The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: AOS:Metaphysics

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

flip contingency tables

Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Knowledge claims:invariantism0.152
invariantism not invariantism
Metaphysics
47.8%(101/211)
42.1%(89/211)
not Metaphysics
32%(189/589)
55.8%(329/589)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: < 0.001
Laws of nature:non-Humean0.152
non-Humean Humean
Metaphysics
73.4%(169/230)
20.4%(47/230)
not Metaphysics
57.4%(364/634)
31.7%(201/634)
Response pairs: 864   p-value: < 0.001
A priori knowledge:yes0.15
yes no
Metaphysics
83.6%(194/232)
13.3%(31/232)
not Metaphysics
68.8%(472/686)
21.7%(149/686)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:Platonism0.136
Platonism nominalism
Metaphysics
51.5%(119/231)
39.8%(92/231)
not Metaphysics
37.5%(249/663)
51.1%(339/663)
Response pairs: 894   p-value: < 0.001
Analytic-synthetic distinction:yes0.13
yes no
Metaphysics
74.3%(174/234)
20%(47/234)
not Metaphysics
63.1%(433/686)
30.9%(212/686)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: < 0.001
Science:scientific realism0.13
scientific realism scientific anti-realism
Metaphysics
86.7%(203/234)
10.2%(24/234)
not Metaphysics
74.1%(498/672)
16.9%(114/672)
Response pairs: 906   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral realism0.124
moral realism moral anti-realism
Metaphysics
68.5%(155/226)
27.4%(62/226)
not Metaphysics
55.5%(372/670)
34.3%(230/670)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
not Truth:epistemic0.12
epistemic not epistemic
Metaphysics
2.6%(6/224)
92.4%(207/224)
not Metaphysics
9%(58/639)
84.5%(540/639)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: < 0.001
not Knowledge claims:contextualism0.119
contextualism not contextualism
Metaphysics
38.3%(81/211)
51.6%(109/211)
not Metaphysics
49.5%(292/589)
38.3%(226/589)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: < 0.001
Zombies:metaphysically possible0.117
metaphysically possible not metaphysically possible
Metaphysics
33.7%(77/228)
53.5%(122/228)
not Metaphysics
23.4%(140/597)
62.4%(373/597)
Response pairs: 825   p-value: < 0.001
Metaphilosophy:non-naturalism0.117
non-naturalism naturalism
Metaphysics
35.5%(79/222)
46.3%(103/222)
not Metaphysics
26.2%(166/633)
59.5%(377/633)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
Politics:libertarianism0.11
libertarianism not libertarianism
Metaphysics
16%(29/181)
62.4%(113/181)
not Metaphysics
11%(63/570)
72.4%(413/570)
Response pairs: 751   p-value: 0.002
not External world:skepticism0.104
skepticism not skepticism
Metaphysics
3%(7/228)
94.2%(215/228)
not Metaphysics
5.5%(38/687)
90.2%(620/687)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.001
Truth:correspondence0.103
correspondence not correspondence
Metaphysics
63.3%(142/224)
31.6%(71/224)
not Metaphysics
51.7%(331/639)
41.7%(267/639)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.002
External world:non-skeptical realism0.098
non-skeptical realism not non-skeptical realism
Metaphysics
87.7%(200/228)
9.6%(22/228)
not Metaphysics
81.5%(560/687)
14.2%(98/687)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.003
Proper names:Millian0.098
Fregean Millian
Metaphysics
29.5%(66/223)
56.9%(127/223)
not Metaphysics
37.6%(211/560)
44.2%(248/560)
Response pairs: 783   p-value: 0.006
Free will:libertarianism0.097
libertarianism not libertarianism
Metaphysics
21.9%(50/228)
72.3%(165/228)
