Results for 'Birgitta Dresp-Langley'

287 found
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  1. The Biological Significance of Color.Birgitta Dresp & Keith Langley - 2009 - In D. Skusevich & P. Matikas (eds.), Color Perception: Physiology, Processes and Analysis. Nova Science Publishers. pp. 110--115.
    How the visual systems of different species enable them to detect and discriminate colour patterns and how such visual abilities contribute to their survival is discussed. The influence of evolutionary and environmental pressures on both perceptual capacity and colour trait production is to be considered. Visual systems with different functional anatomy have evolved in response to such pressures.
     
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  2. Phenomena of Illusory Form: Can We Bridge the Gap Between Levels of Explanation?Lothar Spillmann & Birgitta Dresp - 1995 - Perception 24:1333-1364.
    The major theoretical framework relative to the perception of illusory figures is reviewed and discussed in the attempt to provide a unifying explanatory account for these phenomena.
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  3. Interaction of Color and Geometric Cues in Depth Perception: When Does Red Mean "Near"?Christophe Guibal & Birgitta Dresp - 2004 - Psychological Research 69:30-40.
    Luminance and color are strong and self-sufficient cues to pictorial depth in visual scenes and images. The present study investigates the conditions Under which luminance or color either strengthens or overrides geometric depth cues. We investigated how luminance contrasts associated with color contrast interact with relative height in the visual field, partial occlusion, and interposition in determining the probability that a given figure is perceived as ‘‘nearer’’ than another. Latencies of ‘‘near’’ responses were analyzed to test for effects of attentional (...)
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  4. Depth Perception From Pairs of Overlapping Cues in Pictorial Displays.Birgitta Dresp, Severine Durand & Stephen Grossberg - 2002 - Spatial Visions 15:255-276.
    The experiments reported herein probe the visual cortical mechanisms that control near–far percepts in response to two-dimensional stimuli. Figural contrast is found to be a principal factor for the emergence of percepts of near versus far in pictorial stimuli, especially when stimulus duration is brief. Pictorial factors such as interposition (Experiment 1) and partial occlusion Experiments 2 and 3) may cooperate, as generally predicted by cue combination models, or compete with contrast factors in the manner predicted by the FACADE model. (...)
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  5. Apparent Brightness Enhancement in the Kanizsa Square with and Without Illusory Contours.Birgitta Dresp & Jean Lorenceau - 1990 - Perception 19:483-489.
    The perceived strength of darkness enhancement in the centre of surfaces surrounded or not surrounded by illusory contours was investigated as a function of proximity of the constituent elements of the display and their angular size. Magnitude estimation was used to measure the perception of the darkness phenomenon in white-on-grey stimuli. Darkness enhancement was perceived in both types of the stimuli used, but more strongly in the presence of illusory contours. In both cases, perceived darkness enhancement increased with increasing proximity (...)
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  6. Psychophysical Evidence for Low-Level Processing of Illusory Contours and Surfaces in the Kanizsa Square.Birgitta Dresp & Claude Bonnet - 1991 - Vision Research 31:1813-1817.
    Light increment thresholds were measured on either side of one of the illusory contours of a white-on-black Kanizsa square and on the illusory contour itself. The data show that thresholds are elevated when measured on either side of the illusory border. These elevations diminish with increasing distance of the target spot from the white elements which induce the illusory figure. The most striking result, however, is that threshold elevations are considerably lower or even absent when the target is located on (...)
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  7. On Illusory Contours and Their Functional Significance.Birgitta Dresp - 1997 - Current Psychology of Cognition 16:489-518.
    This article discusses the reasons why illusory contours are likely to result from adaptive perceptual mechanisms that have evolved across species to promote behavioral success.
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  8. A Plastic Temporal Brain Code for Conscious State Generation.Birgitta Dresp & Jean Durup - 2009 - Neural Plasticity 2009:1-15.
    Consciousness is known to be limited in processing capacity and often described in terms of a unique processing stream across a single dimension: time. In this paper, we discuss a purely temporal pattern code, functionally decoupled from spatial signals, for conscious state generation in the brain. Arguments in favour of such a code include Dehaene et al.’s long-distance reverberation postulate, Ramachandran’s remapping hypothesis, evidence for a temporal coherence index and coincidence detectors, and Grossberg’s Adaptive Resonance Theory. A time-bin resonance model (...)
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  9. Psychophysical Measures of Illusory Form: Further Evidence for Local Mechanisms.Birgitta Dresp & Claude Bonnet - 1993 - Vision Research 33:759-766.
