Results for 'Lukáš Švaňa'

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  1. Jus Post Bellum and Global Responsibility for Peace.Lukáš Švaňa - 2020 - Pro-Fil 21 (2):18.
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  2.  3
    Critical Review of Theory and Practice in Ethics of Social Consequences.Lukáš Švaňa - 2018 - Ethics and Bioethics (in Central Europe) 8 (1-2):139-147.
    The article deals with ethics of social consequences as a modern ethical theory and proposes some critical remarks based on various elaborations of the theory presented in the newly published edited volume Ethics of social consequences: Philosophical, applied and professional challenges. It confronts and challenges several of the presented concepts and ideas and tries to find a solution for the theory to become even more elaborated but still remain within the boundaries of its ontological framework.
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  3.  1
    Human Enhancement – Ethical Aspects.Lukáš Švaňa - 2017 - Human Affairs 27 (2).
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  4.  1
    The Principle of Non-Combatan Immunity- Interpretations, Challenges, Suggestons.Lukáš Švaňa - 2015 - Human Affairs 25 (4):421-429.
    The article deals with one of the most problematic principles of just war theory. It looks at the usage of the terms civilian, innocent and non-combatant and suggests how they can be interpreted. The principle of non-combatant immunity remains a real challenge for just war theory in the 21st century as it is designed to protect a specific group of people in times of war. The article considers the problematic issue of targeting non-combatants in war times as well as suggesting (...)
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  5. Online Intellectual Virtues and the Extended Mind.Lukas Schwengerer - forthcoming - Social Epistemology:1-11.
    The internet has become an ubiquitous epistemic source. However, it comes with several drawbacks. For instance, the world wide web seems to foster filter bubbles and echo chambers and includes search results that promote bias and spread misinformation. Richard Heersmink suggests online intellectual virtues to combat these epistemically detrimental effects . These are general epistemic virtues applied to the online environment based on our background knowledge of this online environment. I argue that these online intellectual virtues also demand a particular (...)
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  6. Intergenerational Justice.Lukas Meyer - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Is it fair to leave the next generation a public debt? Is it defensible to impose legal rules on them through constitutional constraints? From combating climate change to ensuring proper funding for future pensions, concerns about ethics between generations are everywhere. In this volume sixteen philosophers explore intergenerational justice. Part One examines the ways in which various theories of justice look at the matter. These include libertarian, Rawlsian, sufficientarian, contractarian, communitarian, Marxian and reciprocity-based approaches. In Part Two, the authors look (...)
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  7. Enough for the Future.Lukas H. Meyer & Dominic Roser - 2009 - In Axel Gosseries & Lukas H. Meyer (eds.), Intergenerational Justice. Oxford University Press.
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  8. Climate Justice and Historical Emissions.Lukas H. Meyer & Dominic Roser - 2010 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 13 (1):229-253.
    Climate change can be interpreted as a unique case of historical injustice involving issues of both intergenerational and global justice. We split the issue into two separate questions. First, how should emission rights be distributed? Second, who should come up for the costs of coping with climate change? We regard the first question as being an issue of pure distributive justice and argue on prioritarian grounds that the developing world should receive higher per capita emission rights than the developed world. (...)
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  9.  96
    Fictionalism, the Safety Result and Counterpossibles.Lukas Skiba - 2019 - Analysis 79 (4):647-658.
    Fictionalists maintain that possible worlds, numbers or composite objects exist only according to theories which are useful but false. Hale, Divers and Woodward have provided arguments which threaten to show that fictionalists must be prepared to regard the theories in question as contingently, rather than necessarily, false. If warranted, this conclusion would significantly limit the appeal of the fictionalist strategy rendering it unavailable to anyone antecedently convinced that mathematics and metaphysics concern non-contingent matters. I try to show that their arguments (...)
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  10.  32
    Are the Irreversibly Comatose Still Here? The Destruction of Brains and the Persistence of Persons.Lukas J. Meier - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (2):99-103.
    When an individual is comatose while parts of her brain remain functional, the question arises as to whether any mental characteristics are still associated with this brain, that is, whether the person still exists. Settling this uncertainty requires that one becomes clear about two issues: the type of functional loss that is associated with the respective profile of brain damage and the persistence conditions of persons. Medical case studies can answer the former question, but they are not concerned with the (...)
