Tra le figure più importanti del dibattito filosofico italiano del Novecento, Antonio Banfi ha svolto nell'Italia del secondo dopoguerra anche un ruolo politico di rilievo come senatore del PCI. La sua interpretazione del marxismo ha presentato una forte accentuazione umanistica. Tra i suoi scolari filosofi e storici della filosofia come Giulio Preti, Enzo Paci, Remo Cantoni, Paolo Rossi. Il saggio prende in esame la prima fase della riflessione filosofica di Banfi, nella quale ha una importanza decisiva la conoscenza diretta del (...) dibattito tedesco tra le due guerre mondiali, in primo luogo della fenomenologia di Husserl e della ontologia di N. Hartmann. I Principi di una teoria della ragione - libro apparso alla fine degli anni '20 - e poi una serie di incisivi saggi degli anni '30 documentano una conoscenza approfondita e critica di un dibattito di cui mostrerà di nutrirsi in misura decisiva l'interpretazione di Banfi non solo di Hegel, ma anche di Marx. Among the leading philosophers in Italy during the 20th century, Antonio Banfi played an important role not only in the cultural debate during the 1930s and the 1940s, but also in the political scene of post-war Italy, advocating - as a representative of the Italian Communist Party in Italian Senate - a liberal, humanist view of Marxism. Among his students were influential philosophers and historians of philosophy such as Giulio Preti, Enzo Paci, Remo Cantoni and Paolo Rossi. This paper investigates the first phase of Banfi's philosophical development, an analysis of which must include a scrutiny of Banfi's deep indebtedness to German debate between the two World Wars, primarily Husserl's phenomenology and Hartmann's critical ontology. Banfi's phenomenological apprenticeship at the school of Husserl, and the sensitive and critical attitude of his presentation of the German debate in his Principi di una teoria della ragione, are of substantial importance in nourishing his later interpretation of Hegel and Marx. (shrink)
Trata-se de uma investigação histórica da neurologia alemã das primeiras décadas do século XIX, representada por Burdach e Carus, e da rela- ção que manteve com pressupostos românticos de abordagem biológica. Carus acentua a necessidade de pesquisar o cérebro pelo viés anatômico e o considera um organismo total, atestando a influência do filósofo Schelling. Burdach, por seu lado, investiga a estrutura cerebral em conexão com a sensibilidade e o processo evolutivo.
The intricate and difficult relationship between Romanticism and Idealism played a pivotal role in the development of psychic investigation during the last century, particularly as far as all the questions of psychopathology are concerned. In this respect, the interplay between scientific research and philosophical reflection seems of particular relevance. After a sketch of some aspects of the neurological work of the leading German romantic physiologist K.F. Burdach, the paper develops some general considerations about the "psychic anthropology" of C.G. Carus and (...) ends with an appraisal of the attention devoted by Hegel to the problem of psychology as a science. (shrink)
Como se deduce por el subtítulo, esta reflexión no se ocupa de la relación entre la utopía, mística y revolución desde un punto de vista general. Entre los tres conceptos – cada uno de los cuales ha sido tratado por una literatura infinita- los nexos siguen estando muy vinculados y en absoluto casuales. Dichos vínculos han sido estudiados muy ampliamente, remontándose a la historia de las ideas filosóficas, teológicas y políticas. Sin embargo, me voy a enfocar en nuestra época y (...) en un momento muy peculiar y importante de la historia de Europa. Voy a examinar algunos aspectos de la relación entre la utopía, la mística y la revolución en la Alemania de los primeras dos décadas del siglo XX. Para esto es imprescindibile un prólogo, breve, pero tampoco tanto.Como se deduce por el subtítulo, esta reflexión no se ocupa de la relación entre la utopía, mística y revolución desde un punto de vista general. Entre los tres conceptos – cada uno de los cuales ha sido tratado por una literatura infinita- los nexos siguen estando muy vinculados y en absoluto casuales. Dichos vínculos han sido estudiados muy ampliamente, remontándose a la historia de las ideas filosóficas, teológicas y políticas. Sin embargo, me voy a enfocar en nuestra época y en un momento muy peculiar y importante de la historia de Europa. Voy a examinar algunos aspectos de la relación entre la utopía, la mística y la revolución en la Alemania de los primeras dos décadas del siglo XX. Para esto es imprescindibile un prólogo, breve, pero tampoco tanto. (shrink)
