Children’s intentions should be respected. Parents are the key persons involved in decision-making related to their children. In Japan, the appropriate ages and standards for a child’s consent and assent, approval, and decision-making are not clearly defined, which makes the process of obtaining consent and assent for clinical research complex. The purpose of this paper is as follows: to understand the attitudes and motives of parents concerning children’s participation in medical research and the factors influencing their decision-making. We also sought (...) to clarify who has the right to be involved in decisions regarding children’s participation in research. A semi-structured Internet survey on parents’ opinions and attitudes and preferences concerning medical research involvement was conducted. Children were divided into three age groups, with three illness severity categories. Possible correlations between the number of children, children’s ages, parents’ educational levels, and parents’ attitudes were examined. Among the participants, 42.3% recognized the term “informed consent.” The proportion of participants who understood “informed consent” increased with educational level. Four out of five participants did not know, or had not heard of, the term “informed assent.” Furthermore, the percentage of those who understood the term “informed assent” increased with academic level. Participants generally believed in prioritizing parents’ opinions over children’s, and that parents and children would ideally reach a joint decision. Although many parents favored collaborative decision-making, they also wanted their own will reflected in the decision and felt they should receive important information before their children do. Decision-making was affected by the condition’s severity and prognosis. This indicates that most Japanese parents believe that their children have the right to know their disease name and treatment; nonetheless, they should be protected. Parents’ values and judgments regarding medical intervention involving their children varied. Children’s ability to consent to treatment and research believed to be in their best interests should be assessed appropriately. They should be permitted to provide consent or assent, and their views should be respected. Involving children in decision-making fosters more open communication and transparency between medical professionals, parents, and children. (shrink)
We clarify the significance of quasiprobability in quantum mechanics that is relevant in describing physical quantities associated with a transition process. Our basic quantity is Aharonov’s weak value, from which the QP can be defined up to a certain ambiguity parameterized by a complex number. Unlike the conventional probability, the QP allows us to treat two noncommuting observables consistently, and this is utilized to embed the QP in Bohmian mechanics such that its equivalence to quantum mechanics becomes more transparent. We (...) also show that, with the help of the QP, Bohmian mechanics can be recognized as an ontological model with a certain type of contextuality. (shrink)
A complete list of Finsler, Scott and Boffa sets whose transitive closures contain 1, 2 and 3 elements is given. An algorithm for deciding the identity of hereditarily finite Scott sets is presented. Anti-well-founded sets, i. e., non-well-founded sets whose all maximal ∈-paths are circular, are studied. For example they form transitive inner models of ZFC minus foundation and empty set, and they include uncountably many hereditarily finite awf sets. A complete list of Finsler and Boffa awf sets with 2 (...) and 3 elements in their transitive closure is given. Next the existence of infinite descending ∈-sequences in Aczel universes is shown. Finally a theorem of Ballard and Hrbáček concerning nonstandard Boffa universes of sets is considerably extended. (shrink)
This article describes how livestock farmers respond to moral enquiries about their means of livelihood, by referring to ethnographic data collected in the Scottish Borders. The focus is on three controversial aspects of livestock farming: welfare issues of intensive farming methods, guilt about depriving nonhuman animals of their lives for food, and the moral dilemma of breeding and rearing animals merely to be killed. There was a feeling of uneasiness among farmers about sending the animals they looked after to the (...) slaughterhouse. This, however, was rationalized with the recognition that livestock were bred and reared to be eaten in the first place. By examining farmers’ utterances, it is suggested that livestock farmers are conditioned to consider their vocation as a part of the social system, over which they have little control. (shrink)
This study examines multimodal membership categorization and storytelling in Japanese at an Okinawan culture center in Hawai‘i. Based on audiovisual recordings of a guided tour, it examines ways the guide and visitors use explicit and implicit means in constructing the membership category “immigrants of Okinawan descent in Hawai‘i” and terms of this category, such as “women of the first generation” and “children of the second generation.” The analysis focuses on visitors’ contributions to membership categorization and storytelling through posing questions, relating (...) personal experience, and displaying stance in touching and handling objects. The findings show how practices of membership categorization and storytelling are co-constructed, and how participants draw upon multimodal resources including talk, the body, and objects in practices of membership categorization in situated interaction. (shrink)
This paper centers on Takashi Yagisawa’s book Worlds and Individuals, Possible and Otherwise (Oxford: 2010), which provides a novel and systematic analysis of modality and time. I consider the overall structure of Yagisawa’s treatment of modality and time, and discuss in detail the following three topics: (i) Possible worlds as modal indices, (ii) Trans-world identity, (iii) The claim that existence, unlike reality, is relative. My main conclusion is that Yagisawa's view of modality is driven by a strong primitivism, leading (...) to the endorsement of possibility, actuality, and presentness, but also possible worlds and times, as irreducible. The resulting view is saddled with the typical problems of primitivism on the one hand, and modal realism on the other. I criticize the view that existence is relative. (shrink)
(1996). Tokuzo Fukuda and Lujo Brentano: The impact of the German historical school on the making of the commerce university in Japan. The European Legacy: Vol. 1, Fourth International Conference of the International Society for the study of European Ideas, pp. 791-795.
Peace, compared to war, receives scant attention. Comprised of nine essays drawn from a 2009 conference, the essays collected in Visions of Peace: Asia and the West, edited by Takashi Shogimen and Vicki A. Spencer, reach wide and far to push against that neglect. The essays focus on different conceptions of and plans for political peace. Even more impressively, they generally avoid well-trodden paths like Kant’s Toward Perpetual Peace and instead draw upon Asian traditions and more obscure Western traditions. (...) The first essay, for instance, discusses the Greek goddess of peace and, contra various modern scholars, how peace was in fact an ideal for the Greeks and thought to be achievable. The final essay is on Jeremy... (shrink)