O presente estudo tem por objetivo contribuir para o projeto de reatualização da Filosofia do Direito hegeliana inaugurado por Axel Honneth, mas de um modo indireto: meu interesse aqui não é investigar tópicos específicos da Filosofia do Direito, nem mesmo examinar a teoria do reconhecimento como proposta por Honneth, mas iniciar uma caminhada no sentido de tornar explícitos os pressupostos ontológicos carregados por tal projeto de reatualização.
O artigo apresenta duas questões filosóficas centrais legadas pelo Idealismo Alemão sem resposta. De um lado, as tentativas reiteradas de determinar o Múltiplo a partir da unidade ordenadora de uma subjetividade incondicionada resultaram em perspectivas dualistas e metafisicas inflacionárias. De outro lado, a meta do estabelecimento de uma filosofia capaz de se elevar para além da oposição sujeito/objeto, reconciliando natureza e liberdade, tornou-se refém da teleologia do incondicionado. Uma resposta a tais desafios pode brotar da problematização do idealismo contemporâneo e (...) do diálogo renovado com a filosofia platônica. (shrink)
As filosofias de Platão e Schelling têm como traço comum o projeto de construção de uma ontologia relacional. Sua grande divergência reside na compreensão do princípio filosófico capaz de fundar tal ontologia. A Filosofia da Identidade do jovem Schelting estã ancorada na atividade de autodesdobramento da subjetividadeabsoluta. A critica a esta teleologia do incondicionado exigirá um renovado diálogo com a filosofia platônica. O autor encontra no Filebo platônico a inspiração para o desenvolvimento de uma possível ontologia deflacionária.
O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar o Idealismo Absoluto - em parte como o próprio Hegel o havia concebido - como Filosofia Crítica, que busca superar a cisão entre as dimensões empírica e transcendental do saber. Procura ainda levantar objeções contra o modo de justificação dos princípios no "sistema do dever ser" e alertar para o risco de retorno a uma ontologia dogmática.
Como qualquer outra sociedade humana, as comunidades virtuais enfrentam questões éticopolíticas. Discussões sobre os direitos humanos dos internautas, especialmente os relativos à liberdade humana, e sobre a legitimidade de modelos de regulamentação estão sempre presentes nos fóruns internacionais da Internet. A disputa contemporânea pela verdadeira concepção da liberdade ainda coloca na arena os herdeiros de Kant e de Hegel. Seguindo a via dialética, vemos como um dos principais desafios de nossa época desvelar o conceito de liberdade que emerge de uma (...) ontologia evolutiva. De acordo com o projeto de atualização da dialética ora exposto, a Internet é concebida como mais um subsistema que emerge na natureza sob as restrições impostas pelo espaço lógico evolutivo. Como processo auto-organizado que evolui no tempo, a Internet também possui traços relacionais e processuais, apresentando por igual um movimento em direção à coerência da própria rede. As sociedades on-line seguem a mesma lei da coerência que rege as sociedades reais e a liberdade on-line apresenta o mesmo caráter da liberdade real, a exploração do campo aberto dos modos possíveis da coerência. A liberdade pessoal na Internet guarda traços em comum com a liberdade pessoal que cada um tem, e deve ter, na sociedade real, mas como mostraremos depois, há também sutis diferenças entre ambas, com forte impacto na Teoria do Direito. (shrink)
***Notas para uma estética do pensamento***Pressupondo os resultados prévios da crítica interna à Lógica de Hegel que conduziram ao projeto de sistema do idealismo evolutivo, o autor busca por uma estética do pensamento anterior a qualquer teoria do belo, embora não sem conseqüências para uma futura abordagem neste sentido.
A riqueza da filosofia de Fichte reside justamente em seus excessos. O presente artigo visa explicitar os impasses metódicos decorrentes dessa forma extremada de idealismo subjetivo. As soluções aventadas por Fichte para enfrentar tais dificuldades influenciaram decisivamente o posterior desenvolvimento do Idealismo Alemão.
