Results for 'Markos Valaris'

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  1. Reasoning and Regress.Markos Valaris - 2014 - Mind 123 (489):101-127.
    Regress arguments have convinced many that reasoning cannot require beliefs about what follows from what. In this paper I argue that this is a mistake. Regress arguments rest on dubious (although deeply entrenched) assumptions about the nature of reasoning — most prominently, the assumption that believing p by reasoning is simply a matter of having a belief in p with the right causal ancestry. I propose an alternative account, according to which beliefs about what follows from what play a constitutive (...)
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  2. What Reasoning Might Be.Markos Valaris - 2017 - Synthese 194 (6).
    The philosophical literature on reasoning is dominated by the assumption that reasoning is essentially a matter of following rules. This paper challenges this view, by arguing that it misrepresents the nature of reasoning as a personal level activity. Reasoning must reflect the reasoner’s take on her evidence. The rule-following model seems ill-suited to accommodate this fact. Accordingly, this paper suggests replacing the rule-following model with a different, semantic approach to reasoning.
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  3.  44
    The Instrumental Structure of Actions.Markos Valaris - 2015 - Philosophical Quarterly 65 (258):64-83.
    According to current orthodoxy in the philosophy of action, intentional actions consist in intrinsically mindless bodily movements that stand in causal relations to appropriate mental states. This paper challenges this approach to intentional action, by arguing that there are not enough appropriate mental states around to ‘animate’ all of the bodily movements we intuitively count as intentional actions. In the alternative picture I suggest, the bodily movements that constitute our intentional actions are themselves to be thought of as cognitive events, (...)
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  4.  15
    Reasoning and Deducing.Markos Valaris - forthcoming - Mind:fzy025.
    What exactly is reasoning? While debate on this question is ongoing, most philosophers seem to agree on at least the following: reasoning is a mental process operating on contents, which consists in adopting or revising some of your attitudes in light of others. In this paper, I argue that this characterisation is mistaken: there is no single mental phenomenon that satisfies both of these conditions. Instead, I characterise two distinct mental phenomena, which I call ‘deducing’, on the one hand, and (...)
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  5. Transparency as Inference: Reply to Alex Byrne.Markos Valaris - 2011 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 111 (2pt2):319-324.
    In his essay ‘Transparency, Belief, Intention’, Alex Byrne (2011) argues that transparency—our ability to form beliefs about some of our intentional mental states by considering their subject matter, rather than on the basis of special psychological evidence—involves inferring ‘from world to mind’. In this reply I argue that this cannot be correct. I articulate an intuitive necessary condition for a pattern of belief to count as a rule of inference, and I show that the pattern involved in transparency does not (...)
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  6.  98
    Self-Knowledge and the Phenomenological Transparency of Belief.Markos Valaris - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14.
    I develop an account of our capacity to know what we consciously believe, which is based on an account of the phenomenology of conscious belief. While other recent authors have suggested that phenomenally conscious states play a role in the epistemology of self-ascriptions of belief, they have failed to give a satisfying account of how exactly the phenomenology is supposed to help with the epistemology — i.e., an account of the way “what it is like” for the subject of a (...)
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  7.  71
    Attention and Synthesis in Kant's Conception of Experience.Merritt Melissa & Markos Valaris - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (268):571-592.
    In an intriguing but neglected passage in the Transcendental Deduction, Kant appears to link the synthetic activity of the understanding in experience with the phenomenon of attention (B156-7n). In this paper, we take up this hint, and draw upon Kant's remarks about attention in the Anthropology to shed light on the vexed question of what, exactly, the understanding's role in experience is for Kant. We argue that reading Kant's claims about synthesis in this light allows us to combine two aspects (...)
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  8.  10
    Thinking by Doing: Rylean Regress and the Metaphysics of Action.Markos Valaris - forthcoming - Synthese.
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  9.  21
    What The Tortoise Has To Say About Diachronic Rationality.Markos Valaris - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (S1):293-307.
