The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: xian:Quine

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

flip contingency tables

Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Analytic-synthetic distinction:no0.22
yes no
Quine
32.7%(20/61)
60.6%(37/61)
not Quine
68.3%(587/859)
25.8%(222/859)
Response pairs: 920   p-value: < 0.001
A priori knowledge:no0.21
yes no
Quine
42.6%(26/61)
47.5%(29/61)
not Quine
74.6%(640/857)
17.6%(151/857)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
Metaphilosophy:naturalism0.193
naturalism non-naturalism
Quine
89%(49/55)
9%(5/55)
not Quine
52.3%(419/800)
31.5%(252/800)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: < 0.001
Mind:physicalism0.138
physicalism non-physicalism
Quine
80.3%(49/61)
11.4%(7/61)
not Quine
56%(480/857)
32%(275/857)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: < 0.001
not Laws of nature:non-Humean0.13
non-Humean Humean
Quine
44%(26/59)
47.4%(28/59)
not Quine
62.9%(507/805)
27.3%(220/805)
Response pairs: 864   p-value: < 0.001
Free will:no free will0.128
no free will free will
Quine
31.1%(19/61)
60.6%(37/61)
not Quine
11.3%(95/838)
79.4%(666/838)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: < 0.001
God:atheism0.122
atheism theism
Quine
93.4%(57/61)
4.9%(3/61)
not Quine
72.5%(621/856)
18.3%(157/856)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge:empiricism0.117
rationalism empiricism
Quine
16.3%(10/61)
59%(36/61)
not Quine
35.8%(308/858)
40.5%(348/858)
Response pairs: 919   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral anti-realism0.11
moral realism moral anti-realism
Quine
45.7%(27/59)
50.8%(30/59)
not Quine
59.7%(500/837)
31.3%(262/837)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: < 0.001
Epistemic justification:externalism0.099
externalism internalism
Quine
67.7%(40/59)
20.3%(12/59)
not Quine
49.5%(401/809)
32.1%(260/809)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.003
Perceptual experience:representationalism0.091
representationalism not representationalism
Quine
59.1%(29/49)
34.6%(17/49)
not Quine
39.5%(264/667)
44.2%(295/667)
Response pairs: 716   p-value: 0.014
Logic:classical0.091
non-classical classical
Quine
15.2%(9/59)
72.8%(43/59)
not Quine
24.4%(182/744)
60%(447/744)
Response pairs: 803   p-value: 0.009
not Free will:libertarianism0.088
libertarianism not libertarianism
Quine
~1.6%(~1/61)
88.5%(54/61)
not Quine
15%(126/838)
75.7%(635/838)
Response pairs: 899   p-value: 0.008
Normative ethics:consequentialism0.087
consequentialism not consequentialism
Quine
42.5%(23/54)
42.5%(23/54)
not Quine
26.4%(197/746)
59.6%(445/746)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.013
not Perceptual experience:disjunctivism0.084
disjunctivism not disjunctivism
Quine
6.1%(3/49)
87.7%(43/49)
not Quine
14.8%(99/667)
68.9%(460/667)
Response pairs: 716   p-value: 0.024
Time:B-theory0.079
A-theory B-theory
Quine
15%(6/40)
52.5%(21/40)
not Quine
30.7%(167/543)
45.6%(248/543)
Response pairs: 583   p-value: 0.056
not Moral judgment:cognitivism0.077
cognitivism non-cognitivism
Quine
63.6%(35/55)
29%(16/55)
not Quine
71.7%(588/820)
19.7%(162/820)
Response pairs: 875   p-value: 0.022
Aesthetic value:subjective0.074
objective subjective
Quine
33.3%(20/60)
50%(30/60)
not Quine
46.2%(386/835)
38.8%(324/835)
Response pairs: 895   p-value: 0.026
not Normative ethics:deontology0.073
deontology not deontology
Quine
18.5%(10/54)
66.6%(36/54)
not Quine
30.9%(231/746)
55%(411/746)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.038
not Truth:epistemic0.068
epistemic not epistemic
Quine
5.2%(3/57)
92.9%(53/57)
not Quine
7.5%(61/806)
86.1%(694/806)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.045
Truth:deflationary0.067
deflationary not deflationary
Quine
42.1%(24/57)
56.1%(32/57)
not Quine
25.6%(207/806)
67.9%(548/806)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.049
not Knowledge claims:invariantism0.064
invariantism not invariantism
Quine
28.5%(16/56)
60.7%(34/56)
not Quine
36.8%(274/744)
51.6%(384/744)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.07
not Perceptual experience:qualia theory0.059
qualia theory not qualia theory
Quine
14.2%(7/49)
79.5%(39/49)
not Quine
16%(107/667)
67.7%(452/667)
Response pairs: 716   p-value: 0.114
Proper names:Millian0.055
Fregean Millian
Quine
25.4%(14/55)
54.5%(30/55)
not Quine
36.1%(263/728)
47.3%(345/728)
Response pairs: 783   p-value: 0.124
External world:skepticism0.054
skepticism not skepticism
Quine
8.3%(5/60)
86.6%(52/60)
not Quine
4.6%(40/855)
91.5%(783/855)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.102
not Truth:correspondence0.054
correspondence not correspondence
Quine
45.6%(26/57)
52.6%(30/57)
not Quine
55.4%(447/806)
38.2%(308/806)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.112
not Perceptual experience:sense-datum theory0.051
sense-datum theory not sense-datum theory
Quine
~2%(~1/49)
89.7%(44/49)
not Quine
4%(27/667)
79.7%(532/667)
Response pairs: 716   p-value: 0.172
not External world:non-skeptical realism0.05
non-skeptical realism not non-skeptical realism
Quine
78.3%(47/60)
16.6%(10/60)
not Quine
83.3%(713/855)
12.8%(110/855)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.13

