The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: xian:Russell

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
God:atheism0.095
atheism theism
Russell
88.5%(54/61)
4.9%(3/61)
not Russell
72.8%(624/856)
18.3%(157/856)
Response pairs: 917   p-value: 0.003
not Zombies:inconceivable0.094
inconceivable not inconceivable
Russell
8.7%(5/57)
82.4%(47/57)
not Russell
18.7%(144/768)
67.1%(516/768)
Response pairs: 825   p-value: 0.006
Knowledge claims:invariantism0.093
invariantism not invariantism
Russell
51.7%(29/56)
42.8%(24/56)
not Russell
35%(261/744)
52.9%(394/744)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.008
not Truth:epistemic0.093
epistemic not epistemic
Russell
~1.7%(~1/57)
94.7%(54/57)
not Russell
7.8%(63/806)
85.9%(693/806)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.006
Truth:correspondence0.086
correspondence not correspondence
Russell
70.1%(40/57)
26.3%(15/57)
not Russell
53.7%(433/806)
40%(323/806)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.011
Meta-ethics:moral realism0.085
moral realism moral anti-realism
Russell
75.8%(44/58)
18.9%(11/58)
not Russell
57.6%(483/838)
33.5%(281/838)
Response pairs: 896   p-value: 0.01
not Knowledge claims:contextualism0.083
contextualism not contextualism
Russell
39.2%(22/56)
55.3%(31/56)
not Russell
47.1%(351/744)
40.8%(304/744)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.018
Science:scientific realism0.081
scientific realism scientific anti-realism
Russell
86.8%(53/61)
9.8%(6/61)
not Russell
76.6%(648/845)
15.6%(132/845)
Response pairs: 906   p-value: 0.014
Trolley problem:switch0.081
switch don't switch
Russell
84.7%(50/59)
~1.6%(~1/59)
not Russell
73.1%(589/805)
12.1%(98/805)
Response pairs: 864   p-value: 0.017
Time:B-theory0.081
B-theory A-theory
Russell
62%(31/50)
20%(10/50)
not Russell
45.5%(243/533)
29.6%(158/533)
Response pairs: 583   p-value: 0.05
Logic:classical0.08
classical non-classical
Russell
73.7%(45/61)
16.3%(10/61)
not Russell
65%(483/742)
19.2%(143/742)
Response pairs: 803   p-value: 0.023
not Knowledge claims:relativism0.078
relativism not relativism
Russell
~1.7%(~1/56)
92.8%(52/56)
not Russell
3.4%(26/744)
84.5%(629/744)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.027
Zombies:conceivable but not metaphysically possible0.074
conceivable but not metaphysically possible not conceivable but not metaphysically possible
Russell
54.3%(31/57)
36.8%(21/57)
not Russell
39%(300/768)
46.8%(360/768)
Response pairs: 825   p-value: 0.033
Perceptual experience:representationalism0.074
representationalism not representationalism
Russell
52.8%(28/53)
32%(17/53)
not Russell
39.9%(265/663)
44.4%(295/663)
Response pairs: 716   p-value: 0.047
Personal identity:biological view0.07
biological view not biological view
Russell
28.5%(16/56)
51.7%(29/56)
not Russell
18.6%(141/757)
60.5%(458/757)
Response pairs: 813   p-value: 0.046
Normative ethics:consequentialism0.066
consequentialism not consequentialism
Russell
38.4%(20/52)
50%(26/52)
not Russell
26.7%(200/748)
59%(442/748)
Response pairs: 800   p-value: 0.062
not Truth:deflationary0.066
deflationary not deflationary
Russell
19.2%(11/57)
77.1%(44/57)
not Russell
27.2%(220/806)
66.5%(536/806)
Response pairs: 863   p-value: 0.052
Mind:physicalism0.063
physicalism non-physicalism
Russell
67.2%(41/61)
22.9%(14/61)
not Russell
56.9%(488/857)
31.2%(268/857)
Response pairs: 918   p-value: 0.056
Epistemic justification:externalism0.056
externalism internalism
Russell
62%(36/58)
29.3%(17/58)
not Russell
50%(405/810)
31.4%(255/810)
Response pairs: 868   p-value: 0.099
Abstract objects:Platonism0.052
Platonism nominalism
Russell
53.3%(32/60)
40%(24/60)
not Russell
40.2%(336/834)
48.8%(407/834)
Response pairs: 894   p-value: 0.12