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  11.  95
    What Matters in the Mirror of Time: Why Lucretius’ Symmetry Argument Fails.Lukas J. Meier - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 97 (4):651-660.
    abstractBy appealing to the similarity between pre-vital and post-mortem nonexistence, Lucretius famously tried to show that our anxiety about death was irrational. His so-called Symmetry Argument has been attacked in various ways, but all of these strategies are themselves problematic. In this paper, I propose a new approach to undermining the argument: when Parfit’s distinction between identity and what matters is applied, not diachronically but across possible worlds, the alleged symmetry can be broken. Although the pre-vital and posthumous time spans (...)
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  12.  18
    The Unfair Burdens Argument Against Carbon Pricing.Lukas Tank - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (4):612-627.
  13.  34
    Bringing Dinosaurs Back to Life: Exhibiting Prehistory at the American Museum of Natural History.Lukas Rieppel - 2012 - Isis 103 (3):460-490.
    This essay examines the exhibition of dinosaurs at the American Museum of Natural History during the first two decades of the twentieth century. Dinosaurs provide an especially illuminating lens through which to view the history of museum display practices for two reasons: they made for remarkably spectacular exhibits; and they rested on contested theories about the anatomy, life history, and behavior of long-extinct animals to which curators had no direct observational access. The American Museum sought to capitalize on the popularity (...)
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  14.  37
    The Demise of Brain Death.Lukas J. Meier - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:000-000.
    Fifty years have passed since brain death was first proposed as a criterion of death. Its advocates believe that with the destruction of the brain, integrated functioning ceases irreversibly, somatic unity dissolves, and the organism turns into a corpse. In this article, I put forward two objections against this assertion. First, I draw parallels between brain death and other pathological conditions and argue that whenever one regards the absence or the artificial replacement of a certain function in these pathological conditions (...)
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  15. Frege's Unthinkable Thoughts.Lukas Skiba - 2017 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 117 (3):333–343.
    There are two common reactions to Frege’s claim that some senses and thoughts are private. Privatists accept both private senses and thoughts, while intersubjectivists don’t accept either. Both sides agree on a pair of tacit assumptions: first, that private senses automatically give rise to private thoughts; and second, that private senses and thoughts are the most problematic entities to which Frege’s remarks on privacy give rise. The aim of this paper is to show that both assumptions are mistaken. This will (...)
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  16.  65
    Metasemantics, Intentions and Circularity.Lukas Lewerentz & Benjamin Marschall - 2018 - Synthese 195 (4):1667-1679.
    According to intentionalism, a demonstrative d refers to an object o only if the speaker intends d to refer to o. Intentionalism is a popular view in metasemantics, but Gauker has recently argued that it is circular. We defend intentionalism against this objection, by showing that Gauker’s argument rests on a misconstrual of the aim of metasemantics. We then introduce two related, but distinct circularity objections: the worry that intentionalism is uninformative, and the problem of intentional bootstrapping, according to which (...)
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  17.  99
    Self-Knowledge in a Predictive Processing Framework.Lukas Schwengerer - 2019 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 10 (3):563-585.
    In this paper I propose an account of self-knowledge based on a framework of predictive processing. Predictive processing understands the brain as a prediction-action machine that tries to minimize error in its predictions about the world. For this view to evolve into a complete account of human cognition we ought to provide an idea how it can account for self-knowledge – knowledge of one’s own mental states. I provide an attempt for such an account starting from remarks on introspection made (...)
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  18.  95
    Fictionalism and the Incompleteness Problem.Lukas Skiba - 2017 - Synthese 194 (4):1349-1362.
    Modal fictionalists face a problem that arises due to their possible-world story being incomplete in the sense that certain relevant claims are neither true nor false according to it. It has recently been suggested that this incompleteness problem generalises to other brands of fictionalism, such as fictionalism about composite or mathematical objects. In this paper, I argue that these fictionalist positions are particularly threatened by a generalised incompleteness problem since they cannot emulate the modal fictionalists’ most attractive response. I then (...)
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  19.  2
    What Makes Things Banal.Lukáš Makky - 2020 - Espes. The Slovak Journal of Aesthetics 9 (2):94-104.
    In this paper, I investigate the origins of banality and the reasons why some phenomena appear banal to us. I discuss the issue by analysing three interrelated areas of aesthetic investigation: artworks, everyday objects, and banal things. By identifying the source of banality, my goal is to understand what makes banal things different from other kinds of things. I consider the following questions: 1) when, why, and how does an object become banal?; 2) what happens when something becomes banal?; 3) (...)
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  20.  32
    How Legitimate Expectations Matter in Climate Justice.Lukas H. Meyer & Pranay Sanklecha - 2014 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (4):369-393.