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.12
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
Quine
13.1%(8/61)
86.8%(53/61)
not Quine
3.4%(30/870)
96.5%(840/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Logic and Philosophy of Logic0.115
Logic and Philosophy of Logic not Logic and Philosophy of Logic
Quine
22.9%(14/61)
77%(47/61)
not Quine
8.9%(78/870)
91%(792/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Social Science0.105
Philosophy of Social Science not Philosophy of Social Science
Quine
8.1%(5/61)
91.8%(56/61)
not Quine
1.8%(16/870)
98.1%(854/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Cognitive Science0.097
Philosophy of Cognitive Science not Philosophy of Cognitive Science
Quine
14.7%(9/61)
85.2%(52/61)
not Quine
5.4%(47/870)
94.5%(823/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.003
xian:Russell0.087
Russell not Russell
Quine
14.7%(9/61)
85.2%(52/61)
not Quine
5.9%(52/870)
94%(818/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.007
not AOS:Normative Ethics0.086
Normative Ethics not Normative Ethics
Quine
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Quine
15.7%(137/870)
84.2%(733/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.008
not xian:Aristotle0.074
Aristotle not Aristotle
Quine
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Quine
13.3%(116/870)
86.6%(754/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.023
xian:Rawls0.067
Rawls not Rawls
Quine
9.8%(6/61)
90.1%(55/61)
not Quine
4.1%(36/870)
95.8%(834/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.04
AOS:Philosophy of Language0.064
Philosophy of Language not Philosophy of Language
Quine
27.8%(17/61)
72.1%(44/61)
not Quine
17.8%(155/870)
82.1%(715/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.05
tradition:analytic0.062
analytic continental
Quine
95%(58/61)
~1.6%(~1/61)
not Quine
87.5%(762/870)
3.9%(34/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.058
AOS:Philosophy of Mathematics0.061
Philosophy of Mathematics not Philosophy of Mathematics
Quine
8.1%(5/61)
91.8%(56/61)
not Quine
3.4%(30/870)
96.5%(840/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.062
xian:Carnap0.061
Carnap not Carnap
Quine
9.8%(6/61)
90.1%(55/61)
not Quine
4.4%(39/870)
95.5%(831/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.062
not AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.061
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
Quine
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Quine
5.4%(47/870)
94.5%(823/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.062
not xian:Frege0.059
Frege not Frege
Quine
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Quine
7.9%(69/870)
92%(801/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.071
not AOS:Philosophy of Action0.058
Philosophy of Action not Philosophy of Action
Quine
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Quine
4.9%(43/870)
95%(827/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.076
xian:Davidson0.054
Davidson not Davidson
Quine
9.8%(6/61)
90.1%(55/61)
not Quine
4.9%(43/870)
95%(827/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.099
not AOS:Ancient Greek Philosophy0.054
Ancient Greek Philosophy not Ancient Greek Philosophy
Quine
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Quine
7.2%(63/870)
92.7%(807/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.099
not xian:Plato0.053
Plato not Plato
Quine
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Quine
4.2%(37/870)
95.7%(833/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.106
not AOS:19th Century Philosophy0.053
19th Century Philosophy not 19th Century Philosophy
Quine
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Quine
4.2%(37/870)
95.7%(833/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.106
AOS:Philosophy of Physical Science0.052
Philosophy of Physical Science not Philosophy of Physical Science
Quine
11.4%(7/61)
88.5%(54/61)
not Quine
6.2%(54/870)
93.7%(816/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.112
not AOS:Meta-Ethics0.051
Meta-Ethics not Meta-Ethics
Quine
4.9%(3/61)
95%(58/61)
not Quine
11.3%(99/870)
88.6%(771/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.119

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
year_of_phd-0.129
year_of_phd ≥ median year_of_phd < median
Quine
30%(15/50)
70%(35/50)
not Quine
51.9%(348/670)
48%(322/670)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: < 0.001
nationality_region:United States0.103
United States not United States
Quine
70.4%(43/61)
29.5%(18/61)
not Quine
49.5%(431/870)
50.4%(439/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.001
year_of_birth-0.095
year_of_birth ≥ median year_of_birth < median
Quine
31.5%(18/57)
68.4%(39/57)
not Quine
51.6%(420/813)
48.3%(393/813)
Response pairs: 870   p-value: 0.005
affil:region:United States0.086
United States not United States
Quine
77%(47/61)
22.9%(14/61)
not Quine
60%(522/870)
40%(348/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.008
not affil:region:Canada0.08
Canada not Canada
Quine
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Quine
9%(79/870)
90.9%(791/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.014
phd_region:United States0.065
United States not United States
Quine
65.5%(40/61)
34.4%(21/61)
not Quine
52.4%(456/870)
47.5%(414/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.047
not affil:region:Europe0.054
Europe not Europe
Quine
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Quine
7.1%(62/870)
92.8%(808/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.099