To overcome the paradoxical situation in which the modern subject finds itself, on conceptualizing nature in such a way that its very presence in nature becomes inconceivable, modernity supplied at least four alternatives: a) the first is to defend dualism ; b) the second option is to support a monism of nature ; c) the third alternative is to defend a monism of subjectivity ; d) the fourth and last alternative is to support a dialectical monism. It is well known (...) that, of these four alternatives to the self-interpretation crisis of modern subjectivity, the first ultimately had a more lasting influence on the philosophical scene, marking, point to point, this last breath of modernity that some call post-modern and flowing into the present situation of “hyperincommensurability” between subjectivity and nature diagnosed by Bruno Latour. The crisis of subjectivity thus becomes a crisis of philosophy, which ends a hostage to the syndrome of the house taken. (shrink)
***Platão ou Platonismo. Um tópico em dialética descendente***A ontologia dialética pode ser reconstruída percorrendo dois caminhos complementares. A via ascendente parte da influência da ontologia de Platão, mediada por Nicolau de Cusa, sobre Bertalanffy, o fundador da teoria de sistemas. Esta abordagem teórica, uma vez convergindo com o darwinismo, dará nascimento à teoria dos sistemas adaptativos complexos e logo se espalhará pelas diversas ciências, transmudando-se de uma ontologia regional em parte relevante de uma nova ontologia geral. O caminho descendente, a (...) via eminentemente filosófica, também parte de dois ramos distintos que, ao final, convergem: por um lado, esta via conduz da teoria das ideias de Platão ao idealismo alemão e à crítica imanente ao sistema de Hegel ; por outro lado, e este será nosso tópico principal no presente ensaio, ela investiga o impacto decisivo do desenvolvimento autocrítico da filosofia de Platão sobre o projeto de uma ontologia relacional deflacionária ou, simplesmente, uma ontologia de redes. (shrink)
The latter half of the nineteenth and the early part of the twentieth century witnessed a remarkable resurgence of interest in Kant’s philosophy in Continental Europe, the effects of which are still being felt today. _The Neo-Kantian Reader_ is the first anthology to collect the most important primary sources in Neo-Kantian philosophy, with many being published here in English for the first time. It includes extracts on a rich and diverse number of subjects, including logic, epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of science, (...) and transcendental idealism. Sebastian Luft, together with other scholars, provides clear introductions to each of the following sections, placing them in historical and philosophical context: the beginnings of Neo-Kantianism: including the work of Hermann von Helmholtz, Otto Liebman, Friedrich Lange, and Hermann Lotze the Marburg School: including Hermann Cohen, Paul Natorp, and Ernst Cassirer the Southwest School: including Wilhelm Windelband, Heinrich Rickert, Emil Lask, and Hans Vaihinger responses and critiques: including Moritz Schlick, Edmund Husserl; Rudolf Carnap, and the 'Davos dispute' between Martin Heidegger and Ernst Cassirer. The Neo-Kantian Reader is essential reading for all students of Kant, nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy, history and philosophy of science, and phenomenology, as well as to those studying important philosophical movements such as logical positivism and analytic philosophy and its history. (shrink)
Sebastian Luft explores the philosophy of culture championed by the Marburg School of Neo-Kantianism. Following a historical trajectory from Hermann Cohen to Paul Natorp and through to Ernst Cassirer, he defends the attractiveness of a philosophical culture in the transcendental vein.
Sebastian Luft presents and defends the philosophy of culture championed by the Marburg School of Neo-Kantianism. Following a historical trajectory from Hermann Cohen to Paul Natorp and through to Ernst Cassirer, this book makes a systematic case for the viability and attractiveness of a philosophical culture in a transcendental vein, in the manner in which the Marburgers intended to broaden Kant's approach.
