The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept: yes 202 / 414 (48.8%)
Lean toward: yes 92 / 414 (22.2%)
Lean toward: no 56 / 414 (13.5%)
Accept: no 33 / 414 (8.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 14 / 414 (3.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 5 / 414 (1.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 5 / 414 (1.2%)
Skip 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 414 (0.2%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Lean toward: nominalism 102 / 414 (24.6%)
Lean toward: Platonism 86 / 414 (20.8%)
Accept: Platonism 65 / 414 (15.7%)
Accept: nominalism 65 / 414 (15.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 24 / 414 (5.8%)
Accept another alternative 17 / 414 (4.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 14 / 414 (3.4%)
Reject both 13 / 414 (3.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 9 / 414 (2.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 7 / 414 (1.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 5 / 414 (1.2%)
Skip 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Other 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Accept both 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Lean toward: objective 107 / 414 (25.8%)
Lean toward: subjective 92 / 414 (22.2%)
Accept: subjective 61 / 414 (14.7%)
Accept: objective 52 / 414 (12.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 32 / 414 (7.7%)
Accept both 17 / 414 (4.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 17 / 414 (4.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 11 / 414 (2.7%)
Accept another alternative 10 / 414 (2.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 9 / 414 (2.2%)
Skip 4 / 414 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 414 (0.5%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept: yes 143 / 414 (34.5%)
Lean toward: yes 112 / 414 (27.1%)
Lean toward: no 73 / 414 (17.6%)
Accept: no 60 / 414 (14.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 10 / 414 (2.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 414 (1.2%)
Accept another alternative 4 / 414 (1.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Skip 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Lean toward: externalism 121 / 414 (29.2%)
Accept: externalism 86 / 414 (20.8%)
Lean toward: internalism 66 / 414 (15.9%)
Accept: internalism 43 / 414 (10.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 38 / 414 (9.2%)
Accept both 14 / 414 (3.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 10 / 414 (2.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 10 / 414 (2.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 7 / 414 (1.7%)
Accept another alternative 7 / 414 (1.7%)
Skip 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Reject both 3 / 414 (0.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 414 (0.2%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept: non-skeptical realism 248 / 414 (59.9%)
Lean toward: non-skeptical realism 87 / 414 (21.0%)
Lean toward: skepticism 20 / 414 (4.8%)
Lean toward: idealism 14 / 414 (3.4%)
Accept another alternative 9 / 414 (2.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 8 / 414 (1.9%)
Accept: skepticism 8 / 414 (1.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 7 / 414 (1.7%)
Reject all 4 / 414 (1.0%)
Other 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Reject one, undecided between others 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 414 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Accept: idealism 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept: compatibilism 144 / 414 (34.8%)
Lean toward: compatibilism 112 / 414 (27.1%)
Lean toward: no free will 32 / 414 (7.7%)
Lean toward: libertarianism 31 / 414 (7.5%)
Accept: no free will 27 / 414 (6.5%)
Accept: libertarianism 20 / 414 (4.8%)
Agnostic/undecided 18 / 414 (4.3%)
Accept another alternative 8 / 414 (1.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 4 / 414 (1.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 4 / 414 (1.0%)
Reject one, undecided between others 3 / 414 (0.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Accept more than one 1 / 414 (0.2%)
Skip 1 / 414 (0.2%)
Reject all 1 / 414 (0.2%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept: atheism 274 / 414 (66.2%)
Lean toward: atheism 51 / 414 (12.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 25 / 414 (6.0%)
Accept: theism 20 / 414 (4.8%)
Lean toward: theism 17 / 414 (4.1%)
Accept another alternative 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 5 / 414 (1.2%)
Skip 5 / 414 (1.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 414 (1.2%)
Reject both 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Other 1 / 414 (0.2%)
Accept both 1 / 414 (0.2%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Lean toward: contextualism 109 / 414 (26.3%)
