You are accessing PhilPapers from Open University (UK), an institution that is not subscribed to PhilPapers. Starting on July 1, 2014, we ask institutions that grant philosophy degrees and are based in high-GDP countries to contribute to PhilPapers' maintenance and development through a subscription. See this page for details. Please show your support by contacting your librarian.

The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: Moral judgment:non-cognitivism

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

flip contingency tables

Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Meta-ethics:moral anti-realism0.527
moral realism moral anti-realism
non-cognitivism
13.4%(22/163)
82.2%(134/163)
cognitivism
74.1%(463/624)
19.8%(124/624)
Response pairs: 857   p-value: < 0.001
Aesthetic value:subjective0.333
subjective objective
non-cognitivism
67%(110/164)
21.9%(36/164)
cognitivism
30%(185/615)
55.6%(342/615)
Response pairs: 844   p-value: < 0.001
not Laws of nature:non-Humean0.286
non-Humean Humean
non-cognitivism
44.1%(72/163)
47.2%(77/163)
cognitivism
69%(409/592)
21.9%(130/592)
Response pairs: 822   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:nominalism0.249
nominalism Platonism
non-cognitivism
60%(99/165)
28.4%(47/165)
cognitivism
33.7%(205/608)
56.7%(345/608)
Response pairs: 840   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge:empiricism0.243
empiricism rationalism
non-cognitivism
60.2%(100/166)
20.4%(34/166)
cognitivism
36.2%(227/626)
41.3%(259/626)
Response pairs: 866   p-value: < 0.001
Metaphilosophy:naturalism0.204
naturalism non-naturalism
non-cognitivism
71%(113/159)
19.4%(31/159)
cognitivism
50.2%(297/591)
35.1%(208/591)
Response pairs: 816   p-value: < 0.001
A priori knowledge:no0.195
no yes
non-cognitivism
29.8%(49/164)
62.1%(102/164)
cognitivism
15.4%(97/627)
77.9%(489/627)
Response pairs: 865   p-value: < 0.001
Science:scientific anti-realism0.195
scientific anti-realism scientific realism
non-cognitivism
23.7%(39/164)
71.3%(117/164)
cognitivism
9.3%(58/619)
84.6%(524/619)
Response pairs: 854   p-value: < 0.001
Normative ethics:consequentialism0.18
consequentialism not consequentialism
non-cognitivism
39%(55/141)
47.5%(67/141)
cognitivism
24.1%(135/558)
64.1%(358/558)
Response pairs: 759   p-value: < 0.001
Moral motivation:internalism0.163
externalism internalism
non-cognitivism
24.4%(33/135)
56.2%(76/135)
cognitivism
43.7%(241/551)
41.7%(230/551)
Response pairs: 745   p-value: < 0.001
not Truth:correspondence0.156
correspondence not correspondence
non-cognitivism
43.4%(70/161)
52.1%(84/161)
cognitivism
59.3%(349/588)
35.2%(207/588)
Response pairs: 817   p-value: < 0.001
not Free will:libertarianism0.149
libertarianism not libertarianism
non-cognitivism
4.9%(8/163)
88.9%(145/163)
cognitivism
17.3%(107/618)
74.4%(460/618)
Response pairs: 853   p-value: < 0.001
Mind:physicalism0.147
physicalism non-physicalism
non-cognitivism
67.4%(112/166)
25.3%(42/166)
cognitivism
54.9%(344/626)
33.8%(212/626)
Response pairs: 865   p-value: < 0.001
God:atheism0.145
theism atheism
non-cognitivism
7.7%(13/168)
85.7%(144/168)
cognitivism
16.8%(105/623)
74.9%(467/623)
Response pairs: 864   p-value: < 0.001
not Knowledge claims:invariantism0.13
invariantism not invariantism
non-cognitivism
25%(37/148)
64.1%(95/148)
cognitivism
41.3%(228/552)
48.7%(269/552)
Response pairs: 763   p-value: < 0.001
External world:skepticism0.129
skepticism not skepticism
non-cognitivism
7.8%(13/165)
87.2%(144/165)
cognitivism
3.6%(23/625)
93.9%(587/625)
Response pairs: 862   p-value: < 0.001
Truth:deflationary0.129
deflationary not deflationary
non-cognitivism
38.5%(62/161)
57.1%(92/161)
cognitivism
23.8%(140/588)
70.7%(416/588)
Response pairs: 817   p-value: < 0.001
Zombies:inconceivable0.119
inconceivable not inconceivable
non-cognitivism
21.4%(32/149)
62.4%(93/149)
cognitivism
15.7%(90/570)
72.9%(416/570)
Response pairs: 781   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge claims:relativism0.119
relativism not relativism
non-cognitivism
6.7%(10/148)
82.4%(122/148)
cognitivism
2.1%(12/552)
87.8%(485/552)
Response pairs: 763   p-value: < 0.001
Time:B-theory0.117
B-theory A-theory
non-cognitivism
52.6%(59/112)
20.5%(23/112)
cognitivism
46.5%(184/395)
31.8%(126/395)
Response pairs: 552   p-value: 0.005
not Normative ethics:deontology0.109
deontology not deontology
non-cognitivism
21.9%(31/141)
64.5%(91/141)
cognitivism
35.1%(196/558)
53.2%(297/558)
Response pairs: 759   p-value: 0.002
Analytic-synthetic distinction:no0.095
yes no
non-cognitivism
64.4%(109/169)
31.9%(54/169)
cognitivism
67.9%(426/627)
26.3%(165/627)
Response pairs: 867   p-value: 0.005
Knowledge claims:contextualism0.092
contextualism not contextualism
non-cognitivism
56.7%(84/148)
32.4%(48/148)
cognitivism
44.2%(244/552)
45.8%(253/552)
Response pairs: 763   p-value: 0.011
Free will:compatibilism0.089
compatibilism not compatibilism
non-cognitivism
68.7%(112/163)
25.1%(41/163)
cognitivism
60.1%(372/618)
31.5%(195/618)
Response pairs: 853   p-value: 0.009
Free will:no free will0.081
no free will free will
non-cognitivism
18.4%(30/163)
75.4%(123/163)
cognitivism
11.1%(69/618)
80.5%(498/618)
Response pairs: 853   p-value: 0.017
Truth:epistemic0.079
epistemic not epistemic
non-cognitivism
10.5%(17/161)
85%(137/161)
cognitivism
6.9%(41/588)
87.5%(515/588)
Response pairs: 817   p-value: 0.023
Perceptual experience:sense-datum theory0.078
sense-datum theory not sense-datum theory
non-cognitivism
7%(9/127)
75.5%(96/127)
cognitivism
3.3%(17/509)
83.8%(427/509)
Response pairs: 684   p-value: 0.041
Logic:non-classical0.072
non-classical classical
non-cognitivism
27.7%(38/137)
62%(85/137)
cognitivism
21.6%(121/560)
63.7%(357/560)
Response pairs: 757   p-value: 0.047
not Personal identity:further-fact view0.064
further-fact view not further-fact view
non-cognitivism
6.5%(10/152)
69%(105/152)
cognitivism
17.9%(100/556)
65.2%(363/556)
Response pairs: 771   p-value: 0.075
Epistemic justification:externalism0.061
externalism internalism
non-cognitivism
54.9%(84/153)
26.7%(41/153)
cognitivism
50%(302/603)
33.8%(204/603)
Response pairs: 822   p-value: 0.08
Personal identity:psychological view0.058
psychological view not psychological view
non-cognitivism
42.1%(64/152)
33.5%(51/152)
cognitivism
39%(217/556)
44.2%(246/556)
Response pairs: 771   p-value: 0.107
Mental content:internalism0.055
externalism internalism
non-cognitivism
56.2%(86/153)
29.4%(45/153)
cognitivism
62.8%(371/590)
24.7%(146/590)
Response pairs: 813   p-value: 0.117
Newcomb's problem:two boxes0.054
two boxes one box
non-cognitivism
51.2%(63/123)
27.6%(34/123)
cognitivism
44.8%(205/457)
32.6%(149/457)
Response pairs: 632   p-value: 0.175
not Zombies:conceivable but not metaphysically possible0.052
conceivable but not metaphysically possible not conceivable but not metaphysically possible
non-cognitivism
33.5%(50/149)
50.3%(75/149)
cognitivism
43.5%(248/570)
45.2%(258/570)
Response pairs: 781   p-value: 0.146