    Expectations play an important role in how people plan their lives and pursue their projects. People living in highly industrialized countries share a way of life that comes with high levels of emissions. Their expectations to be able to continue their projects imply their holding expectations to similarly high future levels of personal emissions. We argue that the frustration or undermining of these expectations would cause them significant harm. Further, the article investigates under what conditions people can be thought to (...)
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  21.  8
    Unified Transparency Account of Self-Knowledge.Lukas Schwengerer - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Edinburgh
    In this thesis I propose an account of knowledge of one’s own mental states. My goal is set on a unified transparency account of self-knowledge. It is unified, because the proposal will account for the generation of beliefs about mental states of all types, regardless of whether they are propositional, non-propositional, experiential or non-experiential. My account will thereby be applicable to knowledge of any mental state, from beliefs and desires to fears, hopes, and sensations such as pain. Moreover, it will (...)
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  22.  22
    Suárez's Metaphysics in its Historical and Systematic Context.Lukás Novák (ed.) - 2014 - De Gruyter.
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  23. Perception and Objective Being: Peter Auriol on Perceptual Acts and Their Objects.Lukáš Lička - 2016 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 90 (1):49-76.
    This article discusses the theory of perception of Peter Auriol. Arguing for the active nature of the senses in perception, Auriol applies the Scotistic doctrine of objective being to the theory of perception. Nevertheless, he still accepts some parts of the theory of species. The paper introduces Auriol's view on the mechanism of perception and his account of illusions. I argue for a direct realist reading of Auriol's theory of perception and propose that his position becomes clearer if we use (...)
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  24.  24
    Climate Justice and Historical Emissions.Lukas H. Meyer & Pranay Sanklecha - 2017
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  25.  23
    Marx’ Theorie der Entfremdung.Lukas Kübler - 2013 - In Daniel Loick & Rahel Jaeggi (eds.), Karl Marx - Perspektiven der Gesellschaftskritik. De Gruyter. pp. 47-66.
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  26.  21
    An Instrumental Account of Deception and Reactions to Deceit in Bargaining.Lukas Koning, Eric van Dijk, Ilja van Beest & Wolfgang Steinel - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (1):57-73.
    In the current paper we present an instrumental approach to deception. This approach incorporates the notion that bargainers (a) will use deception as a means to reach their goals in bargaining but (b) will refrain from using deception when they have alternative means to reach their goals. We demonstrate that different goals can lead to differences in the use of deception (Experiment 1). Furthermore, we demonstrate that reactions to deceit can also be understood from an instrumental perspective (Experiment 2).
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  27.  48
    Is Brain Death Death?Lukas J. Meier - 2016 - Dissertation, University of Oxford
    For hundreds of years, death had been defined by cardiopulmonary criteria. When heart and respiratory functions were permanently absent, doctors declared their patients dead. Three developments in intensive care medicine called into question these widely-accepted criteria, however: the advent of positive pressure ventilation and the promotion of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, both in the early 1950s, and the first successful heart transplantation in 1967. What had previously been diagnosed as the permanent absence of vital functions, suddenly became reversible. Not only could doctors (...)
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  28.  35
    The Timing of Benefits of Climate Policies. Reconsidering the Opportunity Cost Argument.Lukas H. Meyer & Dominic Roser - 2012 - Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 16 (1):179-214.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft und Ethik Jahrgang: 16 Heft: 1 Seiten: 179-214.
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  29.  58
    Rights, Culture, and the Law: Themes From the Legal and Political Philosophy of Joseph Raz.Lukas H. Meyer, Stanley L. Paulson & Thomas Winfried Menko Pogge (eds.) - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    The volume brings together a collection of original papers on some of the main tenets of Joseph Raz's legal and political philosophy: Legal positivism and the nature of law, practical reason, authority, the value of equality, incommensurability, harm, group rights, and multiculturalism.
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  30.  64
    Illusory Own Body Perceptions: Case Reports and Relevance for Bodily Self-Consciousness☆.Lukas Heydrich, Sebastian Dieguez, Thomas Grunwald, Margitta Seeck & Olaf Blanke - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (3):702-710.
    Neurological disorders of body representation have for a long time suggested the importance of multisensory processing of bodily signals for self-consciousness. One such group of disorders – illusory own body perceptions affecting the entire body – has been proposed to be especially relevant in this respect, based on neurological data as well as philosophical considerations. This has recently been tested experimentally in healthy subjects showing that integration of multisensory bodily signals from the entire body with respect to the three aspects: (...)
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  31.  21
    Historical Injustice and the Right of Return.Lukas H. Meyer - 2004 - Theoretical Inquiries in Law 5 (2):305-316.