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  10.  16
    Induction, Normality and Reasoning with Arbitrary Objects.Markos Valaris - 2017 - Ratio 30 (2):137-148.
    This paper concerns the apparent fact — discussed by Sinan Dogramaci and Brian Weatherson — that inductive reasoning often interacts in disastrous ways with patterns of reasoning that seem perfectly fine in the deductive case. In contrast to Dogramaci's and Weatherson's own suggestions, I argue that these cases show that we cannot reason inductively about arbitrary objects. Moreover, as I argue, this prohibition is neatly explained by a certain hypothesis about the rational basis of inductive reasoning — namely, the hypothesis (...)
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  11. Instrumental Rationality.Markos Valaris - 2012 - European Journal of Philosophy 20 (4):443-462.
    Does rationality require us to take the means to our ends? Intuitively, it seems clear that it does. And yet it has proven difficult to explain why this should be so: after all, if one is pursuing an end that one has decisive reason not to pursue, the balance of reasons will presumably speak against one's taking the means necessary to bring that end about. In this paper I propose a novel account of the instrumental requirement which addresses this problem. (...)
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  12.  45
    Time Travel for Endurantists.Markos Valaris & Michaelis Michael - 2015 - American Philosophical Quarterly 52 (4):357-364.
    Famously, David Lewis argued that we can avoid the apparent paradoxes of time travel by introducing a notion of personal time, which by and large follows the causal flow of the time traveler's life history. This paper argues that a related approach can be adapted for use by three-dimensionalists in response to Ted Sider's claim that three-dimensionalism is inconsistent with time travel. In contrast to Lewis (and others who follow him on this point), however, this paper argues that the order (...)
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  13. Inner Sense, Self-Affection, and Temporal Consciousness in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.Markos Valaris - 2008 - Philosophers' Imprint 8:1-18.
    In §24 of the Transcendental Deduction, Kant remarks that his account of the capacity of the understanding to spontaneously determine sensibility explains how empirical self-knowledge is possible through inner-sense. Although most commentators consider Kant's conception of empirical self-knowledge through inner sense to be either a failure or at least drastically under-developed, I argue that (just as Kant claims) his account of the capacity of the understanding to determine sensibility - the "productive imagination" - can ground an attractive account of self-knowledge. (...)
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  14. Dogmatism and Moorean Reasoning.Markos Valaris - manuscript
    According to dogmatism, one may know a proposition by inferring it from a set of evidence even if one has no independent grounds for rejecting a skeptical hypothesis compatible with one’s evidence but incompatible with one’s conclusion. Despite its intuitive attractions, many philosophers have argued that dogmatism goes wrong because they have thought that it licenses Moorean reasoning — i.e., reasoning in which one uses the conclusion of an inference as a premise in an argument against a skeptical hypothesis that (...)
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  15.  48
    Spontaneity and Cognitive Agency.Markos Valaris - 2013 - Kant Yearbook 5 (1).
    Cognitive agency - the idea that our judgments and beliefs are manifestations of agency on our part - is a deeply entrenched aspect of our self-conception as persons. And yet it has proven hard to give a satisfying account of what such agency might consist in. In this paper I argue that getting clear about Kant’s notion of spontaneity might help us make progress in that debate. In particular, I argue that the very same assumption - namely, that agency must (...)
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  16.  76
    Two-Dimensionalism and the Epistemology of Recognition.Markos Valaris - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 142 (3):427 - 445.
    There is reason to expect a reasonable account of a priori knowledge to be linked with an account of the nature of conceptual thought. Recent “two-dimensionalist” accounts of conceptual thought propose an extremely direct connection between the two: on such views, being in a position to know a priori a large number of non-trivial propositions is a necessary condition of concept-possession. In this paper I criticize this view, by arguing that it requires an implausibly internalist and intellectualist conception of capacities (...)
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  17.  18
    Supposition and Blindness.Markos Valaris - 2016 - Mind 125 (499):895-901.