Lean toward: invariantism 90 / 414 (21.7%)
Accept: invariantism 58 / 414 (14.0%)
Accept: contextualism 48 / 414 (11.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 36 / 414 (8.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 21 / 414 (5.1%)
Lean toward: relativism 11 / 414 (2.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 8 / 414 (1.9%)
Skip 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Accept: relativism 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Accept more than one 5 / 414 (1.2%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Reject one, undecided between others 3 / 414 (0.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 414 (0.2%)
Reject all 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Lean toward: empiricism 108 / 414 (26.1%)
Lean toward: rationalism 61 / 414 (14.7%)
Accept: empiricism 57 / 414 (13.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 47 / 414 (11.4%)
Accept: rationalism 43 / 414 (10.4%)
Accept both 38 / 414 (9.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 35 / 414 (8.5%)
Accept another alternative 11 / 414 (2.7%)
Reject both 10 / 414 (2.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Skip 1 / 414 (0.2%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept: non-Humean 115 / 414 (27.8%)
Lean toward: non-Humean 112 / 414 (27.1%)
Lean toward: Humean 80 / 414 (19.3%)
Accept: Humean 35 / 414 (8.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 28 / 414 (6.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 23 / 414 (5.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 8 / 414 (1.9%)
Accept another alternative 4 / 414 (1.0%)
Skip 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Accept both 2 / 414 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 414 (0.5%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept: classical 105 / 414 (25.4%)
Lean toward: classical 101 / 414 (24.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 45 / 414 (10.9%)
Lean toward: non-classical 43 / 414 (10.4%)
Accept: non-classical 33 / 414 (8.0%)
Accept both 26 / 414 (6.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 26 / 414 (6.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 13 / 414 (3.1%)
Skip 9 / 414 (2.2%)
There is no fact of the matter 7 / 414 (1.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Other 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Accept: externalism 151 / 414 (36.5%)
Lean toward: externalism 84 / 414 (20.3%)
Lean toward: internalism 49 / 414 (11.8%)
Accept: internalism 42 / 414 (10.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 29 / 414 (7.0%)
Accept both 27 / 414 (6.5%)
Accept another alternative 12 / 414 (2.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Reject both 4 / 414 (1.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 414 (0.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Other 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 414 (0.5%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Lean toward: moral realism 128 / 414 (30.9%)
Accept: moral realism 120 / 414 (29.0%)
Lean toward: moral anti-realism 61 / 414 (14.7%)
Accept: moral anti-realism 40 / 414 (9.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 22 / 414 (5.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 15 / 414 (3.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 13 / 414 (3.1%)
Accept another alternative 4 / 414 (1.0%)
Skip 4 / 414 (1.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 414 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Reject both 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept: naturalism 175 / 414 (42.3%)
Lean toward: naturalism 81 / 414 (19.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 40 / 414 (9.7%)
Lean toward: non-naturalism 35 / 414 (8.5%)
Accept: non-naturalism 35 / 414 (8.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 14 / 414 (3.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 12 / 414 (2.9%)
Skip 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Accept another alternative 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 4 / 414 (1.0%)
Reject both 4 / 414 (1.0%)
Accept both 2 / 414 (0.5%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept: physicalism 180 / 414 (43.5%)
Lean toward: physicalism 68 / 414 (16.4%)
Accept: non-physicalism 61 / 414 (14.7%)
Lean toward: non-physicalism 44 / 414 (10.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 22 / 414 (5.3%)
Accept another alternative 13 / 414 (3.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 10 / 414 (2.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 8 / 414 (1.9%)
Reject both 4 / 414 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Skip 1 / 414 (0.2%)
Accept both 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept: cognitivism 133 / 414 (32.1%)
Lean toward: cognitivism 120 / 414 (29.0%)