    There are two main sources of theoretical doubt regarding the validity of claims for reparation: the questions arising from the non-identity problem and those arising from the supersession thesis. Neither of them significantly undermines the Palestinian refugees’ claims to reparations and a right of return.
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  32.  12
    Duncan F. Gregory, William Walton and the Development of British Algebra: ‘Algebraical Geometry’, ‘Geometrical Algebra’, Abstraction.Lukas M. Verburgt - 2016 - Annals of Science 73 (1):40-67.
    ABSTRACTThis paper provides a detailed account of the period of the complex history of British algebra and geometry between the publication of George Peacock's Treatise on Algebra in 1830 and William Rowan Hamilton's paper on quaternions of 1843. During these years, Duncan Farquharson Gregory and William Walton published several contributions on ‘algebraical geometry’ and ‘geometrical algebra’ in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal. These contributions enabled them not only to generalize Peacock's symbolical algebra on the basis of geometrical considerations, but also to (...)
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  33.  46
    John Venn's Hypothetical Infinite Frequentism and Logic.Lukas M. Verburgt - 2014 - History and Philosophy of Logic 35 (3):248-271.
    The goal of this paper is to provide a detailed reading of John Venn's Logic of Chance as a work of logic or, more specifically, as a specific portion of the general system of so-called ‘material’ logic developed in his Principles of Empirical or Inductive Logic and to discuss it against the background of his Boolean-inspired views on the connection between logic and mathematics. It is by means of this situating of Venn 1866 [The Logic of Chance. An Essay on (...)
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  34. A Question of Justice: Assessing Nurse Migration From a Philosophical Perspective.Lukas Kaelin - 2011 - Developing World Bioethics 11 (1):30-39.
    The intensified nurse migration leads to severe problems for the health care systems in many developing countries. Using the Philippines as an example, this paper will address the question of global nurse migration from a philosophical perspective. John Rawls' liberal and Michael Walzer's communitarian theory of justice will be examined in view of the ethical problem of nurse migration. In line with Rawls' A Theory of Justice, nurse migration undermines the ability of the people in developing countries to make use (...)
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  35.  15
    Role of Persistent Slip Bands in Fatigue.P. Lukáš & L. Kunz ‡ - 2004 - Philosophical Magazine 84 (3-5):317-330.
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  36.  19
    Desire Satisfactionism and the Problem of Irrelevant Desires.Mark Lukas - 2010 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 4 (2):1-25.
    Desire-satisfaction theories about welfare come in two main varieties: unrestricted and restricted. Both varieties hold that a person's welfare is determined entirely by the satisfactions and frustrations of his desires. But while the restricted theories count only some of a person’s desires as relevant to his well-being, the unrestricted theories count all of his desires as relevant. Because unrestricted theories count all desires as relevant they are vulnerable to a wide variety of counterexamples involving desires that seem obviously irrelevant. Derek (...)
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  37. Intergenerational Justice.Axel Gosseries & Lukas H. Meyer - 2009 - Oxford, Royaume-Uni: Oxford University Press.
    Is it fair to leave the next generation a public debt? Is it defensible to impose legal rules on them through constitutional constraints? From combating climate change to ensuring proper funding for future pensions, concerns about ethics between generations are everywhere. In this volume sixteen philosophers explore intergenerational justice. Part One examines the ways in which various theories of justice look at the matter. These include libertarian, Rawlsian, sufficientarian, contractarian, communitarian, Marxian and reciprocity-based approaches. In Part Two, the authors look (...)
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  38.  10
    Agreement on Intrapartum Cardiotocogram Recordings Between Expert Obstetricians.Lukáš Hruban, Jiří Spilka, Václav Chudáček, Petr Janků, Michal Huptych, Miroslav Burša, Adam Hudec, Marian Kacerovský, Michal Koucký, Martin Procházka, Vladimír Korečko, Jan Seget'A., Ondřej Šimetka, Alena Měchurová & Lenka Lhotská - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (4):694-702.
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  39. The Demarcation Problem of Laws of Nature.Lukáš Bielik - 2010 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 17 (4):522-549.
    The paper focuses on the problem of identification of laws of nature and their demarcation from other kinds of regularities. The problem is approached from the viewpoint of several metaphysical, epistemological, logical and methodological criteria. Firstly, several dominant approaches to the problem are introduced. Secondly, the logical and semantic explicatory framework – Transparent Intensional Logic – is presented for the sake of clarification of logical forms of sentences that are supposed to express the laws of nature. Finally, a complementary strategy (...)
