The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept: yes 22 / 35 (62.9%)
Lean toward: no 8 / 35 (22.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Lean toward: yes 2 / 35 (5.7%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept: Platonism 16 / 35 (45.7%)
Lean toward: nominalism 5 / 35 (14.3%)
Lean toward: Platonism 5 / 35 (14.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept: nominalism 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Reject both 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Accept both 1 / 35 (2.9%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept: objective 9 / 35 (25.7%)
Lean toward: subjective 7 / 35 (20.0%)
Lean toward: objective 7 / 35 (20.0%)
Accept: subjective 6 / 35 (17.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept: yes 14 / 35 (40.0%)
Lean toward: no 9 / 35 (25.7%)
Lean toward: yes 7 / 35 (20.0%)
Accept: no 3 / 35 (8.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 35 (5.7%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Lean toward: externalism 11 / 35 (31.4%)
Accept: externalism 8 / 35 (22.9%)
Lean toward: internalism 6 / 35 (17.1%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Accept both 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept: internalism 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Reject both 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Skip 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 35 (2.9%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept: non-skeptical realism 22 / 35 (62.9%)
Lean toward: non-skeptical realism 6 / 35 (17.1%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept: skepticism 1 / 35 (2.9%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Lean toward: skepticism 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Skip 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept: compatibilism 14 / 35 (40.0%)
Lean toward: compatibilism 8 / 35 (22.9%)
Accept: libertarianism 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Accept: no free will 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Lean toward: libertarianism 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Reject all 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Lean toward: no free will 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Skip 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Other 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 35 (2.9%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept: atheism 18 / 35 (51.4%)
Lean toward: atheism 8 / 35 (22.9%)
Accept: theism 7 / 35 (20.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 35 (2.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Lean toward: invariantism 9 / 35 (25.7%)
Lean toward: contextualism 8 / 35 (22.9%)
Accept: contextualism 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Skip 3 / 35 (8.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Reject one, undecided between others 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept: invariantism 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Lean toward: relativism 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Lean toward: rationalism 10 / 35 (28.6%)
Lean toward: empiricism 7 / 35 (20.0%)
Accept: empiricism 5 / 35 (14.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Accept both 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Accept: rationalism 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Skip 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Lean toward: Humean 10 / 35 (28.6%)
Lean toward: non-Humean 9 / 35 (25.7%)
Accept: non-Humean 8 / 35 (22.9%)
Accept: Humean 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 35 (2.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept: classical 11 / 35 (31.4%)
Lean toward: classical 7 / 35 (20.0%)
Accept: non-classical 5 / 35 (14.3%)
Lean toward: non-classical 3 / 35 (8.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept both 2 / 35 (5.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Other 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Lean toward: externalism 12 / 35 (34.3%)
Accept: externalism 8 / 35 (22.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Accept: internalism 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept both 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Lean toward: internalism 2 / 35 (5.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Skip 1 / 35 (2.9%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept: moral realism 13 / 35 (37.1%)
Lean toward: moral anti-realism 8 / 35 (22.9%)
Accept: moral anti-realism 6 / 35 (17.1%)
Lean toward: moral realism 5 / 35 (14.3%)
Skip 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 35 (2.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept: naturalism 11 / 35 (31.4%)
Lean toward: naturalism 10 / 35 (28.6%)
Accept: non-naturalism 6 / 35 (17.1%)
Lean toward: non-naturalism 5 / 35 (14.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 35 (5.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Lean toward: non-physicalism 9 / 35 (25.7%)
Lean toward: physicalism 8 / 35 (22.9%)
Accept: physicalism 7 / 35 (20.0%)
Accept: non-physicalism 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 35 (5.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 35 (2.9%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Lean toward: cognitivism 12 / 35 (34.3%)
Accept: cognitivism 10 / 35 (28.6%)
Accept: non-cognitivism 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Lean toward: non-cognitivism 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 35 (5.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 13 / 35 (37.1%)
Lean toward: externalism 5 / 35 (14.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 5 / 35 (14.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Skip 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Accept: internalism 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Lean toward: internalism 2 / 35 (5.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Accept: externalism 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Accept: two boxes 11 / 35 (31.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 6 / 35 (17.1%)
Accept: one box 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Lean toward: two boxes 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Lean toward: one box 4 / 35 (11.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Reject both 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Skip 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Lean toward: deontology 12 / 35 (34.3%)
Lean toward: virtue ethics 6 / 35 (17.1%)
Lean toward: consequentialism 5 / 35 (14.3%)
Accept: consequentialism 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Accept more than one 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Reject one, undecided between others 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Skip 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 35 (2.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Lean toward: representationalism 10 / 35 (28.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 9 / 35 (25.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Reject all 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Skip 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Lean toward: disjunctivism 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Reject one or two, undecided between others 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Accept: representationalism 1 / 35 (2.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Lean toward: qualia theory 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Agnostic/undecided 6 / 35 (17.1%)
Lean toward: psychological view 6 / 35 (17.1%)
Lean toward: further-fact view 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Accept more than one 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept: psychological view 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Lean toward: biological view 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Skip 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept: biological view 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Reject all 1 / 35 (2.9%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 35 (2.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 7 / 35 (20.0%)
Lean toward: communitarianism 5 / 35 (14.3%)
Lean toward: egalitarianism 5 / 35 (14.3%)
Reject all 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Accept: libertarianism 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 35 (5.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept: egalitarianism 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Other 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Lean toward: libertarianism 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Lean toward: Fregean 8 / 35 (22.9%)
Lean toward: Millian 7 / 35 (20.0%)
Accept: Millian 5 / 35 (14.3%)
Accept: Fregean 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Reject both 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Skip 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 35 (2.9%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 35 (2.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept: scientific realism 18 / 35 (51.4%)
Lean toward: scientific realism 8 / 35 (22.9%)
Lean toward: scientific anti-realism 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Accept: scientific anti-realism 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Reject both 1 / 35 (2.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Agnostic/undecided 10 / 35 (28.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 5 / 35 (14.3%)
Lean toward: death 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Lean toward: survival 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Accept: survival 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Skip 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept: death 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 11 / 35 (31.4%)
Accept: B-theory 9 / 35 (25.7%)
Lean toward: A-theory 5 / 35 (14.3%)
Lean toward: B-theory 5 / 35 (14.3%)
Skip 2 / 35 (5.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept: switch 13 / 35 (37.1%)
Lean toward: switch 10 / 35 (28.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 35 (5.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept: don't switch 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Lean toward: don't switch 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Skip 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Other 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept: correspondence 14 / 35 (40.0%)
Lean toward: correspondence 5 / 35 (14.3%)
Lean toward: deflationary 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Accept: deflationary 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Reject all 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Lean toward: epistemic 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept more than one 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 35 (2.9%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 8 / 35 (22.9%)
Accept: metaphysically possible 6 / 35 (17.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 35 (14.3%)
Lean toward: metaphysically possible 4 / 35 (11.4%)
Lean toward: inconceivable 4 / 35 (11.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 35 (8.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 35 (5.7%)
Accept: inconceivable 1 / 35 (2.9%)
Accept: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 1 / 35 (2.9%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 35 (2.9%)

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