I would like to know who of my contemporaries should be more competent in Kantian philosophy than me. In this paper the attempt is made to show how Schopenhauer's critique of Kant leads from initial disagreements to a fundamental modification, even a new formation, of the Kantian concepts of understanding, reason, imagination, perception, idea and thing-in-itself. The starting point and the core of his critique is the demand for the appreciation of intuitive knowledge which is apart from and independent of (...) reason. The intuitive knowledge goes back to images and its highest form is aesthetic contemplation. Without a participation of concepts it is sufficient to explain objective reality. Particularly on the basis of Schopenhauer's critical examination of Kant's schematism it can be shown that his alternative conception of an image-based objectivity of experience is to be taken seriously, even if the way he presents it sometimes gives the impression of a mere misunderstanding of Kant's theory of cognition. (shrink)
resumo No artigo que se segue, iremos relacionar o tema „intuição“ e „pensamento“ ao problema, virulento no idealismo alemão, da sistemática filosófica. Depois que a concepção kantiana de sistema assente na “Arquitetônica da razão” foi criticada como formalista e que, ao mesmo tempo, se propagou no século XVIII a crítica aos sistemas racionalistas, exercida antes pelo empirismo, irrompeu no final desse século uma crise na filosofia, expressa talvez de modo mais marcante em um “fragmento” de Friedrich Schlegel: "É igualmente mortal (...) ao espírito ter um sistema e não ter nenhum". Fichte e Schopenhauer tratam da questão do sistema reportando-a à relação entre intuição e pensamento. palavras-chave Schopenhauer; Fichte; pensamento; intuição. (shrink)
In diesem Band sind Beitrage aus kulturell und disziplinar unterschiedlichen Blickwinkeln auf das Thema 'Schopenhauer und die Philosophien Asiens' zusammengefasst: Sie gehen auf Vortrage zuruck, die auf zwei internationalen Tagungen der ...
Traditionally, the manufacturer/operator of a machine is held (morally and legally) responsible for the consequences of its operation. Autonomous, learning machines, based on neural networks, genetic algorithms and agent architectures, create a new situation, where the manufacturer/operator of the machine is in principle not capable of predicting the future machine behaviour any more, and thus cannot be held morally responsible or liable for it. The society must decide between not using this kind of machine any more (which is not a (...) realistic option), or facing a responsibility gap, which cannot be bridged by traditional concepts of responsibility ascription. (shrink)
We present a model of the distribution of labour in science. Such models tend to rely on the mechanism of the invisible hand . Our analysis starts from the necessity of standards in distributed processes and the possibility of multiple standards in science. Invisible hand models turn out to have only limited scope because they are restricted to describing the atypical single-standard case. Our model is a generalisation of these models to J standards; single-standard models such as Kitcher are a (...) limiting case. We introduce and formalise this model, demonstrate its dynamics and conclude that the conclusions commonly derived from invisible hand models about the distribution of labour in science are not robust against changes in the number of standards. (shrink)
The exhaustion particles of the Yi languages are sentence-end morphemes with a surprising wealth of possible interpretations. With gradeable states they convey the meaning of superlative, with accomplishments they function as completive particle, and in ungradeable states, activities or achievements they act as all particles, i.e. as universal non-distributive quantifiers, on the first argument. A unified account of the all -, completive - and superlative -meanings is proposed. It is argued that all three notions basically divide their respective domain into (...) three types: a singular domain type, a quantized domain type and a homogeneous domain type. For events there is also a fourth domain type, the bounded domain type, which does not have an analogy with objects and states. Object-denotations Event-denotations State-denotations Singular Individual OD Punctual ED Ungradeable SD Quantized Quantized OD Quantized ED State with quantized comparison class Bounded — Bounded ED — Homogeneous Homogeneous OD Homogeneous ED State with homogeneous comparison class The all -, the completive - and the superlative -meanings of the exhaustion particles have in common that they are incompatible with entities from the singular domain type, pragmatically implausible with entities from the homogeneous domain type, and compatible with entities from the quantized domain type. (shrink)
En este articulo quiero discutir algunos temas centrales deI tratamiento fregeano de los contextos no extensionales. Limitaré mi discusión al análisis de oraciones de creencia y de la oratio obliqua. En la primera parte, voy a describir dos tipos de teoría dentro deI marco de la semántica de Frege. En particular, compararé y evaluaré los análisis de oraciones no extensionales de primer y segundo nivel que se pueden llevar a cabo en las teorías de ambos tipos. En la segunda parte, (...) examinaré en que medida se puede establecer una jerarquía infinita de sentidos indirectos. En la tercera parte, voy a examinar el principio fregeano de sustitutividad de expresiones coreferenciales salva veritate. Además, haré algunas observaciones críticas sobre artículos de Tyler Burge y Jaakko Hintikka relacionados con esta temática.In this article, I discuss some important aspects of Frege’s treatment of nonextensional contexts. I focus on the analysis of belief sentences and of oratio obliqua. In the first part, I deseribe two types of theory within Fregean semantics and assess the analyses of non-extensional sentences of first and of second level whieh can be carried out in the theories of both types. In the seeond part, I examine to what extent one can establish an infinite hierarehy of indirect senses. In the third and final part, I examine Frege’s principle of substitutivity salva veritate of coreferential terms. I conelude with critieal observationson articles of Tyler Burge and Jaakko Hintikka which deal with this principle. (shrink)
The article considers the relationships among three arguments that purport to establish the intrinsically contradictory or paradoxical nature of the modern project aiming at the equal consideration of all. The claim that the inevitable historical insertion of universal-egalitarian norms leads to always particular and untransparent interpretations of grammatically universal norms may be combined with the claim that the logic of determination of political communities tends to generate exclusions. The combination of these two claims lends specific force to the third argument (...) according to which equal consideration perpetually requires the non-egalitarian project of understanding individuals on their own terms. Hence, taking off from a recent debate between Christoph Menke and Jürgen Habermas, I argue that the former is right to diagnose an aporetic self-reflection in egalitarian universalism, while agreeing with the latter about the indispensability of deliberative democratic frameworks for the defence of both egalitarian and non-egalitarian norms. (shrink)
Distinguished researchers from across the globe assess, in a rare example of successful cross-disciplinary engagement, the explanatory power of chaos theory, new evolutionary theory, path dependency, neo-institutional economics, multiple modernities and historical institutionalism. The book provides an exciting panorama of state of the art thinking and new avenues to combining the power of various traditions of thought.