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  40.  38
    How to Assess Theories of Meaning? Some Notes on the Methodology of Semantics1.Lukáš Bielik - 2012 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 19 (3):325-337.
    The paper presents a two-level approach to an assessment of meaning theories. To begin with, language is distinguished from lan guage-model and, analogously, meaning is discerned from a model of meaning. The first level of a theory assessment is presented as dealing with the relation of a model of meaning to intra-theoretical aims and assumptions of a theory with specific language-model. The second level of assessment concerns ontological, epistemological, logical and other assumptions underlying the respective language-model. Finally, several questions are (...)
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  41. The Possibilities and Limits of the Demarcation of Science.Lukas Bielik - 2012 - Filozofia 67 (7):530-544.
  42.  16
    Desire Theories of the Good.Mark Lukas - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  43.  55
    Nietzsche as a Reader of Wilhelm Roux, or the Physiology of History.Lukas Soderstrom - 2009 - Symposium 13 (2):55-67.
    This paper explores one of the main sources of Nietzsche’s knowledge of physiology and considers its relevance for the philosophical study of history. Beginning in 1881, Nietzsche read Der Kampf der Theile im Organismus by Wilhelm Roux, which exposed him to a dysteleological account of organic development emphasising the excitative, assimilative and auto-regulative processes of the body. These processes mediate the effects of natural selection. His reading contributed to a physiological understanding of history that borrowed Roux’s description of physiological processes. (...)
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  44.  22
    Introduction - Intergenerational Justice and Its Challenges.Axel Gosseries & Lukas Meyer - 2009 - In Axel Gosseries & Lukas Meyer (eds.), Intergenerational Justice. Oxford University Press.
    This Introduction tells the story of intergerational justice and how it has influenced philosophers and political thinkers throughout history. The Introduction goes on to discuss the aims of the book, which is to offer a sustained discussion of intergenerational justice as seen by practical philosophers. The first part of the book focuses on the way in which various schools of thought in moral and political philosophy approach the domain of intergenerational justice, while the second part focuses on more specific aspects, (...)
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  45.  17
    Obligations persistantes et réparation symbolique.Lukas H. Meyer - 2003 - Revue Philosophique De Louvain 101 (1):105-122.
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  46.  18
    Havraní paradox, logika a metódy testovania.Lukáš Bielik - 2011 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 18 (2):213-225.
    The paper presents the logical milieu of the Paradox of ravens, identified by Hempel in his Studies in the Logic of Confirmation. It deals with Hempel’s interpretations of Nicod’s criterion of confirmation as well as with its inadmissible consequences. I, subsequently, suggest an epistemological and semantic specification of empirical properties, i.e., of their identity; then I formulate a criterion of the test of properties expressed by empirical hypothesis. Finally, I propose a procedural conception of confirmation by means of the testing (...)
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  47. Evolved Computing Devices and the Implementation Problem.Lukáš Sekanina - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (3):311-329.
    The evolutionary circuit design is an approach allowing engineers to realize computational devices. The evolved computational devices represent a distinctive class of devices that exhibits a specific combination of properties, not visible and studied in the scope of all computational devices up till now. Devices that belong to this class show the required behavior; however, in general, we do not understand how and why they perform the required computation. The reason is that the evolution can utilize, in addition to the (...)
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  48.  7
    Die Wiederkehr des Homunkulus. Thomas Metzingers materialistische Dekonstruktion des Selbstbewusstseins.Lukas Ohly - 2011 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 53 (2):155-170.
    ZUSAMMENFASSUNGMaterialisten in der Bewusstseinsphilosophie sprechen von der Subjektivität als von einem »Homunkulus«, von einem Konstrukt des Gehirns. Wäre Subjektivität tatsächlich nur eine Illusion, so hätte dies auch religionsphilosophische Konsequenzen. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt aber anhand von Thomas Metzingers Konzeption, dass weder die Kritik am Subjektivitätsphänomen klar formuliert ist noch Metzingers Repräsentationstheorie die Homunkulus-These rechtfertigt. Vielmehr lässt sich sogar mit Metzingers eigener Theorie ein Modell der Auferweckung des Subjekts formulieren.SUMMARYMaterialists in the philosophy of mind usually call subjectivity a »homunculus«, that is (...)
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  49.  7
    O definíciách a definovaní.Lukáš Bielik, František Gahér & Marián Zouhar - 2010 - Filozofia 65 (8).
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  50.  34
    Reparations and Symbolic Restitution.Lukas H. Meyer - 2006 - Journal of Social Philosophy 37 (3):406–422.
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