    Detection thresholds for a small light spot were measured at various distances from the colinear inucer edges of white inducing elements on a dark background. The data show that thresholds are elevated when the target is located close to one or more inducing element(s). Threshold elevations diminish with increasing distance of the target from colinear edges and decreasing surface size of the inducing elements. gradients show the same tendencies. Tbe present observations add empirical support to the idea that illusory figures (...)
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  10.  34
    Area, Surface, and Contour: Psychophysical Correlates of Three Classes of Pictorial Completion.Birgitta Dresp - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (6):755-756.
    A simple working taxonomy with three classes of pictorial completion is proposed as an alternative to Pessoa et al.'s classification: area, surface, and contour completion. The classification is based on psychophysical evidence, not on the different phenomenal attributes of the stimuli, showing that pictorial completion is likely to involve mechanistic interactions in the visual system at different levels of processing. Whether the concept of “filling-in” is an appropriate metaphor for the visual mechanisms that may underlie perceptual completion is questioned.
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  11.  58
    Double, Double, Toil and Trouble – Fire Burn, and Theory Bubble!Birgitta Dresp - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):409-410.
    Lehar's Gestalt Bubble model introduces a computational approach to holistic aspects of three-dimensional scene perception. The model as such has merit because it manages to translate certain Gestalt principles of perceptual organization into formal codes or algorithms. The mistake made in this target article is to present the model within the theoretical framework of the question of consciousness. As a scientific approach to the problem of consciousness, the Gestalt Bubble fails for several reasons. This commentary addresses three of these: (1) (...)
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  12.  44
    The Cognitive Impenetrability Hypothesis: Doomsday for the Unity of the Cognitive Neurosciences?Birgitta Dresp - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):375-376.
    The heuristic value of Pylyshyn's cognitive impenetrability theory is questioned in this commentary, mainly because, as it stands, the key argument cannot be challenged empirically. Pylyshyn requires unambiguous evidence for an effect of cognitive states on early perceptual mechanisms, which is impossible to provide because we can only infer what might happen at these earlier levels of processing on the basis of evidence collected at the post-perceptual stage. Furthermore, the theory that early visual processes cannot be modified by cognitive states (...)
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  13.  18
    The Kanizsa Square Does Not Engender a Configural Superiority Effect.Birgitta Dresp - 1993 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 31 (3):183-184.
    This article presents psychophysical evidence that the Kanizsa Square does not produce an 'object superiority effect' previously reported in similar Gestalt configurations. Implications of the findings for Gestalt theory are addressed.
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  14.  32
    Has the Brain Evolved to Answer “Binding Questions” or to Generate Likely Hypotheses About Complex and Continuously Changing Environments?Birgitta Dresp & Jean Charles Barthaud - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (1):75-76.
    We question the ecological plausibility as a general model of cognition of van der Velde's & de Kamps's combinatorial blackboard architecture, where knowledge-binding in space and time relies on the structural rules of language. Evidence against their view of the brain and an ecologically plausible, alternative model of cognition are brought forward.
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  15.  23
    External Regularities and Adaptive Signal Exchanges in the Brain.Birgitta Dresp - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):663-664.
    Shepard's concept of internalization does not suggest mechanisms which help to understand how the brain adapts to changes, how representations of a steadily changing environment are updated or, in short, how brain learning continues throughout life. Neural mechanisms, as suggested by Barlow, may prove a more powerful alternative. Brain theories such as Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) propose mechanisms to explain how representational activities may be linked in space and time. Some predictions of ART are confirmed by psychophysical and neurophysiological data. (...)
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  16.  93
    Seven Properties of Self-Organization in the Human Brain.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2020 - Big Data and Cognitive Computing 2 (4):10.
    The principle of self-organization has acquired a fundamental significance in the newly emerging field of computational philosophy. Self-organizing systems have been described in various domains in science and philosophy including physics, neuroscience, biology and medicine, ecology, and sociology. While system architecture and their general purpose may depend on domain-specific concepts and definitions, there are (at least) seven key properties of self-organization clearly identified in brain systems: 1) modular connectivity, 2) unsupervised learning, 3) adaptive ability, 4) functional resiliency, 5) functional plasticity, (...)
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  17.  20
    Color for the Perceptual Organization of the Pictorial Plane: Victor Vasarely's Legacy to Gestalt Psychology.Birgitta Dresp-Langley & Adam Reeves - 2020 - Heliyon 6 (6):e04375.
