The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: AOS:19th Century Philosophy

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
External world:idealism0.153
idealism not idealism
19th Century Philosophy
24.3%(9/37)
72.9%(27/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
3.5%(31/878)
92.5%(813/878)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: < 0.001
not Truth:correspondence0.152
correspondence not correspondence
19th Century Philosophy
20%(7/35)
80%(28/35)
not 19th Century Philosophy
56.2%(466/828)
37.4%(310/828)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: < 0.001
Science:scientific anti-realism0.143
scientific realism scientific anti-realism
19th Century Philosophy
51.3%(19/37)
43.2%(16/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
78.4%(682/869)
14%(122/869)
Response pairs: 906   p-value: < 0.001
Mind:non-physicalism0.141
physicalism non-physicalism
19th Century Philosophy
32.4%(12/37)
62.1%(23/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
58.6%(517/881)
29.3%(259/881)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
not External world:non-skeptical realism0.137
non-skeptical realism not non-skeptical realism
19th Century Philosophy
59.4%(22/37)
37.8%(14/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
84%(738/878)
12%(106/878)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral anti-realism0.132
moral realism moral anti-realism
19th Century Philosophy
37.8%(14/37)
62.1%(23/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
59.7%(513/859)
31.3%(269/859)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
not Knowledge claims:invariantism0.127
invariantism not invariantism
19th Century Philosophy
15.6%(5/32)
81.2%(26/32)
not 19th Century Philosophy
37.1%(285/768)
51%(392/768)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge claims:contextualism0.125
contextualism not contextualism
19th Century Philosophy
75%(24/32)
21.8%(7/32)
not 19th Century Philosophy
45.4%(349/768)
42.7%(328/768)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: < 0.001
Newcomb's problem:one box0.09
one box two boxes
19th Century Philosophy
57.8%(11/19)
26.3%(5/19)
not 19th Century Philosophy
29.5%(190/644)
46.2%(298/644)
Response pairs: 663   p-value: 0.02
Moral motivation:internalism0.09
externalism internalism
19th Century Philosophy
22.8%(8/35)
62.8%(22/35)
not 19th Century Philosophy
38.9%(286/735)
43.4%(319/735)
Response pairs: 770   p-value: 0.012
Truth:epistemic0.083
epistemic not epistemic
19th Century Philosophy
22.8%(8/35)
77.1%(27/35)
not 19th Century Philosophy
6.7%(56/828)
86.9%(720/828)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.014
not Knowledge claims:relativism0.08
relativism not relativism
19th Century Philosophy
~3.1%(~1/32)
~96.8%(~31/32)
not 19th Century Philosophy
3.3%(26/768)
84.7%(651/768)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.023
Proper names:Fregean0.078
Millian Fregean
19th Century Philosophy
20.6%(6/29)
58.6%(17/29)
not 19th Century Philosophy
43.1%(325/754)
40.3%(304/754)
Response pairs: 783   p-value: 0.029
not Normative ethics:consequentialism0.073
consequentialism not consequentialism
19th Century Philosophy
11.7%(4/34)
76.4%(26/34)
not 19th Century Philosophy
28.1%(216/766)
57.7%(442/766)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.038
Knowledge:rationalism0.072
empiricism rationalism
19th Century Philosophy
29.7%(11/37)
51.3%(19/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
42.4%(374/882)
33.7%(298/882)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.029
Politics:communitarianism0.071
communitarianism not communitarianism
19th Century Philosophy
36.3%(12/33)
54.5%(18/33)
not 19th Century Philosophy
16.8%(121/718)
65%(467/718)
Response pairs: 751   p-value: 0.051
not Perceptual experience:representationalism0.068
representationalism not representationalism
19th Century Philosophy
27.2%(9/33)
54.5%(18/33)
not 19th Century Philosophy
41.5%(284/683)
43%(294/683)
Response pairs: 716   p-value: 0.068
not Personal identity:psychological view0.068
psychological view not psychological view
19th Century Philosophy
30.7%(8/26)
53.8%(14/26)
not 19th Century Philosophy
38.7%(305/787)
40.2%(317/787)
Response pairs: 813   p-value: 0.052
Zombies:inconceivable0.067
inconceivable not inconceivable
19th Century Philosophy
