(94/289)
54.3%(157/289)
Response pairs: 815   p-value: 0.002
Analytic-synthetic distinction:no0.104
no yes
empiricism
35.5%(135/380)
61%(232/380)
rationalism
22.7%(72/317)
73.5%(233/317)
Response pairs: 910   p-value: 0.001
Perceptual experience:representationalism0.097
representationalism not representationalism
empiricism
48.1%(143/297)
38.7%(115/297)
rationalism
35.9%(93/259)
49.4%(128/259)
Response pairs: 711   p-value: 0.009
not Perceptual experience:qualia theory0.089
qualia theory not qualia theory
empiricism
11.7%(35/297)
75%(223/297)
rationalism
20.4%(53/259)
64.8%(168/259)
Response pairs: 711   p-value: 0.017
Truth:deflationary0.088
deflationary not deflationary
empiricism
30.3%(110/362)
64.3%(233/362)
rationalism
22.6%(68/300)
72.6%(218/300)
Response pairs: 854   p-value: 0.01
Personal identity:biological view0.085
biological view not biological view
empiricism
21.3%(72/338)
57.6%(195/338)
rationalism
17.2%(48/278)
68.7%(191/278)
Response pairs: 805   p-value: 0.015
Proper names:Millian0.083
Millian Fregean
empiricism
42.9%(142/331)
36.8%(122/331)
rationalism
42.3%(114/269)
49.4%(133/269)
Response pairs: 777   p-value: 0.02
Logic:non-classical0.083
non-classical classical
empiricism
27.8%(94/338)
57.6%(195/338)
rationalism
20.7%(58/280)
68.2%(191/280)
Response pairs: 795   p-value: 0.019
Teletransporter:survival0.081
survival death
empiricism
46.1%(156/338)
32.2%(109/338)
rationalism
41.6%(119/286)
40.9%(117/286)
Response pairs: 809   p-value: 0.021
Time:B-theory0.074
B-theory A-theory
empiricism
53.6%(124/231)
25.9%(60/231)
rationalism
45.3%(97/214)
33.6%(72/214)
Response pairs: 578   p-value: 0.075
External world:skepticism0.07
skepticism not skepticism
empiricism
5.8%(22/378)
91%(344/378)
rationalism
3.8%(12/313)
92.3%(289/313)
Response pairs: 907   p-value: 0.035
Zombies:conceivable but not metaphysically possible0.063
conceivable but not metaphysically possible not conceivable but not metaphysically possible
empiricism
42.3%(145/342)
45.6%(156/342)
rationalism
36.6%(106/289)
50.1%(145/289)
Response pairs: 815   p-value: 0.072
Truth:epistemic0.061
epistemic not epistemic
empiricism
9.3%(34/362)
85.3%(309/362)
rationalism
6.6%(20/300)
88.6%(266/300)
Response pairs: 854   p-value: 0.074
External world:non-skeptical realism0.057
non-skeptical realism not non-skeptical realism
empiricism
86.2%(326/378)
10.5%(40/378)
rationalism
79.8%(250/313)
16.2%(51/313)
Response pairs: 907   p-value: 0.086
Trolley problem:switch0.055
switch don't switch
empiricism
76%(273/359)
10.3%(37/359)
rationalism
73.3%(217/296)
15.2%(45/296)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.108

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
xian:Hume0.211
Hume not Hume
empiricism
23.3%(90/385)
76.6%(295/385)
rationalism
5.6%(18/317)
94.3%(299/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.181
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
empiricism
16.3%(63/385)
83.6%(322/385)
rationalism
3.7%(12/317)
96.2%(305/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.159
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
empiricism
7.7%(30/385)
92.2%(355/385)
rationalism
0.9%(3/317)
99%(314/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Carnap0.105
Carnap not Carnap
empiricism
7%(27/385)
92.9%(358/385)
rationalism
2.2%(7/317)
97.7%(310/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.001
xian:Quine0.104
Quine not Quine
empiricism
9%(35/385)
90.9%(350/385)
rationalism
3.4%(11/317)
96.5%(306/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Physical Science0.103
Philosophy of Physical Science not Philosophy of Physical Science
empiricism
9%(35/385)
90.9%(350/385)
rationalism
2.8%(9/317)
97.1%(308/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.001
not xian:Plato0.096
Plato not Plato
empiricism
2.5%(10/385)
97.4%(375/385)
rationalism
6.9%(22/317)
93%(295/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.003
not AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.091
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
empiricism
3.1%(12/385)
96.8%(373/385)
rationalism
7.8%(25/317)
92.1%(292/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.005
not xian:Kant0.089
Kant not Kant
empiricism
9%(35/385)
90.9%(350/385)
rationalism
15.4%(49/317)
84.5%(268/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.006
not AOS:Ancient Greek Philosophy0.077
Ancient Greek Philosophy not Ancient Greek Philosophy
empiricism
4.9%(19/385)
95%(366/385)
rationalism
9.7%(31/317)
90.2%(286/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.019
tradition:analytic0.075
analytic continental
empiricism
90.1%(347/385)
2.5%(10/385)
rationalism
87%(276/317)
6.3%(20/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.022