    Victor Vasarely's (1906–1997) important legacy to the study of human perception is brought to the forefront and discussed. A large part of his impressive work conveys the appearance of striking three-dimensional shapes and structures in a large-scale pictorial plane. Current perception science explains such effects by invoking brain mechanisms for the processing of monocular (2D) depth cues. Here in this study, we illustrate and explain local effects of 2D color and contrast cues on the perceptual organization in terms of figure-ground (...)
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  18. Effects of Saturation and Contrast Polarity on the Figure-Ground Organization of Color on Gray.Birgitta Dresp-Langley & Adam Reeves - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5:1-9.
    Poorly saturated colors are closer to a pure grey than strongly saturated ones and, therefore, appear less “colorful”. Color saturation is effectively manipulated in the visual arts for balancing conflicting sensations and moods and for inducing the perception of relative distance in the pictorial plane. While perceptual science has proven quite clearly that the luminance contrast of any hue acts as a self-sufficient cue to relative depth in visual images, the role of color saturation in such figure-ground organization has remained (...)
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  19. Simultaneous Brightness and Apparent Depth From True Colors on Grey: Chevreul Revisited.Birgitta Dresp-Langley & Adam Reeves - 2012 - Seeing and Perceiving 25 (6):597-618.
    We show that true colors as defined by Chevreul (1839) produce unsuspected simultaneous brightness induction effects on their immediate grey backgrounds when these are placed on a darker (black) general background surrounding two spatially separated configurations. Assimilation and apparent contrast may occur in one and the same stimulus display. We examined the possible link between these effects and the perceived depth of the color patterns which induce them as a function of their luminance contrast. Patterns of square-shaped inducers of a (...)
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  20.  51
    Bilateral Symmetry Strengthens the Perceptual Salience of Figure Against Ground.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2019 - Symmetry 2 (11):225-250.
    Although symmetry has been discussed in terms of a major law of perceptual organization since the early conceptual efforts of the Gestalt school (Wertheimer, Metzger, Koffka and others), the first quantitative measurements testing for effects of symmetry on processes of Gestalt formation have seen the day only recently. In this study, a psychophysical rating study and a “foreground”-“background” choice response time experiment were run with human observers to test for effects of bilateral symmetry on the perceived strength of figure-ground in (...)
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  21. Does Consciousness Exist Independently of Present Time and Present Time Independently of Consciousness.Birgitta Dresp-Langley & Jean Durup - 2012 - Open Journal of Philosophy 2 (1):45-49.
    While some are currently debating whether time may or may not be an illusion, others keep devoting their time to the science of consciousness. Time as such may be seen as a physical or a subjective variable, and the limitations in our capacity of perceiving and analyzing temporal order and change in physical events definitely constrain our understanding of consciousness which, in return, constrains our conceptual under-standing of time. Temporal codes generated in the brain have been considered as the key (...)
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  22. Colour for Behavioural Success.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2018 - I-Perception 2 (9):1-23.
    Colour information not only helps sustain the survival of animal species by guiding sexual selection and foraging behaviour but also is an important factor in the cultural and technological development of our own species. This is illustrated by examples from the visual arts and from state-of-the-art imaging technology, where the strategic use of colour has become a powerful tool for guiding the planning and execution of interventional procedures. The functional role of colour information in terms of its potential benefits to (...)
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  23. Color and Figure-Ground: From Signals to Qualia.Birgitta Dresp-Langley & Adam Reeves (eds.) - 2014 - Routledge.
    The laws which predict how the perceptual quality of figure-ground can be extracted from the most elementary visual signals were discovered by the Gestaltists, and form an essential part of their movement (see especially Metzger, 1930, and Wertheimer, 1923 translated and re-edited by Lothar Spillmann, 2009 and 2012, respectively). Distinguishing figure from ground is a prerequisite for perception of both form and space (the relative positions, trajectories, and distances of objects in the visual field. The human brain has an astonishing (...)
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  24. The Communication Contract and Its Ten Ground Clauses.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (3):415-436.
    Global society issues are putting increasing pressure on both small and large organizations to communicate ethically at all levels. Achieving this requires social skills beyond the choice of language or vocabulary and relies above all on individual social responsibility. Arguments from social contract philosophy and speech act theory lead to consider a communication contract that identifies the necessary individual skills for ethical communication on the basis of a limited number of explicit clauses. These latter are pragmatically binding for all partners (...)
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  25. Affine Geometry, Visual Sensation, and Preference for Symmetry of Things in a Thing.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2016 - Symmetry 127 (8).