32.2%(10/31)
54.8%(17/31)
not 19th Century Philosophy
17.5%(139/794)
68.7%(546/794)
Response pairs: 825   p-value: 0.054
not Politics:egalitarianism0.066
egalitarianism not egalitarianism
19th Century Philosophy
33.3%(11/33)
57.5%(19/33)
not 19th Century Philosophy
43.5%(313/718)
38.3%(275/718)
Response pairs: 751   p-value: 0.07
not Free will:no free will0.066
no free will free will
19th Century Philosophy
~2.7%(~1/36)
88.8%(32/36)
not 19th Century Philosophy
12.9%(112/863)
77.7%(671/863)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.047
Trolley problem:don't switch0.065
switch don't switch
19th Century Philosophy
65.6%(21/32)
21.8%(7/32)
not 19th Century Philosophy
74.2%(618/832)
11.1%(93/832)
Response pairs: 864   p-value: 0.056
Logic:non-classical0.065
classical non-classical
19th Century Philosophy
51.5%(17/33)
36.3%(12/33)
not 19th Century Philosophy
66.3%(511/770)
18.3%(141/770)
Response pairs: 803   p-value: 0.065
not Politics:libertarianism0.062
libertarianism not libertarianism
19th Century Philosophy
~3%(~1/33)
84.8%(28/33)
not 19th Century Philosophy
12.5%(90/718)
69.3%(498/718)
Response pairs: 751   p-value: 0.089
Metaphilosophy:non-naturalism0.059
non-naturalism naturalism
19th Century Philosophy
41.1%(14/34)
44.1%(15/34)
not 19th Century Philosophy
28.1%(231/821)
56.6%(465/821)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.084
Perceptual experience:disjunctivism0.057
disjunctivism not disjunctivism
19th Century Philosophy
24.2%(8/33)
57.5%(19/33)
not 19th Century Philosophy
13.7%(94/683)
70.8%(484/683)
Response pairs: 716   p-value: 0.127
Epistemic justification:internalism0.057
externalism internalism
19th Century Philosophy
42.8%(15/35)
40%(14/35)
not 19th Century Philosophy
51.1%(426/833)
30.9%(258/833)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.093
not Perceptual experience:qualia theory0.056
qualia theory not qualia theory
19th Century Philosophy
~3%(~1/33)
78.7%(26/33)
not 19th Century Philosophy
16.5%(113/683)
68%(465/683)
Response pairs: 716   p-value: 0.134
not Free will:libertarianism0.056
libertarianism not libertarianism
19th Century Philosophy
11.1%(4/36)
83.3%(30/36)
not 19th Century Philosophy
14.3%(124/863)
76.3%(659/863)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.093
not Zombies:metaphysically possible0.053
metaphysically possible not metaphysically possible
19th Century Philosophy
12.9%(4/31)
74.1%(23/31)
not 19th Century Philosophy
26.8%(213/794)
59.4%(472/794)
Response pairs: 825   p-value: 0.128
Truth:deflationary0.052
deflationary not deflationary
19th Century Philosophy
45.7%(16/35)
54.2%(19/35)
not 19th Century Philosophy
25.9%(215/828)
67.7%(561/828)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.126

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
xian:Hegel0.438
Hegel not Hegel
19th Century Philosophy
29.7%(11/37)
70.2%(26/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
0.5%(5/894)
99.4%(889/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
tradition:continental0.343
continental analytic
19th Century Philosophy
35.1%(13/37)
43.2%(16/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
2.3%(21/894)
89.9%(804/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Nietzsche0.265
Nietzsche not Nietzsche
19th Century Philosophy
21.6%(8/37)
78.3%(29/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
1.4%(13/894)
98.5%(881/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Kant0.261
Kant not Kant
19th Century Philosophy
54%(20/37)
45.9%(17/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
10.4%(93/894)
89.5%(801/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
metasurvey:accuracy-0.19
accuracy ≥ median accuracy < median
19th Century Philosophy
~50%(~1/2)
~50%(~1/2)
not 19th Century Philosophy
50.4%(105/208)
49.5%(103/208)
Response pairs: 210   p-value: 0.005
AOS:20th Century Philosophy0.167
20th Century Philosophy not 20th Century Philosophy
19th Century Philosophy
21.6%(8/37)
78.3%(29/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
3.8%(34/894)
96.1%(860/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Marx0.163
Marx not Marx
19th Century Philosophy
10.8%(4/37)
89.1%(33/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
1%(9/894)
98.9%(885/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Continental Philosophy0.136
