It is shown that a formula of modal propositional logic has precisely the same models as a sentence of the first-order language of a single dyadic predicate iff its class of models is closed under ultraproducts. as a corollary, any modal formula definable by a set of first-order conditions is always definable by a single such condition. these results are then used to show that the formula (lmp 'validates' mlp) is not first-order definable.
In 1951 these editors began publication of a monumental critical edition of Plotinus' works. Now Oxford is making available a slightly revised editio minor in its series of classical texts. The textual revision is accompanied by a long list of variants. Thus this text, which includes Porphyry's life of Plotinus and Enneads I-III, supersedes the earlier editio major. The critical apparatus is considerably reduced, but should prove adequate to all but serious textual scholars. This edition will probably remain the standard (...) Plotinus text for many years.—R. J. W. (shrink)
The theme of the thirty-fourth annual meeting was analytic philosophy. The guest speaker was Wilfred Sellars whose paper, "Being and Being Known," offers an interpretation of isomorphism between the knower and the known based on Wittgenstein's Tractatus which is compared with the Thomistic position.--R. I.
Piguet attempts to characterize the language which is peculiar to philosophy. He rejects the contentions that the language of philosophy should be assimilated either to art or to science, and opts for a language which will serve to suggest an experience to be re-lived. Though the contrasts are interesting, the distinctions are sometimes forced.--R. P. I.
In this extremely well-written study, the author interprets man as striving towards the fullness of his personal freedom, which is achieved in the love of God. Werner's intimate familiarity with the history of philosophy and his awareness of the findings of biology and psycho-analysis enable him to develop his theme with rigor and depth. --R. P. I.
A careful, often meticulous, analysis of Kant's key terms, method, and major doctrines in the Transcendental Aesthetic and Analytic. De Coninck argues that Kant's transcendental method is essentially analytic, assuming only a conception of human knowledge or "experience" and the principle of non-contradiction. A further volume is promised, in which the author will make his own evaluation of the Critical Philosophy.--R. H.
Chronologically ordered readings varying in length from a high of sixty-two pages from J. S. Mill to a low of twenty-two pages from Brentano, with most of the other eleven philosophers included having between thirty-five and forty-five pages each. Comte, Spencer, and Mach are mild surprises whose presence is explained over that of, say, Marx, by the editor's desire to emphasize epistemological, metaphysical, and methodological themes. The bibliographies accompanying the selections are "non-selective"; sometimes they appear positively random. The general introduction (...) is too brief to be of any real use but one can sympathize with the fact that the editor had to say something by way of introduction. In addition to the philosophers mentioned above, selections from Fichte, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Peirce, Bradley, and Frege are included.—E. A. R. (shrink)
This volume contains shorter pieces of Scheler's dealing with phenomenology and ethico-religious problems. All but two had been published posthumously in 1933, and are now reissued within the framework of the new edition of Scheler's works.--R. G. S.
The author sets out to show the "unique features of the idealistic dialectical method with its positive and negative elements, in order to show the various, often contradictory tendencies which are contained in them." Designed for "students, teachers and a broad circle of intellectuals." --R. L. J.
This is the first of a number of volumes designed to review the philosophical work which has been done in various areas of philosophy between the years 1956 and 1966. It succeeds an earlier three volume publication entitled Philosophy in the Mid-Century which covered the period from 1949 to 1955. This first volume in the series covers the fields of logic, philosophical logic, foundations and philosophy of mathematics. For anyone interested in these fields, the book is an indispensable guide. The (...) procedure is that an expert in a given area writes a summary of the work done in the area in the last ten years and adds a bibliography covering the same period. In all there are thirty-two such essays, most written in English, but a few in French and German. Some representative essays and their authors are the following: On the logical side, Modal Logic, Many Valued Logics, Logic of Practical Discourse, Semantics, Model Theory, Pragmatics, Chronological or Tense Logic, The Logic of Questions, Combinatory Logic and others. There are two general essays on recent developments in philosophical logic and a number of essays on the development of logic in various Eastern and Western European countries and Japan. On the mathematical side are three essays on foundations of set theory and mathematics, essays on Intuitionism in mathematics, and general essays by A. Church, H. Freudenthal and others. The essays are generally of high caliber and the bibliographies in most cases very comprehensive. Occasionally the essays contain not only summary of work done but original suggestions and development of ideas. It would be hard to find a more useful guide for the philosopher overwhelmed by the many developments in these fields in recent years.--R. H. K. (shrink)
A readable new translation of commentaries of interest to Biblical exegetes as well as Calvin scholars. Calvin's own doctrine is often more clearly stated here than in the Institutes, and in spite of his polemical situation, much of the commentary is fresh and interesting.—R. J. W.