    In ‘Reasoning and Regress’ I argued that inferring a conclusion from a set of propositions may simply consist in taking it that the conclusion follows from these propositions—thereby defusing familiar regress arguments. Sinan Dogramaci challenges the generality of this view, on the grounds that sometimes you may draw conclusions from no premisses that you believe. I respond by clarifying a distinction between the premisses of an argument from the reasons your conclusion is based upon. While suppositional reasoning may involve no (...)
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  18.  19
    Induction, Normality and Reasoning with Arbitrary Objects.Markos Valaris - 2016 - Ratio 29 (4).
    This paper concerns the apparent fact — discussed by Sinan Dogramaci and Brian Weatherson — that inductive reasoning often interacts in disastrous ways with patterns of reasoning that seem perfectly fine in the deductive case. In contrast to Dogramaci's and Weatherson's own suggestions, I argue that these cases show that we cannot reason inductively about arbitrary objects. Moreover, as I argue, this prohibition is neatly explained by a certain hypothesis about the rational basis of inductive reasoning — namely, the hypothesis (...)
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  19.  16
    Attention, by Wayne Wu.Markos Valaris - 2015 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 93 (3):630-631.
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  20. Knowledge in Contemporary Philosophy.Markos Valaris & Stephen Hetherington (eds.) - forthcoming - Bloomsbury Academic.
     
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  21.  26
    Motor Intentions and Non‐Observational Knowledge of Action: A Standard Story.Olle Blomberg & Chiara Brozzo - 2017 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 6 (3):137-146.
    According to the standard story given by reductive versions of the Causal Theory of Action, an action is an intrinsically mindless bodily movement that is appropriately caused by an intention. Those who embrace this story typically take this intention to have a coarse-grained content, specifying the action only down to the level of the agent's habits and skills. Markos Valaris argues that, because of this, the standard story cannot make sense of the deep reach of our non-observational knowledge (...)
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  22.  28
    Reasoning Without Blinders: A Reply to Valaris.Sinan Dogramaci - 2016 - Mind 125 (499):889-893.
    I object to Markos Valaris’s thesis that reasoning requires a belief that your conclusion follows from your premisses. My counter-examples highlight the important but neglected role of suppositional reasoning in the basis of so much of what we know.
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  23.  18
    Readers of the Book of Life: Contextualizing Developmental Evolutionary Biology.Anton Markoš - 2002 - Oxford University Press.
    This is a wide ranging and deeply learned examination of evolutionary developmental biology, and the foundations of life from the perspective of information theory. Hermeneutics was a method developed in the humanities to achieve understanding, in a given context, of texts, history, and artwork. In Readers of the Book of Life, the author shows that living beings are also hermeneutical interpreters of genetics texts saved in DNA; an interpretation based on the past experience of the cell (cell lineage, species), confronted (...)
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  24.  10
    The Birth and Life of Species–Cultures.Anton Markoš - 2016 - Biosemiotics 9 (1):73-84.
    Evolution and life phenomena can be understood as results of history, i.e., as outcomes of cohabitation and collective memory of populations of autonomous entities across many generations and vast extent of time. Hence, evolution of distinct lineages of life can be considered as isomorphic with that of cultures. I argue here that cultures and culture-like systems – human culture, natural languages, and life forms – always draw from history, memory, experience, internal dynamics, etc., transforming themselves creatively into new patterns, never (...)
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  25.  15
    Language Metaphors of Life.Anton Markoš & Dan Faltýnek - 2011 - Biosemiotics 4 (2):171-200.
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  26.  20
    The Meaning(s) of Information, Code … and Meaning.Anton Markoš & Fatima Cvrčková - 2013 - Biosemiotics 6 (1):61-75.
    Meaning is a central concept of (bio)semiotics. At the same time, it is also a word of everyday language. Here, on the example of the world information, we discuss the “reduction-inflation model” of evolution of a common word into a scientific concept, to return subsequently into everyday circulation with new connotations. Such may be, in the near future, also the fate of the word meaning if, flexed through objectified semantics, will become considered an objective concept usable in semiotics. We argue (...)
