The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: AOS:Philosophy of Biology

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

flip contingency tables

Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Knowledge:empiricism0.176
rationalism empiricism
Philosophy of Biology
~2.6%(~1/38)
81.5%(31/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
35.8%(316/881)
40%(353/881)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: < 0.001
Metaphilosophy:naturalism0.157
naturalism non-naturalism
Philosophy of Biology
86.1%(31/36)
~2.7%(~1/36)
not Philosophy of Biology
53.3%(437/819)
31.1%(255/819)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
Mind:physicalism0.147
non-physicalism physicalism
Philosophy of Biology
~2.6%(~1/38)
89.4%(34/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
28.7%(253/880)
59.3%(522/880)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
Normative ethics:consequentialism0.146
consequentialism not consequentialism
Philosophy of Biology
54.2%(19/35)
34.2%(12/35)
not Philosophy of Biology
26.2%(201/765)
59.6%(456/765)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: < 0.001
A priori knowledge:no0.139
no yes
Philosophy of Biology
48.6%(18/37)
45.9%(17/37)
not Philosophy of Biology
17.8%(157/881)
74.2%(654/881)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:nominalism0.134
nominalism Platonism
Philosophy of Biology
73.6%(28/38)
21%(8/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
37.9%(325/856)
51.1%(438/856)
Response pairs: 894   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral anti-realism0.126
moral anti-realism moral realism
Philosophy of Biology
58.3%(21/36)
38.8%(14/36)
not Philosophy of Biology
27.7%(239/860)
63.3%(545/860)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
not Laws of nature:non-Humean0.125
non-Humean Humean
Philosophy of Biology
32.3%(11/34)
61.7%(21/34)
not Philosophy of Biology
62.8%(522/830)
27.3%(227/830)
Response pairs: 864   p-value: < 0.001
Personal identity:biological view0.124
biological view not biological view
Philosophy of Biology
42.4%(14/33)
36.3%(12/33)
not Philosophy of Biology
18.3%(143/780)
60.8%(475/780)
Response pairs: 813   p-value: < 0.001
not Moral judgment:cognitivism0.116
cognitivism non-cognitivism
Philosophy of Biology
51.6%(16/31)
45.1%(14/31)
not Philosophy of Biology
71.9%(607/844)
19.4%(164/844)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: < 0.001
God:atheism0.103
theism atheism
Philosophy of Biology
~2.6%(~1/38)
~97.3%(~37/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
15.4%(136/879)
75.7%(666/879)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.001
not Normative ethics:deontology0.101
deontology not deontology
Philosophy of Biology
11.4%(4/35)
77.1%(27/35)
not Philosophy of Biology
30.9%(237/765)
54.9%(420/765)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.004
Epistemic justification:externalism0.078
externalism internalism
Philosophy of Biology
65.7%(23/35)
17.1%(6/35)
not Philosophy of Biology
50.1%(418/833)
31.9%(266/833)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.021
Politics:egalitarianism0.076
egalitarianism not egalitarianism
Philosophy of Biology
61.7%(21/34)
26.4%(9/34)
not Philosophy of Biology
42.2%(303/717)
39.7%(285/717)
Response pairs: 751   p-value: 0.037
Analytic-synthetic distinction:no0.075
no yes
Philosophy of Biology
43.2%(16/37)
51.3%(19/37)
not Philosophy of Biology
27%(239/883)
67%(592/883)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: 0.022
not Personal identity:psychological view0.072
psychological view not psychological view
Philosophy of Biology
24.2%(8/33)
54.5%(18/33)
not Philosophy of Biology
39.1%(305/780)
40.1%(313/780)
Response pairs: 813   p-value: 0.04
Truth:deflationary0.071
deflationary not deflationary
Philosophy of Biology
41.1%(14/34)
52.9%(18/34)
not Philosophy of Biology
26.1%(217/829)
67.7%(562/829)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.037
Science:scientific anti-realism0.07
scientific anti-realism scientific realism
Philosophy of Biology
21%(8/38)
65.7%(25/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
11.7%(102/868)
81.1%(704/868)
Response pairs: 906   p-value: 0.035
External world:skepticism0.062
skepticism not skepticism
Philosophy of Biology
11.4%(4/35)
88.5%(31/35)
not Philosophy of Biology
4.6%(41/880)
91.3%(804/880)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.06
Time:B-theory0.06
A-theory B-theory
Philosophy of Biology
~7.1%(~1/14)
57.1%(8/14)
not Philosophy of Biology
30.2%(172/569)
45.8%(261/569)
Response pairs: 583   p-value: 0.147
not Free will:libertarianism0.055
libertarianism not libertarianism
Philosophy of Biology
~2.6%(~1/38)
86.8%(33/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
14.6%(126/861)
76.1%(656/861)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.099
Teletransporter:death0.051
death survival
Philosophy of Biology
48.3%(15/31)
35.4%(11/31)
not Philosophy of Biology
35.3%(278/787)
43%(339/787)
Response pairs: 818   p-value: 0.145

