The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: Knowledge:rationalism

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
A priori knowledge:yes0.383
yes no
rationalism
90.5%(286/316)
6.9%(22/316)
empiricism
55%(209/380)
35.5%(135/380)
Response pairs: 909   p-value: < 0.001
Metaphilosophy:non-naturalism0.36
non-naturalism naturalism
rationalism
46.9%(140/298)
38.5%(115/298)
empiricism
15.6%(56/357)
73.6%(263/357)
Response pairs: 847   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:Platonism0.307
Platonism nominalism
rationalism
61.2%(188/307)
30.9%(95/307)
empiricism
28.6%(107/374)
63.1%(236/374)
Response pairs: 885   p-value: < 0.001
Mind:non-physicalism0.293
non-physicalism physicalism
rationalism
44.5%(140/314)
44.2%(139/314)
empiricism
15.4%(59/381)
74.8%(285/381)
Response pairs: 908   p-value: < 0.001
Laws of nature:non-Humean0.268
non-Humean Humean
rationalism
75.3%(223/296)
16.2%(48/296)
empiricism
50%(180/360)
42.7%(154/360)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral realism0.242
moral realism moral anti-realism
rationalism
73.2%(225/307)
22.8%(70/307)
empiricism
49.1%(184/374)
42.2%(158/374)
Response pairs: 887   p-value: < 0.001
Moral judgment:cognitivism0.234
cognitivism non-cognitivism
rationalism
83.3%(255/306)
11.7%(36/306)
empiricism
62.7%(226/360)
28.6%(103/360)
Response pairs: 866   p-value: < 0.001
Analytic-synthetic distinction:yes0.216
yes no
rationalism
77.6%(247/318)
19.1%(61/318)
empiricism
56.7%(215/379)
39.3%(149/379)
Response pairs: 910   p-value: < 0.001
Normative ethics:deontology0.195
deontology not deontology
rationalism
40.8%(111/272)
47.4%(129/272)
empiricism
22.8%(77/337)
66.7%(225/337)
Response pairs: 792   p-value: < 0.001
Aesthetic value:objective0.194
objective subjective
rationalism
57.9%(179/309)
31.7%(98/309)
empiricism
36%(134/372)
50%(186/372)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge claims:invariantism0.167
invariantism not invariantism
rationalism
47.9%(137/286)
39.8%(114/286)
empiricism
29%(98/337)
63.2%(213/337)
Response pairs: 795   p-value: < 0.001
Science:scientific realism0.166
scientific realism scientific anti-realism
rationalism
86.6%(272/314)
9.5%(30/314)
empiricism
72%(271/376)
20.4%(77/376)
Response pairs: 898   p-value: < 0.001
God:theism0.154
theism atheism
rationalism
21.6%(68/314)
71%(223/314)
empiricism
10.3%(39/378)
82.2%(311/378)
Response pairs: 905   p-value: < 0.001
Truth:correspondence0.145
correspondence not correspondence
rationalism
63.5%(192/302)
30.7%(93/302)
empiricism
48%(173/360)
47.5%(171/360)
Response pairs: 854   p-value: < 0.001
Time:A-theory0.144
A-theory B-theory
rationalism
37.5%(81/216)
41.6%(90/216)
empiricism
24%(55/229)
55.4%(127/229)
Response pairs: 578   p-value: < 0.001
Zombies:metaphysically possible0.141
metaphysically possible not metaphysically possible
rationalism
35.2%(102/289)
53.2%(154/289)
empiricism
19.8%(68/342)
66.6%(228/342)
Response pairs: 815   p-value: < 0.001
Free will:libertarianism0.14
libertarianism not libertarianism
rationalism
22.4%(69/308)
70.4%(217/308)
empiricism
10.1%(38/373)
81.5%(304/373)
Response pairs: 889   p-value: < 0.001
not Truth:deflationary0.137
deflationary not deflationary
rationalism
18.8%(57/302)
75.4%(228/302)
empiricism
33.6%(121/360)
61.9%(223/360)
Response pairs: 854   p-value: < 0.001
not Knowledge claims:contextualism0.134
contextualism not contextualism
rationalism
35.6%(102/286)
52%(149/286)
empiricism
56.3%(190/337)
35.9%(121/337)
Response pairs: 795   p-value: < 0.001