not Metaphysics
11.6%(78/671)
78%(524/671)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.003
Mind:non-physicalism0.095
physicalism non-physicalism
Metaphysics
52.5%(123/234)
38.4%(90/234)
not Metaphysics
59.3%(406/684)
28%(192/684)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.003
Trolley problem:switch0.082
switch don't switch
Metaphysics
78.1%(165/211)
7.1%(15/211)
not Metaphysics
72.5%(474/653)
13%(85/653)
Response pairs: 864   p-value: 0.015
Knowledge:rationalism0.081
rationalism empiricism
Metaphysics
43.1%(101/234)
37.1%(87/234)
not Metaphysics
31.6%(217/685)
43.3%(297/685)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: 0.014
not External world:idealism0.072
idealism not idealism
Metaphysics
4.3%(10/228)
92.9%(212/228)
not Metaphysics
4.3%(30/687)
91.4%(628/687)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.029
not Politics:egalitarianism0.071
egalitarianism not egalitarianism
Metaphysics
36.4%(66/181)
41.9%(76/181)
not Metaphysics
45.2%(258/570)
38.2%(218/570)
Response pairs: 751   p-value: 0.051
not Free will:compatibilism0.069
compatibilism not compatibilism
Metaphysics
57%(130/228)
37.2%(85/228)
not Metaphysics
62.5%(420/671)
27.1%(182/671)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.038
not Zombies:conceivable but not metaphysically possible0.066
conceivable but not metaphysically possible not conceivable but not metaphysically possible
Metaphysics
35.9%(82/228)
51.3%(117/228)
not Metaphysics
41.7%(249/597)
44.2%(264/597)
Response pairs: 825   p-value: 0.058
not Personal identity:psychological view0.065
psychological view not psychological view
Metaphysics
34.6%(77/222)
45.4%(101/222)
not Metaphysics
39.9%(236/591)
38.9%(230/591)
Response pairs: 813   p-value: 0.063
God:theism0.064
theism atheism
Metaphysics
18.9%(44/232)
73.7%(171/232)
not Metaphysics
13.4%(92/685)
77.5%(531/685)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.052
Moral judgment:cognitivism0.062
cognitivism non-cognitivism
Metaphysics
75.6%(168/222)
17.5%(39/222)
not Metaphysics
69.6%(455/653)
21.2%(139/653)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.066
Perceptual experience:qualia theory0.061
qualia theory not qualia theory
Metaphysics
20.7%(40/193)
65.2%(126/193)
not Metaphysics
14.1%(74/523)
69.7%(365/523)
Response pairs: 716   p-value: 0.102
Time:B-theory0.06
B-theory A-theory
Metaphysics
53.3%(110/206)
29.6%(61/206)
not Metaphysics
43.5%(164/377)
28.3%(107/377)
Response pairs: 583   p-value: 0.147
not Truth:deflationary0.06
deflationary not deflationary
Metaphysics
24.1%(54/224)
70.9%(159/224)
not Metaphysics
27.6%(177/639)
65.8%(421/639)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.078
Normative ethics:consequentialism0.055
consequentialism not consequentialism
Metaphysics
32.5%(67/206)
55.8%(115/206)
not Metaphysics
25.7%(153/594)
59.4%(353/594)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.12
not Normative ethics:deontology0.055
deontology not deontology
Metaphysics
27.6%(57/206)
60.6%(125/206)
not Metaphysics
30.9%(184/594)
54.2%(322/594)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.12
Moral motivation:externalism0.053
internalism externalism
Metaphysics
40.2%(74/184)
41.3%(76/184)
not Metaphysics
45.7%(268/586)
37%(217/586)
Response pairs: 770   p-value: 0.141
Aesthetic value:objective0.051
objective subjective
Metaphysics
51.1%(114/223)
36.7%(82/223)
not Metaphysics
43.4%(292/672)
40.4%(272/672)
Response pairs: 895   p-value: 0.127