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
AOS:General Philosophy of Science0.201
General Philosophy of Science not General Philosophy of Science
Philosophy of Biology
39.4%(15/38)
60.5%(23/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
8.8%(79/893)
91.1%(814/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Hume0.172
Hume not Hume
Philosophy of Biology
44.7%(17/38)
55.2%(21/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
13.6%(122/893)
86.3%(771/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Quine0.12
Quine not Quine
Philosophy of Biology
21%(8/38)
78.9%(30/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
5.9%(53/893)
94%(840/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Language0.098
Philosophy of Language not Philosophy of Language
Philosophy of Biology
~2.6%(~1/38)
~97.3%(~37/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
19.2%(172/893)
80.7%(721/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.002
not AOS:Metaphysics0.094
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
Philosophy of Biology
~2.6%(~1/38)
~97.3%(~37/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
25.9%(232/893)
74%(661/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.004
AOS:Philosophy of Probability0.085
Philosophy of Probability not Philosophy of Probability
Philosophy of Biology
7.8%(3/38)
92.1%(35/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
1.7%(16/893)
98.2%(877/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.009
AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.084
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
Philosophy of Biology
15.7%(6/38)
84.2%(32/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
5.5%(50/893)
94.4%(843/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.01
not AOS:Epistemology0.079
Epistemology not Epistemology
Philosophy of Biology
~2.6%(~1/38)
~97.3%(~37/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
17.8%(159/893)
82.1%(734/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.015
AOS:Philosophy of Social Science0.078
Philosophy of Social Science not Philosophy of Social Science
Philosophy of Biology
7.8%(3/38)
92.1%(35/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
2%(18/893)
97.9%(875/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.017
not AOS:17th/18th Century Philosophy0.074
17th/18th Century Philosophy not 17th/18th Century Philosophy
Philosophy of Biology
~2.6%(~1/38)
~97.3%(~37/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
11.9%(107/893)
88%(786/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.023
not AOS:Normative Ethics0.071
Normative Ethics not Normative Ethics
Philosophy of Biology
~2.6%(~1/38)
~97.3%(~37/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
15.4%(138/893)
84.5%(755/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.03
not AOS:Logic and Philosophy of Logic0.068
Logic and Philosophy of Logic not Logic and Philosophy of Logic
Philosophy of Biology
~2.6%(~1/38)
~97.3%(~37/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
10.3%(92/893)
89.6%(801/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.038
not xian:Wittgenstein0.06
Wittgenstein not Wittgenstein
Philosophy of Biology
~2.6%(~1/38)
~97.3%(~37/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
8.1%(73/893)
91.8%(820/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.067
not AOS:Social and Political Philosophy0.054
Social and Political Philosophy not Social and Political Philosophy
Philosophy of Biology
~2.6%(~1/38)
~97.3%(~37/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
11%(99/893)
88.9%(794/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.099
not AOS:Meta-Ethics0.054
Meta-Ethics not Meta-Ethics
Philosophy of Biology
~2.6%(~1/38)
~97.3%(~37/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
11.3%(101/893)
88.6%(792/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.099
not AOS:Philosophy of Physical Science0.054
Philosophy of Physical Science not Philosophy of Physical Science
Philosophy of Biology
~2.6%(~1/38)
~97.3%(~37/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
6.8%(61/893)
93.1%(832/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.099
AOS:Decision Theory0.052
Decision Theory not Decision Theory
Philosophy of Biology
7.8%(3/38)
92.1%(35/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
3.1%(28/893)
96.8%(865/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.112

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
affil:region:Australasia0.089
Australasia not Australasia
Philosophy of Biology
15.7%(6/38)
84.2%(32/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
5.2%(47/893)
94.7%(846/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.006
year_of_phd0.068
year_of_phd ≥ median year_of_phd < median
Philosophy of Biology
74%(20/27)
25.9%(7/27)
not Philosophy of Biology
49.4%(343/693)
50.5%(350/693)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.068
affil:region:Canada0.054
Canada not Canada
Philosophy of Biology
15.7%(6/38)
84.2%(32/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
8.1%(73/893)
91.8%(820/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.099
phd_region:Australasia0.054
Australasia not Australasia
Philosophy of Biology
7.8%(3/38)
92.1%(35/38)
not Philosophy of Biology
3%(27/893)
96.9%(866/893)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.099
gender:female0.053
female male
Philosophy of Biology
28.5%(10/35)
71.4%(25/35)
not Philosophy of Biology
17.9%(152/846)
82%(694/846)
Response pairs: 881   p-value: 0.115