The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 42 / 47 (89.4%)
Accept or lean toward: no 4 / 47 (8.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept or lean toward: Platonism 22 / 47 (46.8%)
Accept or lean toward: nominalism 19 / 47 (40.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Reject both 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept or lean toward: objective 31 / 47 (66.0%)
Accept or lean toward: subjective 10 / 47 (21.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 37 / 47 (78.7%)
Accept or lean toward: no 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 47 (4.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 18 / 47 (38.3%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 17 / 47 (36.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Accept both 3 / 47 (6.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 47 (2.1%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept or lean toward: non-skeptical realism 40 / 47 (85.1%)
Accept or lean toward: idealism 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Accept or lean toward: skepticism 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Skip 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 27 / 47 (57.4%)
Accept or lean toward: compatibilism 12 / 47 (25.5%)
Accept or lean toward: no free will 5 / 47 (10.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 47 (2.1%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept or lean toward: theism 34 / 47 (72.3%)
Accept or lean toward: atheism 9 / 47 (19.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Reject both 2 / 47 (4.3%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Accept or lean toward: invariantism 19 / 47 (40.4%)
Accept or lean toward: contextualism 18 / 47 (38.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 47 (4.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Reject one, undecided between others 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Accept or lean toward: rationalism 22 / 47 (46.8%)
Accept or lean toward: empiricism 12 / 47 (25.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Accept an intermediate view 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Reject both 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Other 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept or lean toward: non-Humean 37 / 47 (78.7%)
Accept or lean toward: Humean 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 47 (4.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept or lean toward: classical 28 / 47 (59.6%)
Accept or lean toward: non-classical 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 47 (10.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Accept both 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: internalism 19 / 47 (40.4%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 16 / 47 (34.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 47 (10.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 47 (8.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: moral realism 41 / 47 (87.2%)
Accept or lean toward: moral anti-realism 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Other 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept or lean toward: non-naturalism 27 / 47 (57.4%)
Accept or lean toward: naturalism 9 / 47 (19.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept or lean toward: non-physicalism 30 / 47 (63.8%)
Accept or lean toward: physicalism 13 / 47 (27.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 47 (4.3%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept or lean toward: cognitivism 42 / 47 (89.4%)
Accept or lean toward: non-cognitivism 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: internalism 16 / 47 (34.0%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 13 / 47 (27.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 9 / 47 (19.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept both 2 / 47 (4.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Skip 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Accept or lean toward: one box 13 / 47 (27.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 12 / 47 (25.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 10 / 47 (21.3%)
Accept or lean toward: two boxes 10 / 47 (21.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 47 (2.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Accept or lean toward: deontology 15 / 47 (31.9%)
Accept or lean toward: virtue ethics 14 / 47 (29.8%)
Accept or lean toward: consequentialism 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Accept more than one 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Reject all 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Reject one, undecided between others 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Other 1 / 47 (2.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Accept or lean toward: representationalism 10 / 47 (21.3%)
Accept or lean toward: qualia theory 9 / 47 (19.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 8 / 47 (17.0%)
Accept or lean toward: disjunctivism 5 / 47 (10.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 5 / 47 (10.6%)
Reject one or two, undecided between others 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept more than one 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept or lean toward: sense-datum theory 2 / 47 (4.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 47 (2.1%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Accept or lean toward: further-fact view 16 / 47 (34.0%)
Accept or lean toward: psychological view 11 / 47 (23.4%)
Accept or lean toward: biological view 9 / 47 (19.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 47 (6.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Reject all 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept more than one 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Accept or lean toward: communitarianism 11 / 47 (23.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 9 / 47 (19.1%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 8 / 47 (17.0%)
Accept or lean toward: egalitarianism 7 / 47 (14.9%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Reject all 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Reject one, undecided between others 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Accept more than one 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Accept or lean toward: Fregean 13 / 47 (27.7%)
Accept or lean toward: Millian 13 / 47 (27.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 11 / 47 (23.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 47 (6.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Other 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: scientific realism 39 / 47 (83.0%)
Accept or lean toward: scientific anti-realism 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 47 (2.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Accept or lean toward: death 22 / 47 (46.8%)
Accept or lean toward: survival 15 / 47 (31.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 47 (6.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 47 (4.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Accept or lean toward: A-theory 19 / 47 (40.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 10 / 47 (21.3%)
Accept or lean toward: B-theory 10 / 47 (21.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 47 (8.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 47 (2.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 47 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept or lean toward: switch 33 / 47 (70.2%)
Accept or lean toward: don't switch 4 / 47 (8.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 47 (6.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Reject both 2 / 47 (4.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept or lean toward: correspondence 31 / 47 (66.0%)
Accept or lean toward: deflationary 5 / 47 (10.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Accept or lean toward: epistemic 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Other 2 / 47 (4.3%)
Reject one, undecided between others 1 / 47 (2.1%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Accept or lean toward: metaphysically possible 20 / 47 (42.6%)
Accept or lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 13 / 47 (27.7%)
Accept or lean toward: inconceivable 6 / 47 (12.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 4 / 47 (8.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 47 (4.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 47 (4.3%)

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