The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: AOS:Epistemology

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
not Knowledge claims:contextualism0.166
contextualism not contextualism
Epistemology
30.3%(47/155)
60%(93/155)
not Epistemology
50.5%(326/645)
37.5%(242/645)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge claims:invariantism0.126
invariantism not invariantism
Epistemology
50.9%(79/155)
39.3%(61/155)
not Epistemology
32.7%(211/645)
55.3%(357/645)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: < 0.001
Epistemic justification:internalism0.121
internalism externalism
Epistemology
46.2%(73/158)
38.6%(61/158)
not Epistemology
30.4%(216/710)
51.1%(363/710)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: < 0.001
not External world:idealism0.096
idealism not idealism
Epistemology
1.8%(3/158)
96.8%(153/158)
not Epistemology
4.8%(37/757)
90.7%(687/757)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.003
Science:scientific realism0.094
scientific realism scientific anti-realism
Epistemology
86.6%(136/157)
8.2%(13/157)
not Epistemology
75.4%(565/749)
16.6%(125/749)
Response pairs: 906   p-value: 0.004
Logic:classical0.093
non-classical classical
Epistemology
16.6%(25/150)
68.6%(103/150)
not Epistemology
25.4%(166/653)
59.2%(387/653)
Response pairs: 803   p-value: 0.008
Abstract objects:Platonism0.092
Platonism nominalism
Epistemology
48.7%(75/154)
37.6%(58/154)
not Epistemology
39.5%(293/740)
50.4%(373/740)
Response pairs: 894   p-value: 0.005
Time:A-theory0.091
A-theory B-theory
Epistemology
33%(38/115)
33.9%(39/115)
not Epistemology
28.8%(135/468)
49.1%(230/468)
Response pairs: 583   p-value: 0.028
Truth:correspondence0.091
correspondence not correspondence
Epistemology
67.1%(100/149)
30.2%(45/149)
not Epistemology
52.2%(373/714)
41%(293/714)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.007
A priori knowledge:yes0.091
yes no
Epistemology
79.6%(125/157)
14%(22/157)
not Epistemology
71%(541/761)
20.7%(158/761)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.005
not Truth:epistemic0.086
epistemic not epistemic
Epistemology
4.6%(7/149)
92.6%(138/149)
not Epistemology
7.9%(57/714)
85.2%(609/714)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.011
Knowledge:rationalism0.08
rationalism empiricism
Epistemology
42%(66/157)
32.4%(51/157)
not Epistemology
33%(252/762)
43.7%(333/762)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.015
Newcomb's problem:two boxes0.079
one box two boxes
Epistemology
24%(30/125)
56.8%(71/125)
not Epistemology
31.7%(171/538)
43.1%(232/538)
Response pairs: 663   p-value: 0.042
God:atheism0.07
atheism theism
Epistemology
80.1%(125/156)
10.2%(16/156)
not Epistemology
72.6%(553/761)
18.9%(144/761)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.034
Perceptual experience:disjunctivism0.069
disjunctivism not disjunctivism
Epistemology
19.2%(25/130)
66.9%(87/130)
not Epistemology
13.1%(77/586)
70.9%(416/586)
Response pairs: 716   p-value: 0.064
not Truth:deflationary0.064
deflationary not deflationary
Epistemology
21.4%(32/149)
75.8%(113/149)
not Epistemology
27.8%(199/714)
65.4%(467/714)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.06
Laws of nature:non-Humean0.058
non-Humean Humean
Epistemology
68.2%(101/148)
22.9%(34/148)
not Epistemology
60.3%(432/716)
29.8%(214/716)
Response pairs: 864   p-value: 0.088
Trolley problem:switch0.053
switch don't switch
Epistemology
80%(116/145)
6.8%(10/145)
not Epistemology
72.7%(523/719)
12.5%(90/719)
Response pairs: 864   p-value: 0.119
External world:non-skeptical realism0.05
non-skeptical realism not non-skeptical realism
Epistemology
85.4%(135/158)
13.2%(21/158)
not Epistemology
82.5%(625/757)
13%(99/757)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.13