    Evolution and geometry generate complexity in similar ways. Evolution drives natural selection while geometry may capture the logic of this selection and express it visually, in terms of specific generic properties representing some kind of advantage. Geometry is ideally suited for expressing the logic of evolutionary selection for symmetry, which is found in the shape curves of vein systems and other natural objects such as leaves, cell membranes, or tunnel systems built by ants. The topology and geometry of symmetry is (...)
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  26. On Galileo's Visions: Piercing the Spheres of the Heavens by Eye and Mind.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2014 - Perception 43:1280-1282.
    This bookreview discusses Piccolino and Wades' book on Galileo's impact on contemporary perception science.
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  27.  7
    Principles of Perceptual Grouping: Implications for Image-Guided Surgery.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
    The laws and principles which predict how perceptual qualities can be extracted from the most elementary visual signals were discovered by the Gestalt psychologists(e.g., Wertheimer,1923; Metzger,1930, translated and re-editedbySpillmann in 2009 and2012, respectively). Their seminal work has inspired visual science ever since, andhas led to exciting discoveries which have confirmed the Gestalt idea that the human brain would have an astonishing capacity for selecting and combining critical visual signals to generate output representations for decision making and action. This capacity of (...)
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  28. Visual Spatial Learning of Complex Object Structures Through Virtual and Real-World Data.Chiara Silvestri, Rene Motro, Bernard Maurin & Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2010 - Design Studies 31:364-380.
    This article probes the visual spatial représentations underlying the creative conceptual design of complex objects.
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  29. Beyond the Classic Receptive Field: The Effect of Contextual Stimuli.Lothar Spillmann, Birgitta Dresp-Langley & Chia-Huei Tseng - 2015 - Journal of Vision 15:1-22.
    Following the pioneering studies of the receptive field (RF), the concept gained further significance for visual perception by the discovery of input effects from beyond the classical RF. These studies demonstrated that neuronal responses could be modulated by stimuli outside their RFs, consistent with the perception of induced brightness, color, orientation, and motion. Lesion scotomata are similarly modulated perceptually from the surround by RFs that have migrated from the interior to the outer edge of the scotoma and in this way (...)
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  30. Why the Brain Knows More Than We Do.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2011 - Brain Sciences 2:1-21.
    Scientific studies have shown that non-conscious stimuli and représentations influence information processing during conscious experience. In the light of such evidence, questions about potential functional links between non-conscious brain representations and conscious experience arise. This article discusses models capable of explaining how statistical learning mechanisms in dedicated resonant circuits could generate specific temporal activity traces of non-conscious representations in the brain. How reentrant signaling, top-down matching, and statistical coincidence of such activity traces may lead to the progressive consolidation of neural (...)
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  31.  43
    The Experience Dependent Dynamics of Human Consciousness.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2018 - Open Journal of Philosophy 8 (2):116-143.
    By reviewing most of the neurobiology of consciousness, this article highlights some major reasons why a successful emulation of the dynamics of human consciousness by artificial intelligence is unlikely. The analysis provided leads to conclude that human consciousness is epigenetically determined and experience and context-dependent at the individual level. It is subject to changes in time that are essentially unpredictable. If cracking the code to human consciousness were possible, the result would most likely have to consist of a temporal pattern (...)
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  32.  21
    Perceptual Categories Derived From Reid’s “Common Sense” Philosophy.Adam Reeves & Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
    The 18th-century Scottish ‘common sense’ philosopher Thomas Reid argued that perception can be distinguished on several dimensions from other categories of experience, such as sensation, illusion, hallucination, mental images, and what he called ‘fancy.’ We extend his approach to eleven mental categories, and discuss how these distinctions, often ignored in the empirical literature, bear on current research. We also score each category on five properties (ones abstracted from Reid) to form a 5 × 11 matrix, and thus can generate statistical (...)
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  33. 2D Geometry Predicts Perceived Visual Curvature in Context-Free Viewing.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2015 - Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience 2015 (708759):1-9.
    Planar geometry was exploited for the computation of symmetric visual curves in the image plane, with consistent variations in local parameters such as sagitta, chordlength, and the curves’ height-to-width ratio, an indicator of the visual area covered by the curve, also called aspect ratio. Image representations of single curves (no local image context) were presented to human observers to measure their visual sensation of curvature magnitude elicited by a given curve. Nonlinear regression analysis was performed on both the individual and (...)