This clear and well-documented monograph is dedicated to the development of the interweaving of science and philosophy in Germany from the years following the French Revolution to Hegel’s death. The role played by chemistry has long been recognized as central and many studies have delved into it; and the same holds for the primacy of the “biocentric” standpoint, which was originally sponsored by Goethe. However, Poggi’s book has a much wider scope. It gives space to almost the whole scope (...) of science in those decades in Germany. It begins by dealing with the philosophical foundations of scientific investigation, as were provided, among others, by Kant in his Metaphysical Foundations of the Science of Nature. Goethe’s introduction of the notions of “form” and “polarity” is the subject of the second chapter. Chapters 3 and 4 are dedicated to animal physiology, chapter 5 to physics and cosmology, and chapter 6 to Schelling’s arguments for proving the existence of the infinite in the finite by means of the notion of the world’s soul. With chapter 7 the investigation shifts to the individual sciences starting with mathematics, chapter 8 is dedicated to medicine, chapter 9 to chemistry, and chapter 10 to biology. Finally, the eleventh and last chapter considers neurophysiology and psychology. Only one discipline is missing, which is geology, and missing too is the discussion of two major issues such as alchemy and the connection of romantic science to literature. Poggi had to draw a line to avoid his research going out of proportion. (shrink)
In this highly readable and compact introduction to Durkheim's thought, Gianfranco Poggi examines all of Durkheim's central works and assesses their significance today, a century after his death. Poggi's analyses includes a study of what Durkheim meant by 'society' and an evaluation of Durkheim's contributions to both political sociology and the sociology of law. Poggi's clear and concise reappraisal of one of the most important modern thinkers will be essential reading for students of sociology and an invaluable (...) guide for anyone studying the ways modern societies function. (shrink)
This essay investigates the applicability of Grice’s theory of conversational implicatures to legal interpretation, in order to highlight some of its characteristics. After introducing the notions of language and discourse, and briefly explaining the most salient aspects of Grice’s theory, I will analyse the interpretation of two types of legal acts; authoritative legal acts and acts of private autonomy. Regarding the first class, exemplified by statutes, I will argue against the applicability of Gricean theory due to the conflictual behaviour of (...) the addressees and, above all, to the insurmountable indeterminacy of the contextual elements. As far as acts of private autonomy are concerned, exemplified by contracts, I will argue that the cooperative principle is applicable, at least in those legal systems that include the principle of bona fides among the interpretative regulations of such acts. (shrink)
In this article, the theory of argumentation set out by the Dutch scholars Frans van Eemeren and Rob Grootendorst is brought to bear in subjecting the general form of the argument from coherence to a critical analysis. First, a distinction is brought out between two basic kinds of argument from coherence: in one use this argumentative structure occurs as a sequence of two arguments establishing that a standpoint constitutes a particular instantiation or a inherent quality of the system it will (...) become part of (symptomatic argument); in the other use we have a main symptomatic argument supported by a subordinate argument appealing to instrumental considerations (pragmatic argument). It is then claimed that arguments from coherence are complex types of argumentation, structured at various argumentative levels, where the premises must be taken together to yield an adequate defence of the conclusion (coordinative argumentation). Finally, an evaluative assessment is made as to whether arguments from coherence can serve acceptably as tools for settling disputes: it will be maintained that we can generally welcome these argumentative structures as sound and fully acceptable provided we are aware of the interpretive discretion their use entails. (shrink)
This paper presents a model of persuasion in terms of goals and beliefs. Among the various ways to influence people, that is, to raise or lower the likelihood for them to pursue some goal, ranging from threat to suggestion, persuasion is viewed as a case of communicative non-coercive goal hooking. A persuader leads a persuadee to pursue some goal out of a free choice, i.e., by convincing him/her that the proposed goal is useful for some other goal that the persuadee (...) already has. It is argued that the Aristotelian persuasive strategies of logos, ethos and pathos (rational argumentation, the speaker¿s credibility and reliability, and the appeal to emotion) are always present in every persuasive discourse, and that they are exploited to raise the value of the goal proposed and to strengthen the believability of the link between it and the persuadee¿s previous goals. The paper proposes an analysis of discourse in terms of a hierarchy of goals as a tool to single out these strategies within the discourse structure. By applying this model to different kinds of persuasive messages (political discourse, advertising, dialogues in the health domain), it shows how, in the fragments presented, this kind of analysis allows to clarify the relationships between the persuader¿s and the persuadee¿s goals and to elucidate how much and how directly the persuader appeals to logos, ethos and pathos in his/her discourse. (shrink)
In this paper we present a method to reduce the decision problem of several infinite-valued propositional logics to their finite-valued counterparts. We apply our method to Łukasiewicz, Gödel and Product logics and to some of their combinations. As a byproduct we define sequent calculi for all these infinite-valued logics and we give an alternative proof that their tautology problems are in co-NP.