Continental Philosophy not Continental Philosophy
19th Century Philosophy
13.5%(5/37)
86.4%(32/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
2.2%(20/894)
97.7%(874/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:17th/18th Century Philosophy0.133
17th/18th Century Philosophy not 17th/18th Century Philosophy
19th Century Philosophy
32.4%(12/37)
67.5%(25/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
10.6%(95/894)
89.3%(799/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Aesthetics0.124
Aesthetics not Aesthetics
19th Century Philosophy
16.2%(6/37)
83.7%(31/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
3.5%(32/894)
96.4%(862/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Heidegger0.122
Heidegger not Heidegger
19th Century Philosophy
8.1%(3/37)
91.8%(34/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
1%(9/894)
98.9%(885/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Mind0.089
Philosophy of Mind not Philosophy of Mind
19th Century Philosophy
~2.7%(~1/37)
~97.2%(~36/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
21.2%(190/894)
78.7%(704/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.006
not AOS:Metaphysics0.079
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
19th Century Philosophy
8.1%(3/37)
91.8%(34/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
25.8%(231/894)
74.1%(663/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.015
not AOS:Epistemology0.078
Epistemology not Epistemology
19th Century Philosophy
~2.7%(~1/37)
~97.2%(~36/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
17.7%(159/894)
82.2%(735/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.017
not xian:Hume0.069
Hume not Hume
19th Century Philosophy
~2.7%(~1/37)
~97.2%(~36/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
15.4%(138/894)
84.5%(756/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.035
not AOS:Philosophy of Language0.068
Philosophy of Language not Philosophy of Language
19th Century Philosophy
~2.7%(~1/37)
~97.2%(~36/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
19%(170/894)
80.9%(724/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.038
xian:Mill0.061
Mill not Mill
19th Century Philosophy
10.8%(4/37)
89.1%(33/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
4.2%(38/894)
95.7%(856/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.062
not xian:Lewis0.057
Lewis not Lewis
19th Century Philosophy
~2.7%(~1/37)
~97.2%(~36/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
7.7%(69/894)
92.2%(825/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.082
not xian:Quine0.053
Quine not Quine
19th Century Philosophy
~2.7%(~1/37)
~97.2%(~36/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
6.8%(61/894)
93.1%(833/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.106
not AOS:Philosophy of Physical Science0.053
Philosophy of Physical Science not Philosophy of Physical Science
19th Century Philosophy
~2.7%(~1/37)
~97.2%(~36/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
6.8%(61/894)
93.1%(833/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.106
not AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.051
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
19th Century Philosophy
~2.7%(~1/37)
~97.2%(~36/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
6.2%(56/894)
93.7%(838/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.119

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
year_of_phd-0.12
year_of_phd ≥ median year_of_phd < median
19th Century Philosophy
15.6%(5/32)
84.3%(27/32)
not 19th Century Philosophy
52%(358/688)
47.9%(330/688)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.001
year_of_birth-0.097
year_of_birth ≥ median year_of_birth < median
19th Century Philosophy
22.8%(8/35)
77.1%(27/35)
not 19th Century Philosophy
51.4%(430/835)
48.5%(405/835)
Response pairs: 870   p-value: 0.004
gender:female0.061
female male
19th Century Philosophy
29.7%(11/37)
70.2%(26/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
17.8%(151/844)
82.1%(693/844)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.07
not nationality_region:Other0.058
Other not Other
19th Century Philosophy
~2.7%(~1/37)
~97.2%(~36/37)
not 19th Century Philosophy
7.8%(70/894)
92.1%(824/894)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.076