The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 555 / 829 (66.9%)
Accept or lean toward: no 207 / 829 (25.0%)
Other 67 / 829 (8.1%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept or lean toward: nominalism 412 / 829 (49.7%)
Accept or lean toward: Platonism 223 / 829 (26.9%)
Other 194 / 829 (23.4%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept or lean toward: subjective 366 / 829 (44.1%)
Accept or lean toward: objective 252 / 829 (30.4%)
Other 211 / 829 (25.5%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 474 / 829 (57.2%)
Accept or lean toward: no 252 / 829 (30.4%)
Other 103 / 829 (12.4%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 363 / 829 (43.8%)
Other 239 / 829 (28.8%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 227 / 829 (27.4%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept or lean toward: non-skeptical realism 604 / 829 (72.9%)
Other 87 / 829 (10.5%)
Accept or lean toward: idealism 72 / 829 (8.7%)
Accept or lean toward: skepticism 66 / 829 (8.0%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept or lean toward: compatibilism 388 / 829 (46.8%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 160 / 829 (19.3%)
Accept or lean toward: no free will 153 / 829 (18.5%)
Other 128 / 829 (15.4%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept or lean toward: atheism 527 / 829 (63.6%)
Accept or lean toward: theism 173 / 829 (20.9%)
Other 129 / 829 (15.6%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Accept or lean toward: contextualism 349 / 829 (42.1%)
Other 257 / 829 (31.0%)
Accept or lean toward: invariantism 167 / 829 (20.1%)
Accept or lean toward: relativism 56 / 829 (6.8%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Accept or lean toward: empiricism 350 / 829 (42.2%)
Other 282 / 829 (34.0%)
Accept or lean toward: rationalism 197 / 829 (23.8%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept or lean toward: non-Humean 353 / 829 (42.6%)
Accept or lean toward: Humean 269 / 829 (32.4%)
Other 207 / 829 (25.0%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept or lean toward: classical 358 / 829 (43.2%)
Other 300 / 829 (36.2%)
Accept or lean toward: non-classical 171 / 829 (20.6%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 345 / 829 (41.6%)
Other 253 / 829 (30.5%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 231 / 829 (27.9%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: moral realism 412 / 829 (49.7%)
Accept or lean toward: moral anti-realism 291 / 829 (35.1%)
Other 126 / 829 (15.2%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept or lean toward: naturalism 417 / 829 (50.3%)
Accept or lean toward: non-naturalism 214 / 829 (25.8%)
Other 198 / 829 (23.9%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept or lean toward: physicalism 468 / 829 (56.5%)
Accept or lean toward: non-physicalism 242 / 829 (29.2%)
Other 119 / 829 (14.4%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept or lean toward: cognitivism 458 / 829 (55.2%)
Other 186 / 829 (22.4%)
Accept or lean toward: non-cognitivism 185 / 829 (22.3%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Other 312 / 829 (37.6%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 289 / 829 (34.9%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 228 / 829 (27.5%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Other 499 / 829 (60.2%)
Accept or lean toward: one box 176 / 829 (21.2%)
Accept or lean toward: two boxes 154 / 829 (18.6%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Other 238 / 829 (28.7%)
Accept or lean toward: virtue ethics 224 / 829 (27.0%)
Accept or lean toward: consequentialism 215 / 829 (25.9%)
Accept or lean toward: deontology 152 / 829 (18.3%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Other 380 / 829 (45.8%)
Accept or lean toward: representationalism 204 / 829 (24.6%)
Accept or lean toward: disjunctivism 97 / 829 (11.7%)
Accept or lean toward: qualia theory 95 / 829 (11.5%)
Accept or lean toward: sense-datum theory 53 / 829 (6.4%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Other 334 / 829 (40.3%)
Accept or lean toward: psychological view 269 / 829 (32.4%)
Accept or lean toward: further-fact view 115 / 829 (13.9%)
Accept or lean toward: biological view 111 / 829 (13.4%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Other 291 / 829 (35.1%)
Accept or lean toward: egalitarianism 229 / 829 (27.6%)
Accept or lean toward: communitarianism 160 / 829 (19.3%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 149 / 829 (18.0%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Other 356 / 829 (42.9%)
Accept or lean toward: Fregean 266 / 829 (32.1%)
Accept or lean toward: Millian 207 / 829 (25.0%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: scientific realism 512 / 829 (61.8%)
Accept or lean toward: scientific anti-realism 175 / 829 (21.1%)
Other 142 / 829 (17.1%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Accept or lean toward: survival 305 / 829 (36.8%)
Other 285 / 829 (34.4%)
Accept or lean toward: death 239 / 829 (28.8%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Other 505 / 829 (60.9%)
Accept or lean toward: B-theory 203 / 829 (24.5%)
Accept or lean toward: A-theory 121 / 829 (14.6%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept or lean toward: switch 530 / 829 (63.9%)
Other 218 / 829 (26.3%)
Accept or lean toward: don't switch 81 / 829 (9.8%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept or lean toward: correspondence 367 / 829 (44.3%)
Other 186 / 829 (22.4%)
Accept or lean toward: deflationary 160 / 829 (19.3%)
Accept or lean toward: epistemic 116 / 829 (14.0%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Accept or lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 305 / 829 (36.8%)
Accept or lean toward: metaphysically possible 203 / 829 (24.5%)
Accept or lean toward: inconceivable 166 / 829 (20.0%)
Other 155 / 829 (18.7%)

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