Jose Raimundo MaiaNeto - The Limits of Doubt: The Moral and Political Implications of Skepticism - Journal of the History of Philosophy 40:4 Journal of the History of Philosophy 40.4 551-552 Book Review The Limits of Doubt: The Moral and Political Implications of Skepticism Petr Lom. The Limits of Doubt: The Moral and Political Implications of Skepticism. Albany: The State University of New York Press, 2001. Pp. xiv + 138. Cloth, $49.50. Paper, $16.95. Since the appearance in (...) 1960 of Richard Popkin's The History of Skepticism from Erasmus to Descartes skepticism has been acknowledged as a powerful intellectual force in modern philosophy. Lom's The Limits of Doubt corroborates this view by showing the relevance of this ancient tradition in the political and moral thought of a number of major modern... (shrink)
La probabilité académicienne, doctrine formulée par Carnéade, a joué un rôle capital dans l'épistémologie moderne. 1) Le pyrrhonisme dans L'Apologie de Raymond Sebond de Montaigne est surtout une réaction au probabilisme néo-académicien que se sont approprtés des apologistes huguenots ; 2) Charron et La Mothe le Vayer ne tiennent pas le probable pour la vérité parce que la probabilité est la limite anthropologique de la connaissance humaine, mais ils reconnaissent la difficulté de maintenir la suspension du jugement face au probable (...) ; 3) ce débat autour du probabilisme académicien est central dans le projet philosophique de Descartes. Academic probability, a doctrine elaborated by Carneades, played a central role in modern epistemology. 1) The pyrrhonism exhibited in Montaigne's Apology for Raymond Sebond is mainly a reaction to the neo-academic probabilism appropriated by Calvinist apologists; 2) Charron and La Mothe Le Vayer argue against taking the probable as if it were true because human cognition can attain only probable presentations but they acknowledge the difficulty of withholding assent; 3) This debate about academic probability is crucial to Descartes's philosophical project. (shrink)
3~,4 JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY 36:2 APRIL 1998 another, in trying to force Locke and Gassendi together, Sarasohn mistakenly claims Locke shares Gassendi's views that moral knowledge is merely probable, and that there is a highest good. historians of philosophy and by the main philosophers of the period. Among the histori- ans, Bonacina detects a progressive drive...
Untitled Article Journal of the History of Philosophy 44.3 476-478 Antony McKenna and Gianni Paganini, editors. Pierre Bayle dans la République des Lettres: Philosophie, Religion, Critique. Paris: Honoré Champion, 2004. Pp. 589. Cloth, €90.00. Pierre Bayle is an early modern philosopher who has received relatively little attention given the philosophical relevance and historical influence of his work. Fortunately this situation has been rapidly changing in recent years. This volume, edited by Antony McKenna and Gianni Paganini, is a good sample of (...) the volume, quality, scope, and polemical nature of current Bayle scholarship. The book contains twenty-five articles by the main Bayle scholars from France, Italy, England, the Netherlands, Canada, and the United States. It also contains an introduction by the editors, who give an overview of current scholarship, summarizing its main trends and achievements, and a useful name index. The articles are... (shrink)
This article examines the conception of scepticism during the early modern period. It describes how the writings of Pierre Charron and Michel de Montaigne inspired authors to search for a balance between extreme scepticism and what was often described as the dogmatism of the Schools. It discusses the revival of scepticism in the Renaissance and early seventeenth-century philosophy and shows the impact of Cartesian doubt in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century scepticism.