Lean toward: non-cognitivism 58 / 414 (14.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 22 / 414 (5.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 21 / 414 (5.1%)
Accept: non-cognitivism 20 / 414 (4.8%)
Agnostic/undecided 11 / 414 (2.7%)
Skip 9 / 414 (2.2%)
Accept both 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Accept another alternative 6 / 414 (1.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 414 (1.2%)
Reject both 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Lean toward: internalism 98 / 414 (23.7%)
Lean toward: externalism 70 / 414 (16.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 68 / 414 (16.4%)
Accept: internalism 61 / 414 (14.7%)
Accept: externalism 52 / 414 (12.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 22 / 414 (5.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 12 / 414 (2.9%)
Skip 9 / 414 (2.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 8 / 414 (1.9%)
Accept both 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Reject both 5 / 414 (1.2%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 414 (0.7%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 149 / 414 (36.0%)
Accept: two boxes 50 / 414 (12.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 48 / 414 (11.6%)
Lean toward: one box 46 / 414 (11.1%)
Lean toward: two boxes 42 / 414 (10.1%)
Accept: one box 33 / 414 (8.0%)
Skip 32 / 414 (7.7%)
Reject both 3 / 414 (0.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Other 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Accept both 2 / 414 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 414 (0.5%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Lean toward: consequentialism 80 / 414 (19.3%)
Lean toward: virtue ethics 62 / 414 (15.0%)
Lean toward: deontology 61 / 414 (14.7%)
Accept more than one 37 / 414 (8.9%)
Accept: consequentialism 31 / 414 (7.5%)
Accept: virtue ethics 23 / 414 (5.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 22 / 414 (5.3%)
Accept: deontology 21 / 414 (5.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 20 / 414 (4.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 16 / 414 (3.9%)
Reject all 10 / 414 (2.4%)
Accept another alternative 9 / 414 (2.2%)
Skip 8 / 414 (1.9%)
Reject one, undecided between others 5 / 414 (1.2%)
There is no fact of the matter 4 / 414 (1.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Other 2 / 414 (0.5%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Lean toward: representationalism 91 / 414 (22.0%)
Accept: representationalism 81 / 414 (19.6%)
Lean toward: qualia theory 47 / 414 (11.4%)
Lean toward: disjunctivism 33 / 414 (8.0%)
Accept: disjunctivism 30 / 414 (7.2%)
Accept: qualia theory 26 / 414 (6.3%)
Accept another alternative 20 / 414 (4.8%)
Accept more than one 13 / 414 (3.1%)
Reject all 10 / 414 (2.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 9 / 414 (2.2%)
Reject one or two, undecided between others 9 / 414 (2.2%)
Lean toward: sense-datum theory 9 / 414 (2.2%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 8 / 414 (1.9%)
Accept: sense-datum theory 7 / 414 (1.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 7 / 414 (1.7%)
Skip 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 5 / 414 (1.2%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Lean toward: psychological view 114 / 414 (27.5%)
Accept: psychological view 68 / 414 (16.4%)
Lean toward: biological view 53 / 414 (12.8%)
Accept: biological view 30 / 414 (7.2%)
Lean toward: further-fact view 25 / 414 (6.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 18 / 414 (4.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 16 / 414 (3.9%)
Accept another alternative 15 / 414 (3.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 15 / 414 (3.6%)
Accept: further-fact view 13 / 414 (3.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 13 / 414 (3.1%)
Accept more than one 11 / 414 (2.7%)
Reject all 9 / 414 (2.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 7 / 414 (1.7%)
Skip 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Reject one, undecided between others 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Other 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Lean toward: egalitarianism 90 / 414 (21.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 57 / 414 (13.8%)
Lean toward: communitarianism 54 / 414 (13.0%)
Accept: egalitarianism 45 / 414 (10.9%)
Lean toward: libertarianism 40 / 414 (9.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 22 / 414 (5.3%)
Skip 17 / 414 (4.1%)
Accept: communitarianism 14 / 414 (3.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 14 / 414 (3.4%)
Accept more than one 13 / 414 (3.1%)
Accept: libertarianism 12 / 414 (2.9%)
Accept another alternative 11 / 414 (2.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 10 / 414 (2.4%)
Reject all 8 / 414 (1.9%)
