The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept: yes 35 / 47 (74.5%)
Lean toward: yes 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Lean toward: no 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept: no 2 / 47 (4.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Lean toward: nominalism 13 / 47 (27.7%)
Accept: Platonism 12 / 47 (25.5%)
Lean toward: Platonism 10 / 47 (21.3%)
Accept: nominalism 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Reject both 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Lean toward: objective 19 / 47 (40.4%)
Accept: objective 12 / 47 (25.5%)
Lean toward: subjective 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Accept: subjective 4 / 47 (8.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Lean toward: yes 20 / 47 (42.6%)
Accept: yes 17 / 47 (36.2%)
Lean toward: no 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Accept: no 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 47 (4.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Lean toward: externalism 11 / 47 (23.4%)
Lean toward: internalism 10 / 47 (21.3%)
Accept: internalism 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Accept: externalism 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Accept both 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 47 (6.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 47 (2.1%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept: non-skeptical realism 34 / 47 (72.3%)
Lean toward: non-skeptical realism 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Accept: idealism 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Lean toward: skepticism 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Lean toward: idealism 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Skip 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept: libertarianism 20 / 47 (42.6%)
Accept: compatibilism 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Lean toward: libertarianism 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Lean toward: compatibilism 5 / 47 (10.6%)
Accept: no free will 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Lean toward: no free will 2 / 47 (4.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 47 (2.1%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept: theism 30 / 47 (63.8%)
Accept: atheism 9 / 47 (19.1%)
Lean toward: theism 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Reject both 2 / 47 (4.3%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Lean toward: invariantism 14 / 47 (29.8%)
Lean toward: contextualism 13 / 47 (27.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Accept: contextualism 5 / 47 (10.6%)
Accept: invariantism 5 / 47 (10.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 47 (4.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Reject one, undecided between others 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Lean toward: rationalism 14 / 47 (29.8%)
Accept: rationalism 8 / 47 (17.0%)
Lean toward: empiricism 8 / 47 (17.0%)
Accept: empiricism 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Accept an intermediate view 4 / 47 (8.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Reject both 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Other 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept: non-Humean 27 / 47 (57.4%)
Lean toward: non-Humean 10 / 47 (21.3%)
Lean toward: Humean 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept: Humean 1 / 47 (2.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept: classical 17 / 47 (36.2%)
Lean toward: classical 11 / 47 (23.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 47 (10.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Lean toward: non-classical 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Accept: non-classical 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Accept both 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Lean toward: internalism 14 / 47 (29.8%)
Lean toward: externalism 11 / 47 (23.4%)
Accept: internalism 5 / 47 (10.6%)
Accept: externalism 5 / 47 (10.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 47 (10.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 47 (8.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept: moral realism 29 / 47 (61.7%)
Lean toward: moral realism 12 / 47 (25.5%)
Accept: moral anti-realism 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Other 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept: non-naturalism 21 / 47 (44.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Accept: naturalism 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Lean toward: non-naturalism 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Lean toward: naturalism 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept: non-physicalism 24 / 47 (51.1%)
Accept: physicalism 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Lean toward: non-physicalism 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Lean toward: physicalism 6 / 47 (12.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 47 (4.3%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept: cognitivism 34 / 47 (72.3%)
Lean toward: cognitivism 8 / 47 (17.0%)
Accept: non-cognitivism 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Lean toward: non-cognitivism 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Lean toward: internalism 12 / 47 (25.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 9 / 47 (19.1%)
Accept: externalism 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Lean toward: externalism 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Accept: internalism 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept both 2 / 47 (4.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Skip 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 12 / 47 (25.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 10 / 47 (21.3%)
Accept: one box 9 / 47 (19.1%)
Lean toward: two boxes 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Accept: two boxes 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Lean toward: one box 4 / 47 (8.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 47 (2.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Lean toward: virtue ethics 9 / 47 (19.1%)
Lean toward: deontology 9 / 47 (19.1%)
Accept: deontology 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Lean toward: consequentialism 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Accept: virtue ethics 5 / 47 (10.6%)
Accept more than one 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Reject all 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Reject one, undecided between others 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Other 1 / 47 (2.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Lean toward: representationalism 9 / 47 (19.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 8 / 47 (17.0%)
Lean toward: qualia theory 8 / 47 (17.0%)
Lean toward: disjunctivism 5 / 47 (10.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 5 / 47 (10.6%)
Accept more than one 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept: sense-datum theory 2 / 47 (4.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Reject one or two, undecided between others 2 / 47 (4.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept: representationalism 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept: qualia theory 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Lean toward: psychological view 10 / 47 (21.3%)
Accept: further-fact view 9 / 47 (19.1%)
Lean toward: further-fact view 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Lean toward: biological view 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Accept: biological view 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 47 (6.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept more than one 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept: psychological view 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Reject all 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Lean toward: communitarianism 11 / 47 (23.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 9 / 47 (19.1%)
Lean toward: libertarianism 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Lean toward: egalitarianism 5 / 47 (10.6%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Reject one, undecided between others 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept: egalitarianism 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Reject all 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept more than one 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept: libertarianism 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Lean toward: Millian 13 / 47 (27.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 11 / 47 (23.4%)
Lean toward: Fregean 11 / 47 (23.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Accept: Fregean 2 / 47 (4.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Other 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept: scientific realism 22 / 47 (46.8%)
Lean toward: scientific realism 17 / 47 (36.2%)
Lean toward: scientific anti-realism 5 / 47 (10.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 47 (2.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept: scientific anti-realism 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Accept: death 14 / 47 (29.8%)
Lean toward: survival 9 / 47 (19.1%)
Lean toward: death 8 / 47 (17.0%)
Accept: survival 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 47 (6.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 47 (4.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Accept: A-theory 11 / 47 (23.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 10 / 47 (21.3%)
Lean toward: A-theory 8 / 47 (17.0%)
Accept: B-theory 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Lean toward: B-theory 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 47 (8.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 47 (2.1%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept: switch 20 / 47 (42.6%)
Lean toward: switch 13 / 47 (27.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Reject both 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Lean toward: don't switch 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept: don't switch 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 47 (4.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept: correspondence 19 / 47 (40.4%)
Lean toward: correspondence 12 / 47 (25.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Accept: deflationary 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Lean toward: epistemic 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept: epistemic 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Lean toward: deflationary 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Other 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Reject one, undecided between others 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Lean toward: metaphysically possible 13 / 47 (27.7%)
Accept: metaphysically possible 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Accept: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Lean toward: inconceivable 5 / 47 (10.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 4 / 47 (8.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept: inconceivable 1 / 47 (2.1%)

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