Results for 'Paul D. Mays'

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  1. Sarva--Dar Sana--Sangraha a Bibliographical Guide to the Global History of Philosophy.John C. Plott & Paul D. Mays - 1969 - Brill.
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  2.  16
    Global History of Philosophy: The Han-Hellenistic-Bactrian Period. Volume II.John C. Plott, James Michael Dolin & Paul D. Mays - 1981 - Philosophy East and West 31 (4):555-556.
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  3.  6
    Global History of Philosophy. Volume II. The Han-Hellenistic-Bactrian Period.John C. Plott, James Michael Dolin, Russell E. Hatton & Paul D. Mays - 1983 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 43 (4):555-556.
  4. Two Problems of Direct Inference.Paul D. Thorn - 2012 - Erkenntnis 76 (3):299-318.
    The article begins by describing two longstanding problems associated with direct inference. One problem concerns the role of uninformative frequency statements in inferring probabilities by direct inference. A second problem concerns the role of frequency statements with gerrymandered reference classes. I show that past approaches to the problem associated with uninformative frequency statements yield the wrong conclusions in some cases. I propose a modification of Kyburg’s approach to the problem that yields the right conclusions. Past theories of direct inference have (...)
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  5. A Utility Based Evaluation of Logico-Probabilistic Systems.Paul D. Thorn & Gerhard Schurz - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (4):867-890.
    Systems of logico-probabilistic (LP) reasoning characterize inference from conditional assertions interpreted as expressing high conditional probabilities. In the present article, we investigate four prominent LP systems (namely, systems O, P, Z, and QC) by means of computer simulations. The results reported here extend our previous work in this area, and evaluate the four systems in terms of the expected utility of the dispositions to act that derive from the conclusions that the systems license. In addition to conforming to the dominant (...)
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  6. The joint aggregation of beliefs and degrees of belief.Paul D. Thorn - 2020 - Synthese 197 (12):5389-5409.
    The article proceeds upon the assumption that the beliefs and degrees of belief of rational agents satisfy a number of constraints, including: consistency and deductive closure for belief sets, conformity to the axioms of probability for degrees of belief, and the Lockean Thesis concerning the relationship between belief and degree of belief. Assuming that the beliefs and degrees of belief of both individuals and collectives satisfy the preceding three constraints, I discuss what further constraints may be imposed on the aggregation (...)
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  7. Against Deductive Closure.Paul D. Thorn - 2017 - Theoria 83 (2):103-119.
    The present article illustrates a conflict between the claim that rational belief sets are closed under deductive consequences, and a very inclusive claim about the factors that are sufficient to determine whether it is rational to believe respective propositions. Inasmuch as it is implausible to hold that the factors listed here are insufficient to determine whether it is rational to believe respective propositions, we have good reason to deny that rational belief sets are closed under deductive consequences.
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  8. Undercutting Defeat Via Reference Properties of Differing Arity: A Reply to Pust.Paul D. Thorn - 2011 - Analysis 71 (4):662-667.
    In a recent article, Joel Pust argued that direct inference based on reference properties of differing arity are incommensurable, and so direct inference cannot be used to resolve the Sleeping Beauty problem. After discussing the defects of Pust's argument, I offer reasons for thinking that direct inferences based on reference properties of differing arity are commensurable, and that we should prefer direct inferences based on logically stronger reference properties, regardless of arity.
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  9. Qualitative Probabilistic Inference Under Varied Entropy Levels.Paul D. Thorn & Gerhard Schurz - 2016 - Journal of Applied Logic 19 (2):87-101.
    In previous work, we studied four well known systems of qualitative probabilistic inference, and presented data from computer simulations in an attempt to illustrate the performance of the systems. These simulations evaluated the four systems in terms of their tendency to license inference to accurate and informative conclusions, given incomplete information about a randomly selected probability distribution. In our earlier work, the procedure used in generating the unknown probability distribution (representing the true stochastic state of the world) tended to yield (...)
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  10. Meta-Induction and the Wisdom of Crowds.Paul D. Thorn & Gerhard Schurz - 2012 - Analyse & Kritik 34 (2):339-366.
