The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 82 / 101 (81.2%)
Accept or lean toward: no 15 / 101 (14.9%)
Other 4 / 101 (4.0%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept or lean toward: Platonism 47 / 101 (46.5%)
Accept or lean toward: nominalism 37 / 101 (36.6%)
Other 17 / 101 (16.8%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept or lean toward: objective 64 / 101 (63.4%)
Accept or lean toward: subjective 20 / 101 (19.8%)
Other 17 / 101 (16.8%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 76 / 101 (75.2%)
Accept or lean toward: no 15 / 101 (14.9%)
Other 10 / 101 (9.9%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: internalism 40 / 101 (39.6%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 35 / 101 (34.7%)
Other 26 / 101 (25.7%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept or lean toward: non-skeptical realism 78 / 101 (77.2%)
Accept or lean toward: idealism 12 / 101 (11.9%)
Accept or lean toward: skepticism 6 / 101 (5.9%)
Other 5 / 101 (5.0%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 50 / 101 (49.5%)
Accept or lean toward: compatibilism 33 / 101 (32.7%)
Other 9 / 101 (8.9%)
Accept or lean toward: no free will 9 / 101 (8.9%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept or lean toward: theism 70 / 101 (69.3%)
Accept or lean toward: atheism 20 / 101 (19.8%)
Other 11 / 101 (10.9%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Accept or lean toward: invariantism 41 / 101 (40.6%)
Accept or lean toward: contextualism 37 / 101 (36.6%)
Other 22 / 101 (21.8%)
Accept or lean toward: relativism 1 / 101 (1.0%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Accept or lean toward: rationalism 46 / 101 (45.5%)
Other 29 / 101 (28.7%)
Accept or lean toward: empiricism 26 / 101 (25.7%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept or lean toward: non-Humean 72 / 101 (71.3%)
Accept or lean toward: Humean 16 / 101 (15.8%)
Other 13 / 101 (12.9%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept or lean toward: classical 57 / 101 (56.4%)
Other 24 / 101 (23.8%)
Accept or lean toward: non-classical 20 / 101 (19.8%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: internalism 37 / 101 (36.6%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 35 / 101 (34.7%)
Other 29 / 101 (28.7%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: moral realism 83 / 101 (82.2%)
Accept or lean toward: moral anti-realism 12 / 101 (11.9%)
Other 6 / 101 (5.9%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept or lean toward: non-naturalism 62 / 101 (61.4%)
Accept or lean toward: naturalism 20 / 101 (19.8%)
Other 19 / 101 (18.8%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept or lean toward: non-physicalism 61 / 101 (60.4%)
Accept or lean toward: physicalism 30 / 101 (29.7%)
Other 10 / 101 (9.9%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept or lean toward: cognitivism 87 / 101 (86.1%)
Accept or lean toward: non-cognitivism 8 / 101 (7.9%)
Other 6 / 101 (5.9%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Other 39 / 101 (38.6%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 38 / 101 (37.6%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 24 / 101 (23.8%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Other 58 / 101 (57.4%)
Accept or lean toward: two boxes 24 / 101 (23.8%)
Accept or lean toward: one box 19 / 101 (18.8%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Accept or lean toward: virtue ethics 37 / 101 (36.6%)
Accept or lean toward: deontology 28 / 101 (27.7%)
Other 28 / 101 (27.7%)
Accept or lean toward: consequentialism 8 / 101 (7.9%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Other 42 / 101 (41.6%)
Accept or lean toward: representationalism 23 / 101 (22.8%)
Accept or lean toward: qualia theory 19 / 101 (18.8%)
Accept or lean toward: disjunctivism 11 / 101 (10.9%)
Accept or lean toward: sense-datum theory 6 / 101 (5.9%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Other 31 / 101 (30.7%)
Accept or lean toward: further-fact view 29 / 101 (28.7%)
Accept or lean toward: psychological view 22 / 101 (21.8%)
Accept or lean toward: biological view 19 / 101 (18.8%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Other 37 / 101 (36.6%)
Accept or lean toward: communitarianism 28 / 101 (27.7%)
Accept or lean toward: egalitarianism 19 / 101 (18.8%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 17 / 101 (16.8%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Other 48 / 101 (47.5%)
Accept or lean toward: Millian 27 / 101 (26.7%)
Accept or lean toward: Fregean 26 / 101 (25.7%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: scientific realism 76 / 101 (75.2%)
Accept or lean toward: scientific anti-realism 19 / 101 (18.8%)
Other 6 / 101 (5.9%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Accept or lean toward: death 45 / 101 (44.6%)
Accept or lean toward: survival 33 / 101 (32.7%)
Other 23 / 101 (22.8%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Other 46 / 101 (45.5%)
Accept or lean toward: A-theory 37 / 101 (36.6%)
Accept or lean toward: B-theory 18 / 101 (17.8%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept or lean toward: switch 67 / 101 (66.3%)
Other 27 / 101 (26.7%)
Accept or lean toward: don't switch 7 / 101 (6.9%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept or lean toward: correspondence 67 / 101 (66.3%)
Accept or lean toward: epistemic 12 / 101 (11.9%)
Accept or lean toward: deflationary 12 / 101 (11.9%)
Other 10 / 101 (9.9%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Accept or lean toward: metaphysically possible 39 / 101 (38.6%)
Accept or lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 32 / 101 (31.7%)
Other 17 / 101 (16.8%)
Accept or lean toward: inconceivable 13 / 101 (12.9%)

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