The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 134 / 177 (75.7%)
Accept or lean toward: no 31 / 177 (17.5%)
Other 12 / 177 (6.8%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept or lean toward: Platonism 74 / 177 (41.8%)
Accept or lean toward: nominalism 66 / 177 (37.3%)
Other 37 / 177 (20.9%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept or lean toward: objective 88 / 177 (49.7%)
Accept or lean toward: subjective 58 / 177 (32.8%)
Other 31 / 177 (17.5%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 121 / 177 (68.4%)
Other 29 / 177 (16.4%)
Accept or lean toward: no 27 / 177 (15.3%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 64 / 177 (36.2%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 60 / 177 (33.9%)
Other 53 / 177 (29.9%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept or lean toward: non-skeptical realism 130 / 177 (73.4%)
Accept or lean toward: idealism 22 / 177 (12.4%)
Accept or lean toward: skepticism 13 / 177 (7.3%)
Other 12 / 177 (6.8%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 87 / 177 (49.2%)
Accept or lean toward: compatibilism 55 / 177 (31.1%)
Other 19 / 177 (10.7%)
Accept or lean toward: no free will 16 / 177 (9.0%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept or lean toward: theism 121 / 177 (68.4%)
Accept or lean toward: atheism 33 / 177 (18.6%)
Other 23 / 177 (13.0%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Accept or lean toward: contextualism 68 / 177 (38.4%)
Accept or lean toward: invariantism 61 / 177 (34.5%)
Other 41 / 177 (23.2%)
Accept or lean toward: relativism 7 / 177 (4.0%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Accept or lean toward: rationalism 71 / 177 (40.1%)
Other 63 / 177 (35.6%)
Accept or lean toward: empiricism 43 / 177 (24.3%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept or lean toward: non-Humean 110 / 177 (62.1%)
Other 34 / 177 (19.2%)
Accept or lean toward: Humean 33 / 177 (18.6%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept or lean toward: classical 96 / 177 (54.2%)
Other 53 / 177 (29.9%)
Accept or lean toward: non-classical 28 / 177 (15.8%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: internalism 63 / 177 (35.6%)
Other 60 / 177 (33.9%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 54 / 177 (30.5%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: moral realism 131 / 177 (74.0%)
Accept or lean toward: moral anti-realism 29 / 177 (16.4%)
Other 17 / 177 (9.6%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept or lean toward: non-naturalism 97 / 177 (54.8%)
Accept or lean toward: naturalism 41 / 177 (23.2%)
Other 39 / 177 (22.0%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept or lean toward: non-physicalism 107 / 177 (60.5%)
Accept or lean toward: physicalism 51 / 177 (28.8%)
Other 19 / 177 (10.7%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept or lean toward: cognitivism 135 / 177 (76.3%)
Other 26 / 177 (14.7%)
Accept or lean toward: non-cognitivism 16 / 177 (9.0%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Other 67 / 177 (37.9%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 65 / 177 (36.7%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 45 / 177 (25.4%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Other 109 / 177 (61.6%)
Accept or lean toward: one box 36 / 177 (20.3%)
Accept or lean toward: two boxes 32 / 177 (18.1%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Accept or lean toward: virtue ethics 61 / 177 (34.5%)
Other 51 / 177 (28.8%)
Accept or lean toward: deontology 40 / 177 (22.6%)
Accept or lean toward: consequentialism 25 / 177 (14.1%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Other 78 / 177 (44.1%)
Accept or lean toward: qualia theory 38 / 177 (21.5%)
Accept or lean toward: representationalism 35 / 177 (19.8%)
Accept or lean toward: disjunctivism 14 / 177 (7.9%)
Accept or lean toward: sense-datum theory 12 / 177 (6.8%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Other 54 / 177 (30.5%)
Accept or lean toward: further-fact view 50 / 177 (28.2%)
Accept or lean toward: psychological view 47 / 177 (26.6%)
Accept or lean toward: biological view 26 / 177 (14.7%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Accept or lean toward: communitarianism 54 / 177 (30.5%)
Other 52 / 177 (29.4%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 37 / 177 (20.9%)
Accept or lean toward: egalitarianism 34 / 177 (19.2%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Other 94 / 177 (53.1%)
Accept or lean toward: Fregean 46 / 177 (26.0%)
Accept or lean toward: Millian 37 / 177 (20.9%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: scientific realism 127 / 177 (71.8%)
Accept or lean toward: scientific anti-realism 29 / 177 (16.4%)
Other 21 / 177 (11.9%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Accept or lean toward: death 71 / 177 (40.1%)
Accept or lean toward: survival 54 / 177 (30.5%)
Other 52 / 177 (29.4%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Other 88 / 177 (49.7%)
Accept or lean toward: A-theory 58 / 177 (32.8%)
Accept or lean toward: B-theory 31 / 177 (17.5%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept or lean toward: switch 112 / 177 (63.3%)
Other 54 / 177 (30.5%)
Accept or lean toward: don't switch 11 / 177 (6.2%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept or lean toward: correspondence 108 / 177 (61.0%)
Other 30 / 177 (16.9%)
Accept or lean toward: epistemic 24 / 177 (13.6%)
Accept or lean toward: deflationary 15 / 177 (8.5%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Accept or lean toward: metaphysically possible 70 / 177 (39.5%)
Accept or lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 53 / 177 (29.9%)
Other 32 / 177 (18.1%)
Accept or lean toward: inconceivable 22 / 177 (12.4%)

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