    Meta-induction, in its various forms, is an imitative prediction method, where the prediction methods and the predictions of other agents are imitated to the extent that those methods or agents have proven successful in the past. In past work, Schurz demonstrated the optimality of meta-induction as a method for predicting unknown events and quantities. However, much recent discussion, along with formal and empirical work, on the Wisdom of Crowds has extolled the virtue of diverse and independent judgment as essential to (...)
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  11.  9
    A Formal Solution to Reichenbach's Reference Class Problem.Paul D. Thorn - 2019 - Dialectica 73 (3):349-366.
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  12. Defeasible Conditionalization.Paul D. Thorn - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 43 (2-3):283-302.
    The applicability of Bayesian conditionalization in setting one’s posterior probability for a proposition, α, is limited to cases where the value of a corresponding prior probability, PPRI(α|∧E), is available, where ∧E represents one’s complete body of evidence. In order to extend probability updating to cases where the prior probabilities needed for Bayesian conditionalization are unavailable, I introduce an inference schema, defeasible conditionalization, which allows one to update one’s personal probability in a proposition by conditioning on a proposition that represents a (...)
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  13.  15
    Measuring Psychological Uncertainty: Verbal Versus Numeric Methods.Paul D. Windschitl & Gary L. Wells - 1996 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 2 (4):343.
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  14.  2
    Thinking and Machines.A. D. Ritchie & W. Mays - 1957 - Philosophy 32 (122):258 - 261.
    The claims that Dr. F. H. George makes on behalf of his machines are obscurely stated. Does he claim that a machine has been made and has actually produced a kind of response which is incalculable, given the specification to which it has been built and also the prescribed conditions, what is put in for the particular performance in question? “Incalculable” does not mean that nobody has bothered to calculate, but that somebody has bothered, that the calculations show that the (...)
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  15.  5
    Direct-Comparison Judgments: When and Why Above- and Below-Average Effects Reverse.Paul D. Windschitl, Daniel Conybeare & Zlatan Krizan - 2008 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 137 (1):182-200.
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    Understanding Auditors’ Sense of Responsibility for Detecting Fraud Within Organizations.F. Todd DeZoort & Paul D. Harrison - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 149 (4):857-874.
    The objective of this study is to evaluate auditors’ perceived responsibility for fraud detection. Auditors play a critical role in managing fraud risk within organizations. Although professional standards and guidance prescribe responsibility in the area, little is known about auditors’ sense of responsibility for fraud detection, the factors affecting perceived responsibility, and how responsibility affects auditor performance. We use the triangle model of responsibility as a theoretical basis for examining responsibility and the effects of accountability, fraud type, and auditor type (...)
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  17. Three Problems of Direct Inference.Paul D. Thorn - 2007 - Dissertation, University of Arizona
  18.  8
    Hegel.Paul D. Eisenberg & Charles Taylor - 1977 - Noûs 11 (1):55.
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  19.  9
    Kant's Dialectic.Paul D. Guyer - 1976 - Philosophical Review 85 (2):274.
  20.  29
    Pragmatism, Relativism, and the Critique of Philosophy.Paul D. Forster - 1998 - Metaphilosophy 29 (1&2):58-78.
  21. The Evolution of Mutation Rates: Separating Causes From Consequences.Paul D. Sniegowski, Philip J. Gerrish, Toby Johnson & Aaron Shaver - 2000 - Bioessays 22 (12):1057-1066.
  22.  14
    Base Rates Do Not Constrain Nonprobability Judgments.Paul D. Windschitl & Gary L. Wells - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1):40-41.
  23.  33
    Evidence for the Activation of Sensorimotor Information During Visual Word Recognition: The Body–Object Interaction Effect.Paul D. Siakaluk, Penny M. Pexman, Laura Aguilera, William J. Owen & Christopher R. Sears - 2008 - Cognition 106 (1):433-443.
  24.  10
    The Benefits of Sensorimotor Knowledge: Body-Object Interaction Facilitates Semantic Processing.Paul D. Siakaluk, Penny M. Pexman, Christopher R. Sears, Kim Wilson, Keri Locheed & William J. Owen - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (3):591-605.
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    The Brain's Generation Gap: Some Human Implications.Paul D. MacLean - 1973 - Zygon 8 (2):113-127.
  26.  2
    The Paleobiological Revolution: Essays on the Growth of Modern Paleontology. [REVIEW]Paul D. Brinkman - 2009 - Journal of the History of Biology 42 (4):819-821.