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  27.  14
    Recorded Versus Organic Memory: Interaction of Two Worlds as Demonstrated by the Chromatin Dynamics.Anton Markoš & Jana Švorcová - 2009 - Biosemiotics 2 (2):131-149.
    The “histone code” conjecture of gene regulation is our point of departure for analyzing the interplay between the (quasi)digital script in nucleic acids and proteins on the one hand and the body on the other, between the recorded and organic memory. We argue that the cell’s ability to encode its states into strings of “characters” dramatically enhances the capacity of encoding its experience (organic memory). Finally, we present our concept of interaction between the natural (bodily) world, and the transcendental realm (...)
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  28.  4
    Biosphere as Semiosphere: Variations on Lotman.Anton Markoš - 2014 - Sign Systems Studies 42 (4):487.
    The analogy between semiosphere and biosphere, coined by J. Lotman, is a courageous attempt to interconnect two seemingly incompatible worlds. In congruence with his view, I would like to convince the reader that the only possible general definition of life is “a system born, endowed with semiosis, with history”. Such a view requires considering biosphere and semiosphere as coextensive, which requires merging the cultural, scientific, historical, and linguistic approaches into a coherent whole.
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  29.  1
    Levels or Domains of Life?Anton Markoš & Pranab Das - 2016 - Biosemiotics 9 (3):319-330.
    In the case of living beings – the very concept of “level” of organization becomes obscure: it suggests a value-based assessment, assigning notions like “lower” and “higher” with rather vague criteria for constructing the ladder of perfection, complexity, importance, etc. We prefer therefore the term “domain”, entities ranking equal. Domains may represent natural entities as well as purely human constructs developed in order to gain understanding of some facets of living things; living, evolved beings as well as those abstract constructs, (...)
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  30.  1
    Plant Studies May Lead Us to Rethink the Concept of Behavior.Fatima Cvrčková, Viktor Žárský & Anton Markoš - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  31.  9
    Mutual Understanding and Misunderstanding in Biological Systems Mediated by Self-Representational Meaning of Organisms.Karel Kleisner & Anton Markoš - 2009 - Sign Systems Studies 37 (1/2):299-309.
    Modern biology gives many casuistic descriptions of mutual informational interconnections between organisms. Semiotic and hermeneutic processes in biosphere require a set of “sentient” community of players who optimize their living strategies to be able to stay in game. Perceptible surfaces of the animals, semantic organs, represent a special communicative interface that serves as an organ of self-representation of organic inwardness. This means that theinnermost dimensions and potentialities of an organism may enter the senses of other living being when effectively expressed (...)
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  32.  8
    Back to the Science of Life.Anton Markoš & Fatima Cvrčková - 2002 - Sign Systems Studies 30 (1):129-146.
    We give a survey of epistemological and ontological approaches that have left traces in the 20th-century biology. A common motive of most of them is the effort to incorporate biology into the realm of physical sciences. However, such attempts failed, and must fail in the future, unless the criterion for what science is becomes biologically oriented. This means broadening the realm of classical natural sciences, incorporating at least part of the thesaurus of the “humanities”. We suggest three mutually complementary candidates (...)
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  33.  10
    In the Quest for Novelty.Anton Markoš - 2004 - Sign Systems Studies 32 (1-2):309-326.
    The emergence of novelty in the realm of the living remains, despite the long tradition of evolutionary biology, unwelcome, calling for explanation by old, established knowledge. The prevailing neodarwinian evolutionary paradigm approaches living beings as passive outcomes of external (and extraneous, hence “blind”) formative forces. Many teachings opposing Darwinism also take the existence of eternal, immutable and external laws as a necessary prerequisite. Ironically enough, authors who oppose Darwinian theory, and admit that living beings possess a “self”, often accentuate internal, (...)
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  34.  20
    Поиск новшества.Anton Markoš - 2004 - Sign Systems Studies 32 (1-2):326-326.
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  35.  22
    Uudsuseotsing.Anton Markoš - 2004 - Sign Systems Studies 32 (1-2):327-327.
