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The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 662 / 931 (71.1%)
Accept or lean toward: no 171 / 931 (18.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 43 / 931 (4.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 15 / 931 (1.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 11 / 931 (1.2%)
Accept another alternative 8 / 931 (0.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 6 / 931 (0.6%)
Skip 5 / 931 (0.5%)
Accept both 4 / 931 (0.4%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 931 (0.3%)
Other 2 / 931 (0.2%)
Reject both 1 / 931 (0.1%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept or lean toward: Platonism 366 / 931 (39.3%)
Accept or lean toward: nominalism 351 / 931 (37.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 47 / 931 (5.0%)
Accept another alternative 46 / 931 (4.9%)
Reject both 34 / 931 (3.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 26 / 931 (2.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 21 / 931 (2.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 19 / 931 (2.0%)
Skip 9 / 931 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 8 / 931 (0.9%)
Other 2 / 931 (0.2%)
Accept both 2 / 931 (0.2%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept or lean toward: objective 382 / 931 (41.0%)
Accept or lean toward: subjective 321 / 931 (34.5%)
Accept an intermediate view 61 / 931 (6.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 42 / 931 (4.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 30 / 931 (3.2%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 29 / 931 (3.1%)
Accept another alternative 24 / 931 (2.6%)
Accept both 24 / 931 (2.6%)
Reject both 9 / 931 (1.0%)
Skip 4 / 931 (0.4%)
Other 3 / 931 (0.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 931 (0.2%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 604 / 931 (64.9%)
Accept or lean toward: no 252 / 931 (27.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 23 / 931 (2.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 18 / 931 (1.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 11 / 931 (1.2%)
Accept another alternative 6 / 931 (0.6%)
Skip 6 / 931 (0.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 4 / 931 (0.4%)
Accept both 3 / 931 (0.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 931 (0.2%)
Other 1 / 931 (0.1%)
Reject both 1 / 931 (0.1%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 398 / 931 (42.7%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 246 / 931 (26.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 64 / 931 (6.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 56 / 931 (6.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 44 / 931 (4.7%)
Accept both 43 / 931 (4.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 28 / 931 (3.0%)
Accept another alternative 20 / 931 (2.1%)
Skip 15 / 931 (1.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 7 / 931 (0.8%)
Reject both 6 / 931 (0.6%)
Other 4 / 931 (0.4%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept or lean toward: non-skeptical realism 760 / 931 (81.6%)
Accept or lean toward: skepticism 45 / 931 (4.8%)
Accept or lean toward: idealism 40 / 931 (4.3%)
Accept another alternative 24 / 931 (2.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 14 / 931 (1.5%)
Accept an intermediate view 12 / 931 (1.3%)
Reject all 11 / 931 (1.2%)
Skip 6 / 931 (0.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 5 / 931 (0.5%)
Other 4 / 931 (0.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 931 (0.4%)
Reject one, undecided between others 3 / 931 (0.3%)
Accept more than one 3 / 931 (0.3%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept or lean toward: compatibilism 550 / 931 (59.1%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 128 / 931 (13.7%)
Accept or lean toward: no free will 114 / 931 (12.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 38 / 931 (4.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 26 / 931 (2.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 16 / 931 (1.7%)
Accept another alternative 16 / 931 (1.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 10 / 931 (1.1%)
Reject all 9 / 931 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 8 / 931 (0.9%)
Reject one, undecided between others 7 / 931 (0.8%)
Other 3 / 931 (0.3%)
Accept more than one 3 / 931 (0.3%)
Skip 3 / 931 (0.3%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept or lean toward: atheism 678 / 931 (72.8%)
Accept or lean toward: theism 136 / 931 (14.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 51 / 931 (5.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 16 / 931 (1.7%)
Reject both 16 / 931 (1.7%)
Skip 9 / 931 (1.0%)