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    Learned Helplessness in Human Subjects.Jerry W. Thornton & Paul D. Jacobs - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (3):367-372.
  28.  82
    Formalism and the Theory of Expression in Kant’s Aesthetics.Paul D. Guyer - 1977 - Kant-Studien 68 (1-4):46-70.
  29.  2
    Charles Darwin’s Beagle Voyage, Fossil Vertebrate Succession, and “The Gradual Birth & Death of Species”.Paul D. Brinkman - 2010 - Journal of the History of Biology 43 (2):363-399.
    The prevailing view among historians of science holds that Charles Darwin became a convinced transmutationist only in the early spring of 1837, after his Beagle collections had been examined by expert British naturalists. With respect to the fossil vertebrate evidence, some historians believe that Darwin was incapable of seeing or understanding the transmutationist implications of his specimens without the help of Richard Owen. There is ample evidence, however, that he clearly recognized the similarities between several of the fossil vertebrates he (...)
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  30.  8
    Pharmaceuticals, Political Money, and Public Policy: A Theoretical and Empirical Agenda.Paul D. Jorgensen - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):561-570.
    The point, for the 946,326th time is that people get elected to office by currying the favor of powerful interest groups. They don’t get elected for their excellence as political philosophers.Congress has consistently failed to solve some serious problems with the cost, effectiveness, and safety of pharmaceuticals. In part, this failure results from the pharmaceutical industry convincing legislators to define policy problems in ways that protect industry profits. By targeting campaign contributions to influential legislators and by providing them with selective (...)
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  31.  98
    What Is at Stake Between Putnam and Rorty?Paul D. Forster - 1992 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (3):585-603.
    This paper is a discussion of points of agreement and conflict between Rorty and Putnam.
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  32.  19
    Pharmaceuticals, Political Money, and Public Policy: A Theoretical and Empirical Agenda.Paul D. Jorgensen - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):561-570.
    Why, when confronted with policy alternatives that could improve patient care, public health, and the economy, does Congress neglect those goals and tailor legislation to suit the interests of pharmaceutical corporations? In brief, for generations, the pharmaceutical industry has convinced legislators to define policy problems in ways that protect its profit margin. It reinforces this framework by selectively providing information and by targeting campaign contributions to influential legislators and allies. In this way, the industry displaces the public's voice in developing (...)
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  33. We Shall: Photographs by Paul D'amato.Paul D'Amato, Gregory J. Harris & Cleophus J. Lee - 2013 - Depaul Art Museum.
     
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  34.  44
    From the Forbidden to the Supererogatory: The Basic Ethical Categories in Kant's "Tugendlehre".Paul D. Eisenberg - 1966 - American Philosophical Quarterly 3 (4):255-269.
    Of the six basic categories which a normative ethical theory may recognize and exemplify, The first five are fairly clearly employed by kant in the "tugendlehre", But the sixth is not given adequate recognition by him. In order to establish those conclusions, One has to investigate the leading notion of the "tugendlehre", That of obligatory ends. Closely connected with that notion is kant's division of duties into perfect and imperfect ones. Consideration of a number of ways of elucidating that division (...)
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  35.  20
    God, the Mind's Desire: Reference, Reason and Christian Thinking.Paul D. Janz - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    This 2004 book reconfigures the basic problem of Christian thinking - 'How can human discourse refer meaningfully to a transcendent God?' - as a twofold demand for integrity: integrity of reason and integrity of transcendence. Centring around a provocative yet penetratingly faithful re-reading of Kant's empirical realism, and drawing on an impelling confluence of contemporary thinkers Paul D. Janz argues that theology's 'referent' must be located within present empirical reality. Rigorously reasoned yet refreshingly accessible throughout, this book provides an (...)
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  36.  11
    St. Paul and Ecumenism: Justification and All That1.Paul D. Murray - 2010 - New Blackfriars 91 (1032):142-170.
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  37.  9
    Mood-Specific Effects in the Allocation of Attention Across Time.Paul D. Rokke & Chad M. Lystad - 2015 - Cognition and Emotion 29 (1):27-50.
  38.  8
    Kant's Aesthetic Theory.Paul D. Guyer & Donald W. Crawford - 1975 - Journal of Philosophy 72 (3):77-86.