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
xian:Nietzsche0.139
Nietzsche not Nietzsche
non-cognitivism
6.5%(11/169)
93.4%(158/169)
cognitivism
1.2%(8/632)
98.7%(624/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Hume0.138
Hume not Hume
non-cognitivism
25.4%(43/169)
74.5%(126/169)
cognitivism
12.3%(78/632)
87.6%(554/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Normative Ethics0.119
Normative Ethics not Normative Ethics
non-cognitivism
9.4%(16/169)
90.5%(153/169)
cognitivism
18.1%(115/632)
81.8%(517/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: < 0.001
metasurvey:accuracy-0.11
accuracy ≥ median accuracy < median
non-cognitivism
38.2%(13/34)
61.7%(21/34)
cognitivism
52.6%(79/150)
47.3%(71/150)
Response pairs: 201   p-value: 0.12
not AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.107
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
non-cognitivism
2.3%(4/169)
97.6%(165/169)
cognitivism
6.6%(42/632)
93.3%(590/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.106
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
non-cognitivism
7.6%(13/169)
92.3%(156/169)
cognitivism
2.6%(17/632)
97.3%(615/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.001
not xian:Aristotle0.103
Aristotle not Aristotle
non-cognitivism
5.9%(10/169)
94%(159/169)
cognitivism
14.3%(91/632)
85.6%(541/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.002
AOS:Philosophy of Physical Science0.097
Philosophy of Physical Science not Philosophy of Physical Science
non-cognitivism
10.6%(18/169)
89.3%(151/169)
cognitivism
4.5%(29/632)
95.4%(603/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.004
AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.092
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
non-cognitivism
14.2%(24/169)
85.7%(145/169)
cognitivism
9%(57/632)
90.9%(575/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.006
AOS:Continental Philosophy0.088
Continental Philosophy not Continental Philosophy
non-cognitivism
5.9%(10/169)
94%(159/169)
cognitivism
1.7%(11/632)
98.2%(621/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.009
not xian:Moore0.085
Moore not Moore
non-cognitivism
~0.5%(~1/169)
~99.4%(~168/169)
cognitivism
3.7%(24/632)
96.2%(608/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.011
not AOS:Meta-Ethics0.083
Meta-Ethics not Meta-Ethics
non-cognitivism
9.4%(16/169)
90.5%(153/169)
cognitivism
12.6%(80/632)
87.3%(552/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.014
not AOS:Ancient Greek Philosophy0.082
Ancient Greek Philosophy not Ancient Greek Philosophy
non-cognitivism
2.9%(5/169)
97%(164/169)
cognitivism
7.9%(50/632)
92%(582/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.015
AOS:20th Century Philosophy0.076
20th Century Philosophy not 20th Century Philosophy
non-cognitivism
7.1%(12/169)
92.8%(157/169)
cognitivism
4.1%(26/632)
95.8%(606/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.024
xian:Quine0.073
Quine not Quine
non-cognitivism
8.8%(15/169)
91.1%(154/169)
cognitivism
5.6%(36/632)
94.3%(596/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.03
AOS:Logic and Philosophy of Logic0.072
Logic and Philosophy of Logic not Logic and Philosophy of Logic
non-cognitivism
10%(17/169)
89.9%(152/169)
cognitivism
8.3%(53/632)
91.6%(579/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.033
not AOS:Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy0.067
Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy not Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy
non-cognitivism
~0.5%(~1/169)
~99.4%(~168/169)
cognitivism
1.8%(12/632)
98.1%(620/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.047
tradition:continental0.064
continental analytic
non-cognitivism
5.9%(10/169)
86.3%(146/169)
cognitivism
3%(19/632)
89.2%(564/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.058
xian:Heidegger0.063
Heidegger not Heidegger
non-cognitivism
2.3%(4/169)
97.6%(165/169)
cognitivism
0.7%(5/632)
99.2%(627/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.062
not AOS:Metaphysics0.061
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
non-cognitivism
21.8%(37/169)
78.1%(132/169)
cognitivism
26.8%(170/632)
73.1%(462/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.071
not xian:Marx0.059
Marx not Marx
non-cognitivism
~0.5%(~1/169)
~99.4%(~168/169)
cognitivism
1.8%(12/632)
98.1%(620/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.081
xian:Carnap0.057
Carnap not Carnap
non-cognitivism
6.5%(11/169)
93.4%(158/169)
cognitivism
4.1%(26/632)
95.8%(606/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.091
xian:Wittgenstein0.054
Wittgenstein not Wittgenstein
non-cognitivism
7.6%(13/169)
92.3%(156/169)
cognitivism
7.1%(45/632)
92.8%(587/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.11
AOS:Philosophy of Social Science0.052
Philosophy of Social Science not Philosophy of Social Science
non-cognitivism
3.5%(6/169)
96.4%(163/169)
cognitivism
2%(13/632)
97.9%(619/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.124
not xian:Rawls0.052
Rawls not Rawls
non-cognitivism
3.5%(6/169)
96.4%(163/169)
cognitivism
5.2%(33/632)
94.7%(599/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.124
not xian:Plato0.05
Plato not Plato
non-cognitivism
2.9%(5/169)
97%(164/169)
cognitivism
4.7%(30/632)
95.2%(602/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.139