not Normative ethics:consequentialism0.114
consequentialism not consequentialism
rationalism
22.7%(62/272)
65.4%(178/272)
empiricism
33.2%(112/337)
56.3%(190/337)
Response pairs: 792   p-value: 0.001
not Zombies:inconceivable0.11
inconceivable not inconceivable
rationalism
14.8%(43/289)
73.7%(213/289)
empiricism
22.5%(77/342)
64%(219/342)
Response pairs: 815   p-value: 0.001
not Personal identity:biological view0.106
biological view not biological view
rationalism
15.4%(43/278)
68.7%(191/278)
empiricism
22.7%(77/338)
57.6%(195/338)
Response pairs: 805   p-value: 0.002
Perceptual experience:qualia theory0.101
qualia theory not qualia theory
rationalism
20.1%(51/253)
66%(167/253)
empiricism
12.2%(37/303)
73.9%(224/303)
Response pairs: 711   p-value: 0.007
Politics:communitarianism0.095
communitarianism not communitarianism
rationalism
20.8%(52/250)
58.4%(146/250)
empiricism
17.6%(56/317)
70.9%(225/317)
Response pairs: 745   p-value: 0.009
Logic:classical0.091
non-classical classical
rationalism
19.2%(55/285)
67%(191/285)
empiricism
29.1%(97/333)
58.5%(195/333)
Response pairs: 795   p-value: 0.01
Mental content:internalism0.089
internalism externalism
rationalism
31.6%(96/303)
54.7%(166/303)
empiricism
22.2%(80/359)
64.6%(232/359)
Response pairs: 850   p-value: 0.009
Epistemic justification:internalism0.088
externalism internalism
rationalism
46%(139/302)
35.7%(108/302)
empiricism
57.2%(206/360)
28%(101/360)
Response pairs: 858   p-value: 0.009
Personal identity:further-fact view0.085
further-fact view not further-fact view
rationalism
19.7%(55/278)
64.3%(179/278)
empiricism
10.6%(36/338)
69.8%(236/338)
Response pairs: 805   p-value: 0.015
not Free will:compatibilism0.08
compatibilism not compatibilism
rationalism
54.8%(169/308)
37.9%(117/308)
empiricism
65.1%(243/373)
26.5%(99/373)
Response pairs: 889   p-value: 0.017
not External world:skepticism0.061
skepticism not skepticism
rationalism
4.1%(13/314)
92.3%(290/314)
empiricism
5.5%(21/377)
90.9%(343/377)
Response pairs: 907   p-value: 0.066
Teletransporter:death0.058
death survival
rationalism
39.2%(113/288)
45.1%(130/288)
empiricism
30.9%(104/336)
45.8%(154/336)
Response pairs: 809   p-value: 0.099
not Normative ethics:virtue ethics0.056
virtue ethics not virtue ethics
rationalism
19.1%(52/272)
69.1%(188/272)
empiricism
25.8%(87/337)
63.7%(215/337)
Response pairs: 792   p-value: 0.115
Proper names:Fregean0.053
Fregean Millian
rationalism
41%(115/280)
47.5%(133/280)
empiricism
34%(109/320)
48.1%(154/320)
Response pairs: 777   p-value: 0.139

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
not xian:Hume0.203
Hume not Hume
rationalism
5.9%(19/318)
94%(299/318)
empiricism
23.1%(89/384)
76.8%(295/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.176
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
rationalism
~0.3%(~1/318)
~99.6%(~317/318)
empiricism
8%(31/384)
91.9%(353/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: < 0.001
metasurvey:accuracy0.141
accuracy ≥ median accuracy < median
rationalism
55.2%(42/76)
44.7%(34/76)
empiricism
42.2%(38/90)
57.7%(52/90)
Response pairs: 208   p-value: 0.042
xian:Frege0.132
Frege not Frege
rationalism
12.8%(41/318)
87.1%(277/318)
empiricism
4.4%(17/384)
95.5%(367/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.119
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
rationalism
5.6%(18/318)
94.3%(300/318)
empiricism
14.8%(57/384)
85.1%(327/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Quine0.117
Quine not Quine
rationalism
3.1%(10/318)
96.8%(308/318)
empiricism
9.3%(36/384)