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
xian:Lewis0.195
Lewis not Lewis
Metaphysics
16.2%(38/234)
83.7%(196/234)
not Metaphysics
4.4%(31/697)
95.5%(666/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Normative Ethics0.194
Normative Ethics not Normative Ethics
Metaphysics
2.9%(7/234)
97%(227/234)
not Metaphysics
18.9%(132/697)
81%(565/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Social and Political Philosophy0.153
Social and Political Philosophy not Social and Political Philosophy
Metaphysics
2.5%(6/234)
97.4%(228/234)
not Metaphysics
13.4%(94/697)
86.5%(603/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
tradition:analytic0.117
analytic continental
Metaphysics
94.4%(221/234)
~0.4%(~1/234)
not Metaphysics
85.9%(599/697)
4.5%(32/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Kant0.109
Kant not Kant
Metaphysics
5.9%(14/234)
94%(220/234)
not Metaphysics
14.2%(99/697)
85.7%(598/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Meta-Ethics0.108
Meta-Ethics not Meta-Ethics
Metaphysics
5.1%(12/234)
94.8%(222/234)
not Metaphysics
12.9%(90/697)
87%(607/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Aristotle0.106
Aristotle not Aristotle
Metaphysics
18.8%(44/234)
81.1%(190/234)
not Metaphysics
10.6%(74/697)
89.3%(623/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.001
not xian:Rawls0.102
Rawls not Rawls
Metaphysics
~0.4%(~1/234)
~99.5%(~233/234)
not Metaphysics
5.7%(40/697)
94.2%(657/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.001
not AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.095
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
Metaphysics
5.1%(12/234)
94.8%(222/234)
not Metaphysics
11.7%(82/697)
88.2%(615/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.003
not AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.094
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
Metaphysics
~0.4%(~1/234)
~99.5%(~233/234)
not Metaphysics
5.1%(36/697)
94.8%(661/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.004
not AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.094
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
Metaphysics
2.1%(5/234)
97.8%(229/234)
not Metaphysics
7.3%(51/697)
92.6%(646/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.004
not AOS:Philosophy of Law0.087
Philosophy of Law not Philosophy of Law
Metaphysics
~0.4%(~1/234)
~99.5%(~233/234)
not Metaphysics
3.8%(27/697)
96.1%(670/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.007
not xian:Hume0.082
Hume not Hume
Metaphysics
9.8%(23/234)
90.1%(211/234)
not Metaphysics
16.6%(116/697)
83.3%(581/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.012
AOS:Philosophy of Language0.081
Philosophy of Language not Philosophy of Language
Metaphysics
23.9%(56/234)
76%(178/234)
not Metaphysics
16.6%(116/697)
83.3%(581/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.013
xian:Leibniz0.08
Leibniz not Leibniz
Metaphysics
3.8%(9/234)
96.1%(225/234)
not Metaphysics
1.2%(9/697)
98.7%(688/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.014
not AOS:19th Century Philosophy0.079
19th Century Philosophy not 19th Century Philosophy
Metaphysics
1.2%(3/234)
98.7%(231/234)
not Metaphysics
4.8%(34/697)
95.1%(663/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.015
xian:Russell0.076
Russell not Russell
Metaphysics
9.8%(23/234)
90.1%(211/234)
not Metaphysics
5.4%(38/697)
94.5%(659/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.02
not xian:Nietzsche0.071
Nietzsche not Nietzsche
Metaphysics
~0.4%(~1/234)
~99.5%(~233/234)
not Metaphysics
2.8%(20/697)
97.1%(677/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.03
AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.069
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
Metaphysics
7.6%(18/234)
92.3%(216/234)
not Metaphysics
4.1%(29/697)
95.8%(668/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.035
not AOS:Applied Ethics0.068
Applied Ethics not Applied Ethics
Metaphysics
2.1%(5/234)
97.8%(229/234)
not Metaphysics
5.4%(38/697)
94.5%(659/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.038
not xian:Plato0.067
Plato not Plato
Metaphysics
1.7%(4/234)
98.2%(230/234)
not Metaphysics
4.7%(33/697)
95.2%(664/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.04
not xian:Wittgenstein0.067
Wittgenstein not Wittgenstein
Metaphysics
4.7%(11/234)
95.2%(223/234)
not Metaphysics
8.8%(62/697)
91.1%(635/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.04
not AOS:Decision Theory0.066
Decision Theory not Decision Theory
Metaphysics
1.2%(3/234)
98.7%(231/234)
not Metaphysics
4%(28/697)
95.9%(669/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.044
not xian:Heidegger0.066
Heidegger not Heidegger
Metaphysics
~0.4%(~1/234)
~99.5%(~233/234)
not Metaphysics
1.7%(12/697)
98.2%(685/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.044
not xian:Mill0.066
Mill not Mill
Metaphysics
2.1%(5/234)
97.8%(229/234)
not Metaphysics
5.3%(37/697)
94.6%(660/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.044
not AOS:Continental Philosophy0.065
Continental Philosophy not Continental Philosophy
Metaphysics
~0.4%(~1/234)
~99.5%(~233/234)
not Metaphysics
3.2%(23/697)
96.7%(674/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.047
AOS:Metaphilosophy0.062
Metaphilosophy not Metaphilosophy
Metaphysics
3.8%(9/234)
96.1%(225/234)
not Metaphysics
1.7%(12/697)
98.2%(685/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.058
not AOS:Aesthetics0.056
Aesthetics not Aesthetics
Metaphysics
2.1%(5/234)
97.8%(229/234)
not Metaphysics
4.7%(33/697)
95.2%(664/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.087
xian:Locke0.054
Locke not Locke
Metaphysics
5.5%(13/234)
94.4%(221/234)
not Metaphysics
3.1%(22/697)
96.8%(675/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.099

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
gender:male0.103
male female
Metaphysics
88.4%(199/225)
11.5%(26/225)
not Metaphysics
79.2%(520/656)
20.7%(136/656)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.002
not nationality_region:Canada0.061
Canada not Canada
Metaphysics
4.2%(10/234)
95.7%(224/234)
not Metaphysics
7.8%(55/697)
92.1%(642/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.062
not affil:region:Canada0.06
Canada not Canada
Metaphysics
5.5%(13/234)
94.4%(221/234)
not Metaphysics
9.4%(66/697)
90.5%(631/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.067
not phd_region:Canada0.055
Canada not Canada
Metaphysics
1.2%(3/234)
98.7%(231/234)
not Metaphysics
3.4%(24/697)
96.5%(673/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.093
affil:region:United Kingdom0.051
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
Metaphysics
23.5%(55/234)
76.4%(179/234)
not Metaphysics
18.7%(131/697)
81.2%(566/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.119
phd_region:Europe0.05
Europe not Europe
Metaphysics
6.8%(16/234)
93.1%(218/234)
not Metaphysics
4.3%(30/697)
95.6%(667/697)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.127