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
xian:Frege0.22
Frege not Frege
Russell
29.5%(18/61)
70.4%(43/61)
not Russell
5.9%(52/870)
94%(818/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Language0.198
Philosophy of Language not Philosophy of Language
Russell
47.5%(29/61)
52.4%(32/61)
not Russell
16.4%(143/870)
83.5%(727/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Logic and Philosophy of Logic0.188
Logic and Philosophy of Logic not Logic and Philosophy of Logic
Russell
31.1%(19/61)
68.8%(42/61)
not Russell
8.3%(73/870)
91.6%(797/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
xian:Carnap0.142
Carnap not Carnap
Russell
16.3%(10/61)
83.6%(51/61)
not Russell
4%(35/870)
95.9%(835/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
AOS:Philosophy of Mathematics0.13
Philosophy of Mathematics not Philosophy of Mathematics
Russell
13.1%(8/61)
86.8%(53/61)
not Russell
3.1%(27/870)
96.8%(843/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Kant0.098
Kant not Kant
Russell
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Russell
12.9%(113/870)
87%(757/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.002
not AOS:17th/18th Century Philosophy0.095
17th/18th Century Philosophy not 17th/18th Century Philosophy
Russell
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Russell
12.2%(107/870)
87.7%(763/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.003
tradition:analytic0.091
analytic continental
Russell
~98.3%(~60/61)
~1.6%(~1/61)
not Russell
87.2%(759/870)
3.9%(34/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.005
xian:Quine0.087
Quine not Quine
Russell
14.7%(9/61)
85.2%(52/61)
not Russell
5.9%(52/870)
94%(818/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.007
not AOS:Normative Ethics0.086
Normative Ethics not Normative Ethics
Russell
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Russell
15.7%(137/870)
84.2%(733/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.008
xian:Moore0.083
Moore not Moore
Russell
8.1%(5/61)
91.8%(56/61)
not Russell
2.5%(22/870)
97.4%(848/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.011
not AOS:Meta-Ethics0.078
Meta-Ethics not Meta-Ethics
Russell
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Russell
11.6%(101/870)
88.3%(769/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.017
not AOS:Social and Political Philosophy0.077
Social and Political Philosophy not Social and Political Philosophy
Russell
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Russell
11.3%(99/870)
88.6%(771/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.018
AOS:Metaphysics0.076
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
Russell
37.7%(23/61)
62.2%(38/61)
not Russell
24.2%(211/870)
75.7%(659/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.02
AOS:20th Century Philosophy0.067
20th Century Philosophy not 20th Century Philosophy
Russell
9.8%(6/61)
90.1%(55/61)
not Russell
4.1%(36/870)
95.8%(834/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.04
not AOS:Philosophy of Action0.058
Philosophy of Action not Philosophy of Action
Russell
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Russell
4.9%(43/870)
95%(827/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.076
not xian:Rawls0.057
Rawls not Rawls
Russell
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Russell
4.8%(42/870)
95.1%(828/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.082
not AOS:Ancient Greek Philosophy0.054
Ancient Greek Philosophy not Ancient Greek Philosophy
Russell
~1.6%(~1/61)
~98.3%(~60/61)
not Russell
7.2%(63/870)
92.7%(807/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.099

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
nationality_region:Canada0.097
Canada not Canada
Russell
16.3%(10/61)
83.6%(51/61)
not Russell
6.3%(55/870)
93.6%(815/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.003
year_of_phd-0.082
year_of_phd ≥ median year_of_phd < median
Russell
35.4%(17/48)
64.5%(31/48)
not Russell
51.4%(346/672)
48.5%(326/672)
Response pairs: 720   p-value: 0.027
not nationality_region:United States0.078
United States not United States
Russell
36%(22/61)
63.9%(39/61)
not Russell
51.9%(452/870)
48%(418/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.017
year_of_birth-0.075
year_of_birth ≥ median year_of_birth < median
Russell
40.6%(24/59)
59.3%(35/59)
not Russell
51%(414/811)
48.9%(397/811)
Response pairs: 870   p-value: 0.026
response_time0.062
response_time ≥ median response_time < median
Russell
56.8%(33/58)
43.1%(25/58)
not Russell
49.5%(420/847)
50.4%(427/847)
Response pairs: 905   p-value: 0.062
phd_region:Canada0.057
Canada not Canada
Russell
6.5%(4/61)
93.4%(57/61)
not Russell
2.6%(23/870)
97.3%(847/870)
Response pairs: 931   p-value: 0.082