Accept another alternative 8 / 931 (0.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 7 / 931 (0.8%)
There is no fact of the matter 5 / 931 (0.5%)
Other 5 / 931 (0.5%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Accept or lean toward: contextualism 373 / 931 (40.1%)
Accept or lean toward: invariantism 290 / 931 (31.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 84 / 931 (9.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 53 / 931 (5.7%)
Accept or lean toward: relativism 27 / 931 (2.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 23 / 931 (2.5%)
Reject one, undecided between others 18 / 931 (1.9%)
Skip 18 / 931 (1.9%)
Accept another alternative 12 / 931 (1.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 9 / 931 (1.0%)
Accept more than one 8 / 931 (0.9%)
There is no fact of the matter 7 / 931 (0.8%)
Reject all 6 / 931 (0.6%)
Other 3 / 931 (0.3%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Accept or lean toward: empiricism 326 / 931 (35.0%)
Accept or lean toward: rationalism 259 / 931 (27.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 106 / 931 (11.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 91 / 931 (9.8%)
Accept both 59 / 931 (6.3%)
Reject both 33 / 931 (3.5%)
Accept another alternative 25 / 931 (2.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 18 / 931 (1.9%)
Skip 5 / 931 (0.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 931 (0.5%)
Other 2 / 931 (0.2%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 931 (0.2%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept or lean toward: non-Humean 532 / 931 (57.1%)
Accept or lean toward: Humean 230 / 931 (24.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 60 / 931 (6.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 51 / 931 (5.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 17 / 931 (1.8%)
Accept another alternative 11 / 931 (1.2%)
Skip 11 / 931 (1.2%)
Reject both 7 / 931 (0.8%)
Other 5 / 931 (0.5%)
Accept an intermediate view 4 / 931 (0.4%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 931 (0.2%)
Accept both 1 / 931 (0.1%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept or lean toward: classical 480 / 931 (51.6%)
Accept or lean toward: non-classical 143 / 931 (15.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 112 / 931 (12.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 52 / 931 (5.6%)
Accept both 48 / 931 (5.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 32 / 931 (3.4%)
There is no fact of the matter 30 / 931 (3.2%)
Skip 13 / 931 (1.4%)
Accept another alternative 8 / 931 (0.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 8 / 931 (0.9%)
Other 3 / 931 (0.3%)
Reject both 2 / 931 (0.2%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 476 / 931 (51.1%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 186 / 931 (20.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 53 / 931 (5.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 52 / 931 (5.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 41 / 931 (4.4%)
Accept both 36 / 931 (3.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 28 / 931 (3.0%)
Accept another alternative 21 / 931 (2.3%)
Skip 15 / 931 (1.6%)
Reject both 13 / 931 (1.4%)
Other 6 / 931 (0.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 4 / 931 (0.4%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: moral realism 525 / 931 (56.4%)
Accept or lean toward: moral anti-realism 258 / 931 (27.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 27 / 931 (2.9%)
Accept another alternative 25 / 931 (2.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 24 / 931 (2.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 23 / 931 (2.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 23 / 931 (2.5%)
Skip 10 / 931 (1.1%)
Reject both 9 / 931 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 931 (0.3%)
Other 2 / 931 (0.2%)
Accept both 2 / 931 (0.2%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept or lean toward: naturalism 464 / 931 (49.8%)
Accept or lean toward: non-naturalism 241 / 931 (25.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 90 / 931 (9.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 63 / 931 (6.8%)
Agnostic/undecided 25 / 931 (2.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 12 / 931 (1.3%)
Skip 11 / 931 (1.2%)
Reject both 9 / 931 (1.0%)
Accept another alternative 7 / 931 (0.8%)
Accept both 4 / 931 (0.4%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 931 (0.3%)
Other 2 / 931 (0.2%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept or lean toward: physicalism 526 / 931 (56.5%)
Accept or lean toward: non-physicalism 252 / 931 (27.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 59 / 931 (6.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 23 / 931 (2.5%)
Accept an intermediate view 22 / 931 (2.4%)