Sebastian Luft - Hermann Cohen's Critical Idealism - Journal of the History of Philosophy 45:4 Journal of the History of Philosophy 45.4 668-670 Muse Search Journals This Journal Contents Reviewed by Sebastian Luft Marquette University Reinier Munk, editor. Hermann Cohen's Critical Idealism. Amsterdam Studies in Jewish Thought 10. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. Pp. v + 434. Cloth, $229.00. This anthology, the first of its kind in English, is devoted to a much-needed reassessment of Hermann Cohen's philosophy. Cohen was one (...) of the founders of the so-called Marburg School of Neo-Kantianism and came to be, with the development of his own philosophical system following his Kant interpretation, one of the most original thinkers in Germany during his lifetime. Moreover, his charismatic personality inspired other philosophers, such as Natorp and Cassirer in Marburg as well as the.. (shrink)
The orientation and leadership of the revolutionary “renewal of the German mind,” whose witnesses and participants we are, point in two directions. On, after seizing power, would like to talk the mind into helping out with internal development and promises it a golden age if it joins up; indeed it even offers it the prospect of a certain voice in decision making. The other direction, on the contrary, attests its mistrust of the intellect by declaring that the revolutionary process will (...) continue indefinitely, and has room for the mind in its task; or it might also assure the intellect that it is not needed at all because a new mind has already turned up, and that the old one might as well jump into the fire and either burn to ashes or purify itself into its elements. What has happened up to the moment these words are being written leaves no doubt that the second direction is on the march, the first its musical accompaniment. Nor can it be otherwise than that a Movement [National Socialism] that has manifested itself so powerfully demands above all that the intellect complete assimilate and subordinate itself to the Movement. But then again, it is possible that the intellect cannot do this without renouncing itself. Surely there must be some sort of boundary here, since nothing happens that is not contingent; so it is a good test for the intellect that today it has everywhere been saddled with a kind of kangaroo-court mentality that judges it not according to its own laws, but according to the law of the Movement. Robert Musil made a decisive contribution to twentieth-century European literature. Among his works available in English are Young Törless, Posthumous Papers of a Living Author, and The Man Without Qualities. Burton Pike is professor of comparative literature at the Graduate School of the City University of New York. With Sophie Wilkins, he has edited and translated a new edition of Musil’s novel The Man without Qualities, available in 199. He is the author of Robert Musil: An Introduction to His Work and The Image of the City in Modern Literature . David S. Luft teaches modern European intellectual history at the University of California, San Diego. He is the author of Robert Musil and the Crisis of European Culture, 1880-1912. (shrink)
Part 1. Husserl: the outlines of the transcendental-phenomenological system -- 1. Husserl's phenomenological discovery of the natural attitude -- 2. Husserl's theory of the phenomenological reduction: between lifeworld and Cartesianism -- 3. Some methodological problems arising in Husserl's late reflections on the phenomenological reduction -- 4. Facticity and historicity as constituents of the lifeworld in Husserl's late philosophy -- 5. Husserl's concept of the "transcendental person": another look at the Husserl-Heidegger relationship -- 6. Dialectics of the absolute: the systematics of (...) the phenomenological system in Husserl's last period -- Part 2. Husserl, Kant, and neo-Kantianism: from subjectivity to lifeworld as a world of culture -- 7. From being to givenness and back: some remarks on the meaning of transcendental idealism in Kant and Husserl -- 8. Reconstruction and reduction: Natorp and Husserl on method and the question of subjectivity -- 9. A hermeneutic phenomenology of subjective and objective spirit: Husserl, Natorp, and Cassirer -- 10. Cassirer's philosophy of symbolic forms: between reason and relativism: a critical appraisal -- Part 3. Toward a Husserlian hermeneutics -- 11. The subjectivity of effective history and the suppressed husserlian elements in Gadamer's hermeneutics -- 12. Husserl's "hermeneutical phenomenology" as a philosophy of culture. (shrink)
on points that remain especially crucial, i.e., the concept of the natural attitude, the ways into the reduction (and their systematics), and ﬁnally the question of the “meaning of the reduction.” Indeed, in the reading attempted here, this ﬁnal question leads to two, not necessarily related, focal points: a Cartesian and a Life-world tendency. It is my claim that in following these two paths, Husserl was consistent in pursuing two evident leads in his philosophical enterprise; however, he was at the (...) same time unable to systematically unify these two strands. Thus, I am oﬀering an interpretation which might be called a modiﬁed “departure from Cartesianism” reading that Landgrebe pro-. (shrink)