90.6%(348/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Moore0.116
Moore not Moore
rationalism
5.3%(17/318)
94.6%(301/318)
empiricism
1.3%(5/384)
98.6%(379/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Ancient Greek Philosophy0.101
Ancient Greek Philosophy not Ancient Greek Philosophy
rationalism
10.3%(33/318)
89.6%(285/318)
empiricism
4.4%(17/384)
95.5%(367/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.002
not xian:Mill0.099
Mill not Mill
rationalism
2.2%(7/318)
97.7%(311/318)
empiricism
7%(27/384)
92.9%(357/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.002
xian:Plato0.096
Plato not Plato
rationalism
6.9%(22/318)
93%(296/318)
empiricism
2.6%(10/384)
97.3%(374/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.003
not AOS:Philosophy of Social Science0.092
Philosophy of Social Science not Philosophy of Social Science
rationalism
~0.3%(~1/318)
~99.6%(~317/318)
empiricism
3.3%(13/384)
96.6%(371/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.005
xian:Descartes0.088
Descartes not Descartes
rationalism
4%(13/318)
95.9%(305/318)
empiricism
0.7%(3/384)
99.2%(381/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.007
AOS:Metaphysics0.081
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
rationalism
31.7%(101/318)
68.2%(217/318)
empiricism
22.6%(87/384)
77.3%(297/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.014
AOS:Epistemology0.08
Epistemology not Epistemology
rationalism
20.7%(66/318)
79.2%(252/318)
empiricism
13.2%(51/384)
86.7%(333/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.015
xian:Leibniz0.079
Leibniz not Leibniz
rationalism
3.4%(11/318)
96.5%(307/318)
empiricism
0.7%(3/384)
99.2%(381/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.016
xian:Lewis0.072
Lewis not Lewis
rationalism
10%(32/318)
89.9%(286/318)
empiricism
6.5%(25/384)
93.4%(359/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.029
not AOS:Decision Theory0.063
Decision Theory not Decision Theory
rationalism
1.8%(6/318)
98.1%(312/318)
empiricism
3.9%(15/384)
96%(369/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.056
not xian:Carnap0.061
Carnap not Carnap
rationalism
3.1%(10/318)
96.8%(308/318)
empiricism
6.2%(24/384)
93.7%(360/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.064
not xian:Nietzsche0.054
Nietzsche not Nietzsche
rationalism
0.9%(3/318)
99%(315/318)
empiricism
3.1%(12/384)
96.8%(372/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.101
not AOS:Philosophy of Physical Science0.05
Philosophy of Physical Science not Philosophy of Physical Science
rationalism
4%(13/318)
95.9%(305/318)
empiricism
8%(31/384)
91.9%(353/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.129
not AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.05
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
rationalism
4.4%(14/318)
95.5%(304/318)
empiricism
7.2%(28/384)
92.7%(356/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.129

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
gender:male0.116
male female
rationalism
86.6%(260/300)
13.3%(40/300)
empiricism
77.5%(284/366)
22.4%(82/366)
Response pairs: 870   p-value: < 0.001
year_of_phd0.072
year_of_phd ≥ median year_of_phd < median
rationalism
53.6%(133/248)
46.3%(115/248)
empiricism
47.1%(142/301)
52.8%(159/301)
Response pairs: 711   p-value: 0.054
affil:region:United Kingdom0.058
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
rationalism
22.6%(72/318)
77.3%(246/318)
empiricism
16.9%(65/384)
83%(319/384)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.078