Accept another alternative 18 / 931 (1.9%)
Reject both 12 / 931 (1.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 8 / 931 (0.9%)
Skip 4 / 931 (0.4%)
Accept both 3 / 931 (0.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 931 (0.3%)
Other 1 / 931 (0.1%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept or lean toward: cognitivism 612 / 931 (65.7%)
Accept or lean toward: non-cognitivism 158 / 931 (17.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 44 / 931 (4.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 37 / 931 (4.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 20 / 931 (2.1%)
Accept another alternative 18 / 931 (1.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 16 / 931 (1.7%)
Accept both 11 / 931 (1.2%)
Skip 10 / 931 (1.1%)
Other 2 / 931 (0.2%)
Reject both 2 / 931 (0.2%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 931 (0.1%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: internalism 325 / 931 (34.9%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 277 / 931 (29.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 138 / 931 (14.8%)
Agnostic/undecided 56 / 931 (6.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 45 / 931 (4.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 33 / 931 (3.5%)
Skip 20 / 931 (2.1%)
Accept both 17 / 931 (1.8%)
Reject both 9 / 931 (1.0%)
Accept another alternative 7 / 931 (0.8%)
Other 3 / 931 (0.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 931 (0.1%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Accept or lean toward: two boxes 292 / 931 (31.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 219 / 931 (23.5%)
Accept or lean toward: one box 198 / 931 (21.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 124 / 931 (13.3%)
Skip 44 / 931 (4.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 19 / 931 (2.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 15 / 931 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 6 / 931 (0.6%)
Other 5 / 931 (0.5%)
Reject both 5 / 931 (0.5%)
Accept both 3 / 931 (0.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 931 (0.1%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Accept or lean toward: deontology 241 / 931 (25.9%)
Accept or lean toward: consequentialism 220 / 931 (23.6%)
Accept or lean toward: virtue ethics 169 / 931 (18.2%)
Accept more than one 78 / 931 (8.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 48 / 931 (5.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 37 / 931 (4.0%)
Accept another alternative 33 / 931 (3.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 31 / 931 (3.3%)
Reject all 25 / 931 (2.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 17 / 931 (1.8%)
There is no fact of the matter 10 / 931 (1.1%)
Other 8 / 931 (0.9%)
Reject one, undecided between others 8 / 931 (0.9%)
Skip 6 / 931 (0.6%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Accept or lean toward: representationalism 293 / 931 (31.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 151 / 931 (16.2%)
Accept or lean toward: qualia theory 114 / 931 (12.2%)
Accept or lean toward: disjunctivism 102 / 931 (11.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 78 / 931 (8.4%)
Accept another alternative 36 / 931 (3.9%)
Reject all 31 / 931 (3.3%)
Accept or lean toward: sense-datum theory 29 / 931 (3.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 24 / 931 (2.6%)
Reject one or two, undecided between others 21 / 931 (2.3%)
Skip 21 / 931 (2.3%)
Accept more than one 17 / 931 (1.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 7 / 931 (0.8%)
Other 5 / 931 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 931 (0.2%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Accept or lean toward: psychological view 313 / 931 (33.6%)
Accept or lean toward: biological view 157 / 931 (16.9%)
Accept or lean toward: further-fact view 114 / 931 (12.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 79 / 931 (8.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 58 / 931 (6.2%)
There is no fact of the matter 39 / 931 (4.2%)
Accept more than one 37 / 931 (4.0%)
Accept another alternative 36 / 931 (3.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 26 / 931 (2.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 25 / 931 (2.7%)
Reject all 24 / 931 (2.6%)
Reject one, undecided between others 10 / 931 (1.1%)
Skip 8 / 931 (0.9%)
Other 5 / 931 (0.5%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Accept or lean toward: egalitarianism 324 / 931 (34.8%)
Accept or lean toward: communitarianism 133 / 931 (14.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 100 / 931 (10.7%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 92 / 931 (9.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 51 / 931 (5.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 42 / 931 (4.5%)