In this paper I will give a systematic account of Husserl's notion of the natural attitude in the development from its first presentation in Ideas I (1913) until Husserl's last years. The problem of the natural attitude has to be dealt with on two levels. On the thematic level, it is constituted by the correlation of attitude and horizon, both stemming from Husserl's theory of intentionality. On the methodic level, the natural attitude is constituted by three factors: naturalness, naivety and (...) normality. I shall conclude by sketching out a possible motivation for leaving the natural attitude and thus for entering the sphere of phenomenology. (shrink)
This paper takes a fresh look at a classical theme in philosophical scholarship, the meaning of transcendental idealism, by contrasting Kant's and Husserl's versions of it. I present Kant's transcendental idealism as a theory distinguishing between the world as in-itself and as given to the experiencing human being. This reconstruction provides the backdrop for Husserl's transcendental phenomenology as a brand of transcendental idealism expanding on Kant: through the phenomenological reduction Husserl universalizes Kant's transcendental philosophy to an eidetic science of subjectivity. (...) He thereby furnishes a new sense of transcendental philosophy, rephrases the quid iuris-question, and provides a new conception of the thing-in-itself. What needs to be clarified is not exclusively the possibility of a priori cognition but, to start at a much lower level, the validity of objects that give themselves in experience. The thing-in-itself is not an unknowable object, but the idea of the object in all possible appearances experienced at once. In spite of these changes Husserl remains committed to the basic sense of Kant's Copernican Turn. I end with some comments on how both Kant and Husserl view the relation between theoretical and moral philosophy. (shrink)
In the introduction to the third and last volume of his Philosophy of Symbolic Forms of 1929,entitled “Phenomenology of Knowledge,” Ernst Cassirer remarks that the meaning in which he employs the term ‘phenomenology’ is Hegelian rather than according to “the modern usage of the term.”1 What sense can it make, then, to invoke Edmund Husserl’s phenomenology in this context? Yet if, roughly speaking, phenomenology can be characterized as the logosof phenomena,that is, of being insofar as it appears (phainesthai)to a conscious (...) subject, then the sense of phenomenology need not be so different from what Cassirer terms “the modern usage.”2 Phenomenology in this more liberal sense would be an account of how consciousness experiences the world through different forms of experience and in different spaces of meaning. The addition ‘hermeneutic’, moreover, points to a broader methodological scope. (shrink)
(Spanish) La argumentación es un aspecto publico y comunicativo, quizás no el único, de los procesos cognitivos inferenciales en la especie humana. Aunque los propios procesos cognitivos inferenciales no son exclusivos de los seres humanos, su expresión a través de la comunicación lingüística, su utilización en los procesos sociales para la conformación y cambio de las creencias y la conducta es propiamente humana. Una explicación correcta del concepto de argumentación es por tanto importante para captar nuestro concepto de racionalidad, de (...) uso de la razón. EI trabajo explora la forma que tiene el concepto de argumentación en la cultura occidental utilizando las herramientas de teorías cognitivas recientes sobre la naturaleza de los conceptos, sugiriendo sus consecuencias para el concepto de razón. -/- (English) The argumentation is a public and communicative aspect, maybe not the only one, of inferential cognitive processes in the human species. While the very inferential, cognitive processes are not exclusive of the human beings, their expression through the linguistic communication, their use in social processes to shape and change beliefs and behaviour is properly human. An accurate description of the concept of argumentation is important then to grasp our concept of rationality, of the use of the reason. This paper explores the form of the concept of argumentation in western culture using the tools of recent cognitive theories on the nature of concepts, suggesting its consequences for the concept of reason. (shrink)
When Edmund Husserl retired in 1928, ceding his chair at the University of Freiburg to his successor Martin Heidegger, he again began working intensively on synthesizing his philosophical efforts into a new “system of phenomenology.” This new presentation could, hopefully, displace his earlier presentation of 1913 in the Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy, Book I, a work with which he had become dissatisfied in the meantime.