Matthias Vogel challenges the belief, dominant in contemporary philosophy, that reason is determined solely by our discursive, linguistic abilities as communicative beings. In his view, the medium of language is not the only force of reason. Music, art, and other nonlinguistic forms of communication and understanding are also significant. Introducing an expansive theory of mind that accounts for highly sophisticated, penetrative media, Vogel advances a novel conception of rationality while freeing philosophy from its exclusive attachment to linguistics. Vogel's media (...) of reason treats all kinds of understanding and thought, propositional and nonpropositional, as important to the processes and production of knowledge and thinking. By developing an account of rationality grounded in a new conception of media, he raises the profile of the prelinguistic and nonlinguistic dimensions of rationality and advances the Enlightenment project, buffering it against the postmodern critique that the movement fails to appreciate aesthetic experience. Guided by the work of Jürgen Habermas, Donald Davidson, and a range of media theorists, including Marshall McLuhan, Vogel rebuilds, if he does not remake, the relationship among various forms of media -- books, movies, newspapers, the Internet, and television -- while offering an original and exciting contribution to media theory. (shrink)
It would be unkind but not inaccurate to say that most experimental philosophy is just psychology with worse methods and better theories. In Experimental Ethics: Towards an Empirical Moral Philosophy, Christoph Luetge, Hannes Rusch, and Matthias Uhl set out to make this comparison less invidious and more flattering. Their book has 16 chapters, organized into five sections and bookended by the editors’ own introduction and prospectus. Contributors hail from four countries (Germany, USA, Spain, and the United Kingdom) and five (...) disciplines (philosophy, psychology, cognitive science, economics, and sociology). While the chapters are of mixed quality and originality, there are several fine contributions to the field. These especially include Stephan Wolf and Alexander Lenger’s sophisticated attempt to operationalize the Rawlsian notion of a veil of ignorance, Nina Strohminger et al.’s survey of the methods available to experimental ethicists for studying implicit morality, Fernando Aguiar et al.’s exploration of the possibility of operationalizing reflective equilibrium in the lab, and Nikil Mukerji’s careful defusing of three debunking arguments about the reliability of philosophical intuitions. (shrink)
Matthias Joseph Scheeben has been described as one of the greatest and least read theologians of the modern era. This article provides an overview of his theology of predestination, which remains a significant but little-studied aspect of his thought. Section I offers a general sketch of Scheeben's theology of predestination, employing the chapter on this topic in The Mysteries of Christianity as a primary source. Section II takes a deeper look at Scheeben's theology of predestination through an engagement with (...) relevant sections of his untranslated masterwork, the Dogmatik. This section will highlight Scheeben's relationship to both the de auxiliis controversy and the thought of Thomas Aquinas. Connections between Scheeben's theology of predestination and his other theological positions are noted throughout. (shrink)
Matthias Neuber’s book represents an important contribution to the relatively young discipline of the History of Philosophy of Science. Starting roughly in the 1980s, increasing attention has been devoted not only to the relationship between philosophy and the history of science, but to an accurate historical reconstruction of earlier projects within philosophy of science. One of the most outstanding results of these investigations has probably been the radical reshaping of the rather caricatural image of logical empiricism—for better or worse (...) the core of the philosophical heritage of many philosophers of science—summarized in the so-called ‘standard view’. By analyzing the historical, sociological, and philosophical questions surrounding logical empiricism new light has been shed on the sense of a cultural, social, and political mission that characterized it before its emigration from Europe to North America in the 1930s and 1940s. What came to be known as .. (shrink)
Summary The author of the paper studies the ethical views of Matthias Bel expressed in his Preface to Johann Arndt's treatise and in Davidian-Solomonian Ethics, which contain a critique of false Christianity and ancient (especially Aristotle's) ethics. Bel refuses any philosophical ethics based on human nature, since man, in his very essence, is sinful and vicious. This leads to the general moral downfall of the young and mankind. He only recognises ethics whose source and the highest good is God. (...) He accepts ancient ethics as long as it is useful for achieving Christian moral values. Bel was a vociferous critic of the morality of the time; he adopted a highly negative stance towards the Jews and Gypsies living in the then Historical Hungary. The author considers Matthias Bel a confident, or enthusiastic, Pietist in the early period of his life and work; later, he rates him as a moderate Pietist. (shrink)