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
xian:Descartes0.135
Descartes not Descartes
Epistemology
6.2%(10/160)
93.7%(150/160)
not Epistemology
1.1%(9/771)
98.8%(762/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Normative Ethics0.134
Normative Ethics not Normative Ethics
Epistemology
4.3%(7/160)
95.6%(153/160)
not Epistemology
17.1%(132/771)
82.8%(639/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Social and Political Philosophy0.13
Social and Political Philosophy not Social and Political Philosophy
Epistemology
1.8%(3/160)
98.1%(157/160)
not Epistemology
12.5%(97/771)
87.4%(674/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
tradition:analytic0.112
analytic continental
Epistemology
95.6%(153/160)
~0.6%(~1/160)
not Epistemology
86.5%(667/771)
4.4%(34/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Aesthetics0.093
Aesthetics not Aesthetics
Epistemology
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
not Epistemology
4.9%(38/771)
95%(733/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.004
AOS:Decision Theory0.09
Decision Theory not Decision Theory
Epistemology
6.8%(11/160)
93.1%(149/160)
not Epistemology
2.5%(20/771)
97.4%(751/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.005
not AOS:17th/18th Century Philosophy0.083
17th/18th Century Philosophy not 17th/18th Century Philosophy
Epistemology
5.6%(9/160)
94.3%(151/160)
not Epistemology
12.7%(98/771)
87.2%(673/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.011
not AOS:Philosophy of Law0.08
Philosophy of Law not Philosophy of Law
Epistemology
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
not Epistemology
3.6%(28/771)
96.3%(743/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.014
not AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.079
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
Epistemology
1.8%(3/160)
98.1%(157/160)
not Epistemology
6.8%(53/771)
93.1%(718/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.015
not AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.079
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
Epistemology
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
not Epistemology
4.7%(37/771)
95.2%(734/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.015
not AOS:19th Century Philosophy0.078
19th Century Philosophy not 19th Century Philosophy
Epistemology
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
not Epistemology
4.6%(36/771)
95.3%(735/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.017
not AOS:Continental Philosophy0.075
Continental Philosophy not Continental Philosophy
Epistemology
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
not Epistemology
3.2%(25/771)
96.7%(746/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.022
not AOS:Applied Ethics0.073
Applied Ethics not Applied Ethics
Epistemology
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
not Epistemology
5.3%(41/771)
94.6%(730/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.025
not AOS:Philosophy of Action0.073
Philosophy of Action not Philosophy of Action
Epistemology
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
not Epistemology
5.3%(41/771)
94.6%(730/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.025
not xian:Kant0.073
Kant not Kant
Epistemology
6.8%(11/160)
93.1%(149/160)
not Epistemology
13.2%(102/771)
86.7%(669/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.025
not AOS:20th Century Philosophy0.071
20th Century Philosophy not 20th Century Philosophy
Epistemology
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
not Epistemology
5.1%(40/771)
94.8%(731/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.03
not xian:Rawls0.071
Rawls not Rawls
Epistemology
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
not Epistemology
5.1%(40/771)
94.8%(731/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.03
not xian:Aristotle0.07
Aristotle not Aristotle
Epistemology
7.5%(12/160)
92.5%(148/160)
not Epistemology
13.7%(106/771)
86.2%(665/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.032
not AOS:Ancient Greek Philosophy0.067
Ancient Greek Philosophy not Ancient Greek Philosophy
Epistemology
3.1%(5/160)
96.8%(155/160)
not Epistemology
7.6%(59/771)
92.3%(712/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.04
not xian:Hegel0.06
Hegel not Hegel
Epistemology
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
not Epistemology
2%(16/771)
97.9%(755/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.067
not AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.058
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
Epistemology
6.2%(10/160)
93.7%(150/160)
not Epistemology
10.8%(84/771)
89.1%(687/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.076
xian:Moore0.057
Moore not Moore
Epistemology
5%(8/160)
95%(152/160)
not Epistemology
2.4%(19/771)
97.5%(752/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.082
AOS:Philosophy of Probability0.055
Philosophy of Probability not Philosophy of Probability
Epistemology
3.7%(6/160)
96.2%(154/160)
not Epistemology
1.6%(13/771)
98.3%(758/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.093
xian:Lewis0.055
Lewis not Lewis
Epistemology
10.6%(17/160)
89.3%(143/160)
not Epistemology
6.7%(52/771)
93.2%(719/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.093
not xian:Marx0.054
Marx not Marx
Epistemology
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
not Epistemology
1.6%(13/771)
98.3%(758/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.099
not xian:Spinoza0.052
Spinoza not Spinoza
Epistemology
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
not Epistemology
2.7%(21/771)
97.2%(750/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.112
not AOS:Philosophy of Physical Science0.051
Philosophy of Physical Science not Philosophy of Physical Science
Epistemology
3.7%(6/160)
96.2%(154/160)
not Epistemology
7.1%(55/771)
92.8%(716/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.119
not xian:Nietzsche0.05
Nietzsche not Nietzsche
Epistemology
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
not Epistemology
2.5%(20/771)
97.4%(751/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.127

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
year_of_birth0.082
year_of_birth ≥ median year_of_birth < median
Epistemology
56.4%(88/156)
43.5%(68/156)
not Epistemology
49%(350/714)
50.9%(364/714)
Response pairs: 870   p-value: 0.015
not phd_region:Canada0.078
Canada not Canada
Epistemology
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
not Epistemology
3.5%(27/771)
96.4%(744/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.017
year_of_phd0.069
year_of_phd ≥ median year_of_phd < median
Epistemology
54.9%(72/131)
45%(59/131)
not Epistemology
49.4%(291/589)
50.5%(298/589)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.064
not nationality_region:Canada0.068
Canada not Canada
Epistemology
3.1%(5/160)
96.8%(155/160)
not Epistemology
7.7%(60/771)
92.2%(711/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.038
nationality_region:United States0.065
United States not United States
Epistemology
58.1%(93/160)
41.8%(67/160)
not Epistemology
49.4%(381/771)
50.5%(390/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.047
not nationality_region:Other0.065
Other not Other
Epistemology
3.7%(6/160)
96.2%(154/160)
not Epistemology
8.3%(64/771)
91.6%(707/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.047
gender:male0.05
male female
Epistemology
85.8%(133/155)
14.1%(22/155)
not Epistemology
80.7%(586/726)
19.2%(140/726)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.138
not phd_region:Australasia0.05
Australasia not Australasia
Epistemology
~0.6%(~1/160)
~99.3%(~159/160)
not Epistemology
3.6%(28/771)
96.3%(743/771)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.127