In this essay, I will attempt a systematic reconstruction of the general shape of Husserl's late philosophy, insofar as it centers on the concept of personhood. The systematic concatenation of this and other themes in Husserl's late work - the method of epoché and reduction, ethics, personhood, and teleology - has only recently begun to be explored in Husserl scholarship, and this article is a modest contribution to the further e1ucidation of their mutual relationship. One of the most striking results (...) of this reconstructive analysis is Husserl's final concept of "person", which goes beyond the traditional distinctions, such as "heart" and "mind" or "reason" and "emotion". For Husserl to conceive of the subject as moral person implies, then, the demand to not only conduct oneself morally, but also to have an ethical view of the world as a world that bears meaning and harbors values despite its apparent absurdities. (shrink)
A book on this topic is long overdue. It is high time that a competent Hegel scholar recognized and assessed the danger posed to Hegel’s whole system by the skeptical tradition, argued that Hegel’s Jena writings, culminating in the Phenomenology, are primarily works of epistemology rather than metaphysics, examined Hegel’s own views on ancient and modern skepticism, identified and criticized Hegel’s own strategies for defending his thought against the skeptical threat, and took Hegel seriously as an epistemologist. Forster does all (...) this and more, and does it very well. (shrink)
The purpose of this book is the exegesis and criticism of §§ 387-482 of the Encyclopedia. DeVries is skillful at this task, coloring his portrait of subjective spirit with understandings of relevant sections of Hegel’s other texts, notably the Phenomenology and the two Logics. The result is worth reading, for it proves to offer several new and - as the author himself expressly wishes - “controversial” ways of looking at the philosophy of spirit.
One notices immediately that this is a very well organized piece of work, complete with both name and subject indices. The six-page analytic table of contents helpfully distinguishes Angehrn’s various digressions, chiefly into Marxian thought, from the mainstream of his argument. The bibliography is generally an excellent brief sampling of the pertinent Hegelian literature of the last fifteen or twenty years; although, as one might easily expect, since Angehrn earned his doctorate with this work at Heidelberg in 1976, there is (...) perhaps a disproportionate emphasis on the contributions of his dissertation director, Michael Theunissen. (shrink)
This is the right book done wrong. Stewart has perceived a genuine gap in the published English Hegel translations, but has filled it in a way that does not enhance anglophone Hegel scholarship. He has instead produced a so-called “non-book,” i.e. has only slapped together a bunch of previously published and readily available translations with a new introduction, bibliography, and index. Moreover, he has failed to include many of Hegel’s most important essays and reviews.
This is a curious book, because the soul of its author is torn.On the one hand, the book is a monograph on the philosopher-intellectual Ernst Cassirer. It is scholarly, noticeably well-written , philosophical to the extent that it does not distort its subject matter too much, and a splendid piece of intellectual history, which places its subject, Cassirer, in a rich cultural, historical, and intellectual context. In terms of presenting the gist of Cassirer’s thought in relatively few pages, the author (...) does everything right, disregarding minor quibbles. So far, so good.But already reading the introduction, the author makes a confession that bathes the entire book in a different light. Here we learn that the precursor of the present tome was a “straight-faced” account of the philosopher of culture, Cassirer. But over the course of writing it, Skidelsky admits, doubts crept in. Little by little, he came to see Cassirer as a dinosaur of a past age, his philosophy as a “rearguard action on behalf of a vanishing civilization” , which died on the battlefields of the Second World War. The “Olympian” Cassirer had an “enchanting vision” and dreamt a “happy dream” of human culture, all of which went down the drain with the advent of Nazism and has now, in our own age of postmodernism, been. (shrink)