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  36.  17
    A Text on Biosemiotic Themes.Sergey V. Chebanov & Anton Markoš - 2009 - Sign Systems Studies 37 (1/2):332-343.
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  37.  11
    Взаимное (не)понимание в биологических системах на основе саморепрезентации организмов. Резюме.Karel Kleisner & Anton Markoš - 2009 - Sign Systems Studies 37 (1/2):309-309.
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  38.  12
    Do Biosemiotics, But Don't Forget Semiosis.Anton Markoš - 2009 - Biosemiotics 2 (1):117-119.
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  39.  15
    An Epigenetic Machine.Anton Markoš, Eduard Gajdoš, László Hajnal & Fatima Cvrčková - 2003 - Sign Systems Studies 31 (2):605-616.
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  40.  6
    Vastastikune mõistmine ja vääritimõistmine bioloogilistes susteemides organismide enese-esituslike tähenduste vahendusel.Karel Kleisner & Anton Markoš - 2009 - Sign Systems Studies 37 (1/2):310-310.
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  41.  5
    Hermeneutics by the Living.Anton Markoš - 2011 - Biosemiotics 4 (2):119-125.
  42.  4
    Tagasi eluteaduse juurde. Kokkuvõte.Anton Markoš & Fatima Cvrčková - 2002 - Sign Systems Studies 30 (1):147-147.
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  43. Mental Action and the Conscious Mind.Michael Brent - forthcoming - Routledge.
    Introduction, by Michael Brent -/- -- Part 1: The Nature of Mental Action -- -/- (1) Skepticism about Self-Understanding, by Matthew Boyle. -/- (2) Agent Causation and Inference, by David Hunter. -/- (3) The Most General Mental Act, by Yair Levy. -/- (4) Are Our Practical Decisions Mental Actions?, by Alfred R. Mele. -/- (5) Practical Rationality and the Problem of Agency, by Joshua Shepherd. -/- (6) Reasoning and the Metaphysics of the Active Mind, by Markos Valaris. -/- (...)
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  44. An Epigenetic Machine: Review of The Organic Codes: An Introduction to Semantic Biology by Marcello Barbieri. [REVIEW]Fatima Cvrčková, Eduard Gajdoš, László Hajnal & Anton Markoš - 2003 - Sign Systems Studies 2:605-616.
     
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  45. Emanuel Rádl, Vědec a Filosof: Sborník Z Mezinárodní Konference Konané U Příležitosti 130. Výročí Narození a 60. Výročí Úmrtí Emanuela Rádla (Praha 9.-12. Února 2003). [REVIEW]Anton Markoš & Tomáš Hermann (eds.) - 2004 - Výzkumné Centrum Pro Dějiny Vědy.
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  46. Emanuel Rádl, Vědec a Filosof: Sborník Z Mezinárodní Konference Konané U Příležitosti 130.Anton Markoš & Tomáš Hermann (eds.) - 2004 - Výzkumné Centrum Pro Dějiny Vědy.
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  47. Wave Propagation: From Electrons to Photonic Crystals and Left-Handed Materials.Peter Markos & Costas M. Soukoulis - 2008 - Princeton University Press.
     
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  48. Great Minds of the Western Intellectual Tradition.Darren Staloff, Louis Markos, Jeremy duQuesnay Adams, Phillip Cary, Dennis Dalton, Alan Charles Kors, Jeremy Shearmur, Robert C. Solomon, Robert Kane, Kathleen Marie Higgins, Mark W. Risjord & Douglas Kellner (eds.) - 2000 - Teaching Co..
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  49.  7
    Markos Eugenikos als Kopist. Zur Tätigkeit Eines Gelehrtenkreises an den Konstantinopolitaner Skriptorien im ersten Drittel des 15. Jahrhunderts.B. L. Fonkic & F. B. Poljakov - 1992 - Byzantinische Zeitschrift 84 (1-2).
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  50.  6
    La Carrière du Pancratiaste Markos Aurèlios Dèmostratos Damas.Jean-Yves Strasser - 2003 - Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique 127 (1):251-299.
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