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
nationality_region:Europe0.12
Europe not Europe
non-cognitivism
19.5%(33/169)
80.4%(136/169)
cognitivism
9.8%(62/632)
90.1%(570/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: < 0.001
gender:female0.111
female male
non-cognitivism
24.8%(41/165)
75.1%(124/165)
cognitivism
16.4%(98/595)
83.5%(497/595)
Response pairs: 829   p-value: 0.001
not nationality_region:United States0.109
United States not United States
non-cognitivism
42%(71/169)
57.9%(98/169)
cognitivism
54.4%(344/632)
45.5%(288/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.001
not phd_region:United States0.107
United States not United States
non-cognitivism
44.3%(75/169)
55.6%(94/169)
cognitivism
56.3%(356/632)
43.6%(276/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.001
phd_region:Europe0.097
Europe not Europe
non-cognitivism
9.4%(16/169)
90.5%(153/169)
cognitivism
4.1%(26/632)
95.8%(606/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.004
affil:region:Europe0.083
Europe not Europe
non-cognitivism
10.6%(18/169)
89.3%(151/169)
cognitivism
5.5%(35/632)
94.4%(597/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.014
not affil:region:United States0.066
United States not United States
non-cognitivism
57.9%(98/169)
42%(71/169)
cognitivism
62.6%(396/632)
37.3%(236/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.05
phd_region:Australasia0.064
Australasia not Australasia
non-cognitivism
5.3%(9/169)
94.6%(160/169)
cognitivism
2.8%(18/632)
97.1%(614/632)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.058