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  34. Scientific Discovery, Computational Explorations of the Creative Processes.P. Langley, H. A. Simon, G. L. Bradshaw & J. M. Zytkow - 1991 - Erkenntnis 34 (1):125-127.
     
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  35.  6
    Scientific Discovery.Pat Langley, Herbert A. Simon, Gary L. Bradshaw & Jan M. Zytkow - 1993 - In Alvin Goldman (ed.), Readings in Philosophy and Cognitive Science. Cambridge: MIT Press.
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  36. Replacing Animal Experiments: Choices, Chances and Challenges.Gill Langley, Tom Evans, Stephen T. Holgate & Anthony Jones - 2007 - Bioessays 29 (9):918-926.
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  37.  8
    Ability, Breadth, and Parsimony in Computational Models of Higher-Order Cognition.Nicholas Cassimatis, Paul Bello & Pat Langley - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (8):1304-1322.
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  38.  20
    Wild Bodies Don't Need to Perceive, Detect, Capture, or Create Meaning: They ARE Meaning.J. Scott Jordan, Vincent T. Cialdella, Alex Dayer, Matthew D. Langley & Zachery Stillman - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  39.  8
    The Effect of Online Protests and Firm Responses on Shareholder and Consumer Evaluation.Tijs van den Broek, David Langley & Tobias Hornig - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 146 (2):279-294.
    Protests that target firms’ socially irresponsible behavior are increasingly organized via digital media. This study uses two methods to investigate the effects that online protests and mitigating firm responses have on shareholders’ and consumers’ evaluation. The first method is a financial analysis that includes an event study which measures the effect of online protests on the target firm’s share price, as well as an investigation of the boundary effects of protest characteristics. The second method is an online experiment that assesses (...)
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  40. Scientific Discovery as Problem Solving.Herbert A. Simon, Patrick W. Langley & Gary L. Bradshaw - 1981 - Synthese 47 (1):3 – 14.
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  41.  9
    Scientific Discovery as Problem Solving.Herbert A. Simon, Patrick W. Langley & Gary L. Bradshaw - 1981 - Synthese 47 (1):1-27.
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  42.  95
    Two Kinds of Knowledge in Scientific Discovery.Will Bridewell & Pat Langley - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (1):36-52.
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  43.  5
    The Effect of Online Protests and Firm Responses on Shareholder and Consumer Evaluation.Tobias Hornig, David Langley & Tijs Broek - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 146 (2):279-294.
    Protests that target firms’ socially irresponsible behavior are increasingly organized via digital media. This study uses two methods to investigate the effects that online protests and mitigating firm responses have on shareholders’ and consumers’ evaluation. The first method is a financial analysis that includes an event study which measures the effect of online protests on the target firm’s share price, as well as an investigation of the boundary effects of protest characteristics. The second method is an online experiment that assesses (...)
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  44.  11
    New Essays Concerning Human Understanding.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, George M. Duncan & Alfred Gideon Langley - 1897 - Philosophical Review 6 (3):293.
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  45.  13
    Data‐Driven Discovery of Physical Laws.Pat Langley - 1981 - Cognitive Science 5 (1):31-54.
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  46.  11
    Abductive Understanding of Dialogues About Joint Activities.Pat Langley, Ben Meadows, Alfredo Gabaldon & Richard Heald - 2014 - Interaction Studies 15 (3):426-454.
    This paper examines the task of understanding dialogues in terms of the mental states of the participating agents. We present a motivating example that clarifies the challenges this problem involves and then outline a theory of dialogue interpretation based on abductive inference of these unobserved beliefs and goals, incremental construction of explanations, and reliance on domain-independent knowledge. After this, we describe UMBRA, an implementation of the theory that embodies these assumptions. We report experiments with the system that demonstrate its ability (...)
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  47.  8
    Abductive Understanding of Dialogues About Joint Activities.Pat Langley, Ben Meadows, Alfredo Gabaldon & Richard Heald - 2014 - Interaction Studies: Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 15 (3):426-454.
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  48.  75
    Knowledge of God.G. H. Langley - 1931 - The Monist 41 (3):339-351.
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    Research Management and Administration.David Langley - 2012 - Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education:1-6.
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  50.  35
    Claims and Challenges in Evaluating Human-Level Intelligent Systems.John E. Laird, Robert Wray, Robert Marinier & Pat Langley - 2009 - In B. Goertzel, P. Hitzler & M. Hutter (eds.), Proceedings of the Second Conference on Artificial General Intelligence. Atlantis Press.
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