not AOS:20th Century Philosophy0.073
20th Century Philosophy not 20th Century Philosophy
empiricism
2.8%(11/385)
97.1%(374/385)
rationalism
6.6%(21/317)
93.3%(296/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.026
not AOS:19th Century Philosophy0.072
19th Century Philosophy not 19th Century Philosophy
empiricism
2.8%(11/385)
97.1%(374/385)
rationalism
5.9%(19/317)
94%(298/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.029
AOS:Philosophy of Probability0.069
Philosophy of Probability not Philosophy of Probability
empiricism
2.8%(11/385)
97.1%(374/385)
rationalism
0.9%(3/317)
99%(314/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.036
not xian:Husserl0.069
Husserl not Husserl
empiricism
~0.2%(~1/385)
~99.7%(~384/385)
rationalism
2.2%(7/317)
97.7%(310/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.036
xian:Mill0.068
Mill not Mill
empiricism
6.4%(25/385)
93.5%(360/385)
rationalism
2.8%(9/317)
97.1%(308/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.039
not xian:Descartes0.067
Descartes not Descartes
empiricism
1%(4/385)
98.9%(381/385)
rationalism
3.7%(12/317)
96.2%(305/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.042
not xian:Hegel0.064
Hegel not Hegel
empiricism
1.2%(5/385)
98.7%(380/385)
rationalism
3.1%(10/317)
96.8%(307/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.052
not xian:Heidegger0.064
Heidegger not Heidegger
empiricism
~0.2%(~1/385)
~99.7%(~384/385)
rationalism
1.8%(6/317)
98.1%(311/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.052
not xian:Spinoza0.064
Spinoza not Spinoza
empiricism
1.2%(5/385)
98.7%(380/385)
rationalism
3.7%(12/317)
96.2%(305/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.052
AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.063
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
empiricism
7.5%(29/385)
92.4%(356/385)
rationalism
4.1%(13/317)
95.8%(304/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.056
not xian:Frege0.061
Frege not Frege
empiricism
5.9%(23/385)
94%(362/385)
rationalism
11%(35/317)
88.9%(282/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.064
not AOS:Metaphysics0.061
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
empiricism
23.3%(90/385)
76.6%(295/385)
rationalism
30.9%(98/317)
69%(219/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.064
not xian:Moore0.06
Moore not Moore
empiricism
2%(8/385)
97.9%(377/385)
rationalism
4.4%(14/317)
95.5%(303/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.069
xian:Locke0.059
Locke not Locke
empiricism
4.4%(17/385)
95.5%(368/385)
rationalism
2.5%(8/317)
97.4%(309/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.073
not xian:Leibniz0.056
Leibniz not Leibniz
empiricism
1%(4/385)
98.9%(381/385)
rationalism
3.1%(10/317)
96.8%(307/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.089
not xian:Marx0.056
Marx not Marx
empiricism
0.7%(3/385)
99.2%(382/385)
rationalism
2.2%(7/317)
97.7%(310/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.089
not AOS:Meta-Ethics0.052
Meta-Ethics not Meta-Ethics
empiricism
10.1%(39/385)
89.8%(346/385)
rationalism
11.9%(38/317)
88%(279/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.115

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
gender:female0.088
female male
empiricism
21.5%(79/367)
78.4%(288/367)
rationalism
14.3%(43/299)
85.6%(256/299)
Response pairs: 870   p-value: 0.009
not nationality_region:United States0.081
United States not United States
empiricism
47%(181/385)
52.9%(204/385)
rationalism
54.5%(173/317)
45.4%(144/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.014
nationality_region:Australasia0.061
Australasia not Australasia
empiricism
6.7%(26/385)
93.2%(359/385)
rationalism
3.7%(12/317)
96.2%(305/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.064
not affil:region:United States0.061
United States not United States
empiricism
58.7%(226/385)
41.2%(159/385)
rationalism
64.3%(204/317)
35.6%(113/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.064
phd_region:United Kingdom0.06
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
empiricism
14.2%(55/385)
85.7%(330/385)
rationalism
9.7%(31/317)
90.2%(286/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.069
affil:region:Europe0.055
Europe not Europe
empiricism
7.7%(30/385)
92.2%(355/385)
rationalism
5.3%(17/317)
94.6%(300/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.095
affil:region:Australasia0.055
Australasia not Australasia
empiricism
6.7%(26/385)
93.2%(359/385)
rationalism
4.4%(14/317)
95.5%(303/317)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.095
year_of_phd-0.052
year_of_phd ≥ median year_of_phd < median
empiricism
48.3%(147/304)
51.6%(157/304)
rationalism
52.2%(128/245)
47.7%(117/245)
Response pairs: 711   p-value: 0.166