: In the context of nineteenth-century philosophical reflection, Francesco Bonatelli set himself the following goal: to defend the pillars of Spiritualism and ontology through an careful examination of psychic contents and consciousness, while closely contesting both the psychology and the psychophysiology of Positivism and Spiritualism itself, La coscienza e il meccanesimo interiore and Percezione e pensiero Bonatelli puts forward his “critical experience-grounded philosophy” and proposes an original solution to the problem of the nature of the subject, consciousness and its unity, (...) using an analysis of “sentiments” to reveal the inseparable tangle of the cognitive and ontological dimensions of the self. Keywords : Positivism; Consciousness; Self-consciousness; Actus essendi ; Substance; Gnoseology Francesco Bonatelli: un approccio critico alla coscienza e al soggetto umano tra spiritualismo e positivismo Riassunto : Nel contesto della riflessione filosofica dell’Ottocento, Francesco Bonatelli scelse come proprio ufficio la difesa dei capisaldi dello spiritualismo e dell’ontologia, mediante un attento esame dei contenuti psichici e della coscienza stessa, in un serrato confronto con la psicologia e psicofisiologia del positivismo e con lo spiritualismo stesso. In opere come Pensiero e conoscenza, La coscienza e il meccanesimo interiore e Percezione e pensiero, Bonatelli espose la propria “filosofia critica a base sperimentale” e propose una soluzione originale al problema della natura del soggetto, della coscienza e della sua unità, mostrando come nell’analisi dei sentimenti si riveli l’inscindibile intreccio delle due dimensioni, cognitiva e ontologica, dell’io. Parole chiave : Positivismo; Coscienza; Autocoscienza; Actus essendi ; Sostanza; Gnoseologia. (shrink)
Futurism is famous for promoting “the art of noise” in its manifestos, serate (theatrical evenings), poetry, music, and visual art. Noise appears in Futurism as an avatar of the machine age, as a means of assaulting the senses of complacent audiences, and as a sign of the conflict inherent in matter. Beginning with the “Founding and Manifesto of Futurism” of 1909, where the noises of the street galvanize Marinetti and his friends to break out of a prison-like domestic space, to (...) early paintings representing the vibrations of music/noise by Balla, Severini, Carr , and Russolo, to Russolo's 1913 manifesto “The Art of Noises” and his invention of a series of “noise tuners,” discordant sound played a vital role in Futurist art and politics. Often it was associated with moments of rebirth or awakening to new forms of consciousness, as in Russolo's noise score “Awakening of the City,” but it could also signify the destruction of life, as in Marinetti's Zang Tumb Tuuum . It served both to shatter older forms of perception based on notions of order and harmony, and to instantiate the violence the Futurists believed was inherent in matter as well as in social life. It allowed repressed energies to be released, but also sought to re-channel these energies towards the integration of man and machine, flesh and metal, war and the universe of matter. (shrink)