  39.  48
    The Revenge of Ecological Rationality: Strategy-Selection by Meta-Induction Within Changing Environments.Gerhard Schurz & Paul D. Thorn - 2016 - Minds and Machines 26 (1-2):31-59.
    According to the paradigm of adaptive rationality, successful inference and prediction methods tend to be local and frugal. As a complement to work within this paradigm, we investigate the problem of selecting an optimal combination of prediction methods from a given toolbox of such local methods, in the context of changing environments. These selection methods are called meta-inductive strategies, if they are based on the success-records of the toolbox-methods. No absolutely optimal MI strategy exists—a fact that we call the “revenge (...)
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  40.  9
    Visual Imagery Mnemonics: Common Vs. Bizarre Mental Images.Paul D. Hauck, Carol C. Walsh & Neal E. A. Kroll - 1976 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 7 (2):160-162.
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  41.  69
    Duties to Oneself and the Concept of Morality.Paul D. Eisenberg - 1968 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 11 (1-4):129 – 154.
    Why is it that most among the relatively few moral philosophers since Kant who, like J. S. Mill, have discussed the question whether there can be moral duties to oneself, have answered it negatively? One reason is that those philosophers have supposed that all moral action must be, inter alia, social; and they may have thought so because of their commitment to what is here called a 'corporationist' moral view. But such a conception of morality as social is objectionable because (...)
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  42.  38
    Peirce on the Progress and Authority of Science.Paul D. Forster - 1989 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 25 (4):421 - 452.
  43.  4
    Moral Reasoning.Paul D. Eisenberg & R. W. Beardsmore - 1971 - Philosophical Review 80 (3):400.
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  44.  99
    Reward Versus Risk in Uncertain Inference: Theorems and Simulations.Gerhard Schurz & Paul D. Thorn - 2012 - Review of Symbolic Logic 5 (4):574-612.
    Systems of logico-probabilistic reasoning characterize inference from conditional assertions that express high conditional probabilities. In this paper we investigate four prominent LP systems, the systems _O, P_, _Z_, and _QC_. These systems differ in the number of inferences they licence _. LP systems that license more inferences enjoy the possible reward of deriving more true and informative conclusions, but with this possible reward comes the risk of drawing more false or uninformative conclusions. In the first part of the paper, we (...)
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  45.  39
    Platonism-Proper Vs. Property-Platonism.Paul D. Eisenberg - 1975 - Idealistic Studies 5 (1):90-95.
  46.  20
    Realism and the Critical Philosophy: Kant’s Abstentions In the “Refutation of Idealism”.Paul D. Forster - 1994 - Idealistic Studies 24 (1):21-41.
    Many commentators on Kant’s views on idealism, such as Kemp-Smith [1918], Strawson [1966] and, more recently, Guyer [1983 and 1987], begin by offering two choices. Either objects in space are nothing in themselves, or they exist independently of all knowers and all thought. After a fleeting, adolescent romance with idealism in the first edition of the Critique of Pure Reason Kant is often said to emerge a mature realist in the second edition. It is said that for the later Kant (...)
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  47. What is at Stake Between Putnam And.Paul D. Forster - 2002 - In Alan R. Malachowski (ed.), Richard Rorty. London ;Sage. pp. 1--3.
     
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  48. Markedness in Canaanite and Hebrew Verbs.Paul D. Korchin - 2008 - Brill.
    By applying markedness to Semitic morphology in a rigorous manner, this book brings to bear a venerable linguistic construct on a persistent philological crux, in order to achieve deeper clarity in the structures and workings of Canaanite and Hebrew verbs.
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  49.  24
    Comparative Hermeneutics: Heidegger, the Pre-Socratics, and the "Rgveda".Paul D. Tate - 1982 - Philosophy East and West 32 (1):47-59.
  50.  41
    Social Structure, Economic Performance and Pareto Optimality.Paul D. Thistle - 1998 - Theory and Decision 45 (2):161-173.
    This paper shows that, if the performance of the economy is independent of the identities of individuals, then many welfare criteria yield sets of optimal social states that are equal to the Pareto optimal set. This result is proved for income distributions and extended to more general social choice problems. If the independence condition holds, then the set of optimal states is invariant to the adoption of an anonymity axiom, and to the utility information available.
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