Accept more than one 37 / 931 (4.0%)
Accept another alternative 37 / 931 (4.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 35 / 931 (3.8%)
Reject all 32 / 931 (3.4%)
Skip 19 / 931 (2.0%)
Reject one, undecided between others 17 / 931 (1.8%)
Other 7 / 931 (0.8%)
There is no fact of the matter 5 / 931 (0.5%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Accept or lean toward: Millian 321 / 931 (34.5%)
Accept or lean toward: Fregean 267 / 931 (28.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 128 / 931 (13.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 59 / 931 (6.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 39 / 931 (4.2%)
Accept another alternative 32 / 931 (3.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 24 / 931 (2.6%)
Reject both 22 / 931 (2.4%)
Skip 14 / 931 (1.5%)
Accept both 10 / 931 (1.1%)
There is no fact of the matter 9 / 931 (1.0%)
Other 6 / 931 (0.6%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: scientific realism 699 / 931 (75.1%)
Accept or lean toward: scientific anti-realism 108 / 931 (11.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 30 / 931 (3.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 23 / 931 (2.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 19 / 931 (2.0%)
Accept another alternative 15 / 931 (1.6%)
Reject both 15 / 931 (1.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 14 / 931 (1.5%)
Skip 3 / 931 (0.3%)
Other 3 / 931 (0.3%)
Accept both 2 / 931 (0.2%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Accept or lean toward: survival 337 / 931 (36.2%)
Accept or lean toward: death 290 / 931 (31.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 86 / 931 (9.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 80 / 931 (8.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 56 / 931 (6.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 34 / 931 (3.7%)
Skip 19 / 931 (2.0%)
Other 8 / 931 (0.9%)
Accept another alternative 7 / 931 (0.8%)
Reject both 6 / 931 (0.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 5 / 931 (0.5%)
Accept both 3 / 931 (0.3%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 287 / 931 (30.8%)
Accept or lean toward: B-theory 245 / 931 (26.3%)
Accept or lean toward: A-theory 144 / 931 (15.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 98 / 931 (10.5%)
Skip 53 / 931 (5.7%)
Accept both 29 / 931 (3.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 19 / 931 (2.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 17 / 931 (1.8%)
Accept another alternative 13 / 931 (1.4%)
Reject both 11 / 931 (1.2%)
Other 8 / 931 (0.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 7 / 931 (0.8%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept or lean toward: switch 635 / 931 (68.2%)
Accept or lean toward: don't switch 71 / 931 (7.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 60 / 931 (6.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 42 / 931 (4.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 34 / 931 (3.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 27 / 931 (2.9%)
Reject both 18 / 931 (1.9%)
Skip 15 / 931 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 11 / 931 (1.2%)
Other 10 / 931 (1.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 4 / 931 (0.4%)
Accept both 4 / 931 (0.4%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept or lean toward: correspondence 473 / 931 (50.8%)
Accept or lean toward: deflationary 231 / 931 (24.8%)
Accept or lean toward: epistemic 64 / 931 (6.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 32 / 931 (3.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 28 / 931 (3.0%)
Reject all 23 / 931 (2.5%)
Accept another alternative 20 / 931 (2.1%)
Accept more than one 16 / 931 (1.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 13 / 931 (1.4%)
Reject one, undecided between others 12 / 931 (1.3%)
Skip 8 / 931 (0.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 5 / 931 (0.5%)
Other 4 / 931 (0.4%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 931 (0.2%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Accept or lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 331 / 931 (35.6%)
Accept or lean toward: metaphysically possible 217 / 931 (23.3%)
Accept or lean toward: inconceivable 149 / 931 (16.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 84 / 931 (9.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 61 / 931 (6.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 40 / 931 (4.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 12 / 931 (1.3%)
Skip 10 / 931 (1.1%)
Reject all 10 / 931 (1.1%)
Other 9 / 931 (1.0%)
Accept another alternative 5 / 931 (0.5%)
Reject one, undecided between others 3 / 931 (0.3%)

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