Reject one, undecided between others 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Other 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Lean toward: Fregean 92 / 414 (22.2%)
Lean toward: Millian 81 / 414 (19.6%)
Accept: Millian 65 / 414 (15.7%)
Accept: Fregean 59 / 414 (14.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 37 / 414 (8.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 16 / 414 (3.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 15 / 414 (3.6%)
Accept another alternative 14 / 414 (3.4%)
Skip 9 / 414 (2.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 9 / 414 (2.2%)
Reject both 7 / 414 (1.7%)
Accept both 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Other 2 / 414 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 414 (0.5%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept: scientific realism 202 / 414 (48.8%)
Lean toward: scientific realism 123 / 414 (29.7%)
Lean toward: scientific anti-realism 23 / 414 (5.6%)
Accept: scientific anti-realism 17 / 414 (4.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 10 / 414 (2.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 9 / 414 (2.2%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 8 / 414 (1.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Accept another alternative 4 / 414 (1.0%)
Skip 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Reject both 3 / 414 (0.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Other 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Accept both 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Lean toward: survival 102 / 414 (24.6%)
Accept: death 79 / 414 (19.1%)
Lean toward: death 74 / 414 (17.9%)
Accept: survival 61 / 414 (14.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 22 / 414 (5.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 21 / 414 (5.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 19 / 414 (4.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 14 / 414 (3.4%)
Skip 7 / 414 (1.7%)
Reject both 5 / 414 (1.2%)
Accept both 4 / 414 (1.0%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 122 / 414 (29.5%)
Accept: B-theory 55 / 414 (13.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 53 / 414 (12.8%)
Lean toward: A-theory 52 / 414 (12.6%)
Lean toward: B-theory 47 / 414 (11.4%)
Accept: A-theory 26 / 414 (6.3%)
Skip 23 / 414 (5.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 9 / 414 (2.2%)
Accept both 8 / 414 (1.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 7 / 414 (1.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 5 / 414 (1.2%)
Reject both 5 / 414 (1.2%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 414 (0.5%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept: switch 181 / 414 (43.7%)
Lean toward: switch 104 / 414 (25.1%)
Lean toward: don't switch 25 / 414 (6.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 24 / 414 (5.8%)
Agnostic/undecided 18 / 414 (4.3%)
Skip 11 / 414 (2.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 11 / 414 (2.7%)
Reject both 9 / 414 (2.2%)
There is no fact of the matter 8 / 414 (1.9%)
Accept: don't switch 8 / 414 (1.9%)
Accept another alternative 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Other 5 / 414 (1.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Accept both 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Lean toward: correspondence 121 / 414 (29.2%)
Accept: correspondence 119 / 414 (28.7%)
Lean toward: deflationary 50 / 414 (12.1%)
Lean toward: epistemic 31 / 414 (7.5%)
Accept: deflationary 31 / 414 (7.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 12 / 414 (2.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 9 / 414 (2.2%)
Accept more than one 8 / 414 (1.9%)
Accept another alternative 8 / 414 (1.9%)
Accept: epistemic 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Reject all 6 / 414 (1.4%)
Skip 4 / 414 (1.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Reject one, undecided between others 3 / 414 (0.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 414 (0.2%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Accept: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 93 / 414 (22.5%)
Lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 88 / 414 (21.3%)
Accept: metaphysically possible 55 / 414 (13.3%)
Accept: inconceivable 52 / 414 (12.6%)
Lean toward: inconceivable 50 / 414 (12.1%)
Lean toward: metaphysically possible 29 / 414 (7.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 14 / 414 (3.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 10 / 414 (2.4%)
Reject all 9 / 414 (2.2%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 414 (0.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 414 (0.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Skip 2 / 414 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 414 (0.2%)

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