This paper has two sections. In the first one I examine Pascal's appropriation in La 131 of the Cartesian argument of the deceiver God. Pascal develops a skeptical reading of the argument in order to use it as a premise for his apologetic argument of true religion. In the second section I examine Huet's appropriation of this same Cartesian argument in his Philosophical Treatise on the Weakness of Human Understanding. Based on this work of Huet's and on his margin notes (...) on Pascal's Thoughts, I show that his skeptical reading of the argument is derived from Pascal's, although Huet's and Pascal's goals are distinct: while the latter intends to provide an argument for the Fall of Man, the former intends to show the weakness of reason unassisted by supernatural faith. (shrink)
This second volume in the Journal of the History of Philosophy book series is devoted to the resurgence of skepticism in the Renaissance and after. It contains eight original essays by historians of early modern philosophy from Europe and North and South America, with concluding remarks by Richard H. Popkin, who reviews fifty years of scholarship on the history of early modern skepticism and evaluates its present stage. The essays uncover new material relevant to the history of skepticism in the (...) period and propose new interpretations of the nature, role, and influence of skepticism from Montaigne to Berkeley. The contributors discuss such important figures as Michel de Montaigne, Thomas Hobbes, Pierre Bayle, Henry More, René Descartes, Pierre-Daniel Huet, Pierre Gassendi, and George Berkeley. By indicating a number of new problems brought about by the early modern philosophers' engagement with and reaction to skepticism, the authors of the important essays in this volume make a major contribution to our understanding of ancient and modern skepticism. (shrink)
Richard Popkin’s seminal study on the revival of skepticism from the late Renaissance onwards gave a prominent role to Pyrrhonism, rediscovered through the translation of Sextus Empiricus’s writings into Latin and their usage in Michel de Montaigne’s Essais, among other works. MaiaNeto’s new book aims to reassess this interpretation, claiming that Montaigne’s disciple, Pierre Charron, in his La sagesse, displayed a distinctively Academic skeptical wisdom that became central in the philosophical debate of the period. Such wisdom, according (...) to MaiaNeto, is conceived as refraining from “opinion” as a way of avoiding error, and thereby arriving at “intellectual integrity,” that is, human perfection insofar... (shrink)
O presente trabalho visa refletir sobre a experiência vivenciada durante os Estágios Supervisionados em Filosofia III e IV, as dificuldades encontradas, as descobertas no contato direto com a sala de aula e os aprendizados proporcionados ao graduando, de fundamental importancia para a constituição de sua identidade profissional.
The aim of this study is to present and investigate the spirituality of communion in one of the most important movements of the Church in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, namely the Focolare Movement. It is a spirituality that seeks to reestablish communion and unity between the human being and God and between the various segments that make up the Church and society. Finally, it is stated that in the present a great number of conflicts that go from (...) the terrorism is seen, such as ethnic and religious conflicts, until arriving at wars and economic disputes. Within this worrying context, the spirituality of communion, of the Focolare Movement, is a concrete response that is possible to the construction of unity and that the human being has superficial differences only, since in the deepest being, a communion called humanity is formed. (shrink)
O artigo se contrapõe a estudos recentes sobre o ceticismo seis-centista ao sustentar que ao invés de romper com a épochè este ceticismo de fato a fortalece. O artigo sugere duas razões para esta interpretação equivocada do ceticismo do século dezessete: uma in-fluência das visões cartesiana e pascaliana do ceticismo nestes estudos e a suposição que o ceticismo mais relevante no período é mais pirrônico do que acadêmico.Contrary to what has been proposed in recent literature, the ar-ticle argues that early (...) modern skepticism, rather than breaking with the central notion in ancient skepticism of épochè in fact fortifies this notion. The article suggests two reasons for the mistaken view of early modern skepticism: the influence of Descartes’ and Pascal’s views of skepticism and the supposition that Pyrrhonian skepti-cism is more relevant in the period than Academic skepticism. (shrink)
This article presents the first output of a comparative research between two TV series: The Incredible Hulk – 1977 (before digital technology boom) and Heroes – 2006 (during cyberculture age). The research aims to investigate if differences engendered by digital technologies in media systems requires new cognitive abilities to watch the contemporary TV series.
O estudo dos fatos e episódios científicos é importante no sentido de possibilitar a compreensão do desenvolvimento das Ciências em contextos tanto do ensino, em diversos níveis, quanto da pesquisa. No entanto, a leitura dessa construção histórica precisa considerar visões de Ciência que superem as perspectivas lineares e neutras sobre a construção do processo de produção científica. Sob tal perspectiva, propõe-se nesse artigo uma releitura do movimento de elaboração do modelo da dupla hélice do DNA a partir do aporte epistemológico (...) de Thomas Kuhn. Entendemos ser este um contexto importante que permeia a formação científica, tanto na educação básica quanto no ensino superior, no campo das Ciências Biológicas e que os conceitos desenvolvidos a partir da elaboração do modelo da dupla hélice são basilares para a compreensão de conhecimentos relacionados à genética, citologia, evolução, dentre outros. No processo de revisitar esse recorte histórico, identificamos os embates teóricos entre pesquisadores de diversos campos, a competição e o consenso como elementos que mobilizam a busca de respostas na concretização de um novo paradigma. Dessa forma, a dinamicidade da Ciência se mostra presente rejeitando a ideia do dado pronto e valorizando o processo no qual o conhecimento se constrói. Propomos que este seja um exercício de reflexão considerando-se que revisitar a história da Ciência a partir de diferentes perspectivas epistemológicas pode propiciar aos sujeitos novos olhares em um devir que descortine conceitos construídos de maneira dinâmica por homens e mulheres que, entre ires e vires, dão significado aos fenômenos que nos rodeiam. Palavras-chave: DNA, Thomas Kuhn, ciência normal, revolução científica. (shrink)