The goal of this article is to put to the fore the importance and the relevance of the “second persons” in the framework of the relational ethics where the person has being related as a primacy over the individual as an isolated subject. While using the psychiatric team of an emergency unit (E.R.I.C.) as a leading thread we seek to show the anthropology of being related, which underlines the practical ethics of such emergency team.
Research ethics training during post-graduate education is necessary to improve ethical standards in the design and conduct of biomedical research. We studied quality and quantity of research ethics training in the curricula of post-graduate programs in the medical science in I.R. Iran. We evaluated curricula of 125 post-graduate programs in medical sciences in I.R. Iran. We qualitatively studied the curricula by education level, including the Master and PhD degrees and analyzed the contents and the amount of teaching allocated for ethics (...) training in each curriculum. We found no research ethics training in 72 of the programs. Among the 53 programs that considered research ethics training, only 17 programs had specific courses for research ethics and eight of them had detailed topics on their courses. The research ethics training was optional in 25% and mandatory in 76% of the programs. Post-graduate studies that were approved in the more recent years had more attention to the research ethics training. Research ethics training was neglected in most of the medical post-graduate programs. We suggest including sufficient amount of mandatory research ethics training in Master and PhD programs in I.R. Iran. Further research about quality of research ethics training and implementation of curricula in the biomedical institutions is warranted. (shrink)
The study of micro-organisms in Britain in the early twentieth century was dominated by medical concerns, with little support for non-medical research. This paper examines the way in which microbes came to have a place in industrial contexts in the 1920s and early 1930s. Their industrial capacity was only properly recognized during World War I, with the development of fermentation processes to make required organic chemicals. Post-war research sponsored by chemical and food industries and the D.S.I.R. established the industrial significance (...) of microbes. The primary focus here is the D.S.I.R. work which aimed to pull microbes away from medical concerns and promote the role of microbes in British industry. (shrink)
After having read the article by A. P. Butenko entitled "Theoretical Problems of Perfecting the New Order: the Socioeconomic Nature of Socialism" [Teoreticheskie problemy sovershenstvovaniia novogo stroia: o sotsial'no-ekonomicheskoi prirode sotsializma],† I think it my duty to share with you certain thoughts.
Hans-Georg GADAMER, Hermeneutische Entwürfe. Vorträge und Aufsätze ; Pascal MICHON, Poétique d’une anti-anthropologie: l’herméneutique deGadamer ; Robert J. DOSTAL, The Cambridge Companion to Gadamer ; Denis SERON, Le problème de la métaphysique. Recherches sur l’interprétation heideggerienne de Platon et d’Aristote ; Henry MALDINEY, Ouvrir le rien. L’art nu ; Dominique JANICAUD, Heidegger en France, I. Récit; II. Entretiens ; Maurice MERLEAU-PONTY, Fenomenologia percepţiei ; Trish GLAZEBROOK, Heidegger’s Philosophy of Science ; Richard WOLIN, Heidegger’s Children. Hannah Arendt, Karl Löwith, Hans Jonas (...) and Herbert Marcuse ; Ivo DEGENNARO, Logos – Heidegger liest Heraklit ; O. K. WIEGAND, R. J. DOSTAL, L. EMBREE, J. KOCKELMANS and J. N. MOHANTY, Phenomenology on Kant, German Idealism, Hermeneutics and Logic ; James FAULCONER and Mark WRATHALL, Appropriating Heidegger. (shrink)
Članak se fokusira na R. M. Ungerovu pragmatističku viziju demokratskog eksperimentalizma i moguće primjene na suvremenu interkulturalnu filozofiju. Povezuje se polje političke i socijalne misli američkog pragmatizma sa suvremenim gorućim pitanjima interkulturalne filozofije. U drugom je dijelu Ungerova filozofija stavljena u dijalog s filozofijom Luce Irigaray otvarajući tako novu platformu za etičko-političku viziju demokracije u eri globalizacije. Analiza demokratskog eksperimentalizma se, na taj način, sama uspostavlja kao alternativni projekt političke etike te kao Ungerov i Irigarayin projekt demokratskog eksperimentalizma u dobu (...) globalizacije. (shrink)
In an influential article, A. I. Sabra identified an intellectual trend from twelfth and thirteenth-century Andalusia which he described as the ‘‘Andalusian revolt against Ptolemaic astronomy.” Philosophers such as Ibn Rushd , Ibn Tufayl , and Maimonides objected to Ptolemy’s theories on philosophic grounds, not because of shortcomings in the theories' predictive accuracy. Sabra showed how al-Bitrūjī's Kitāb al-Hay'a attempted to account for observed planetary motions in a way that met the philosophic standards of those philosophers and others. In Nūr (...) al-‘ālam , the subject of this article, Joseph ibn Joseph ibn Nahmias endeavoured to improve upon al-Bitrūjī’s models. Levi Ben Gerson's Hebrew writings on astronomy criticized al-Bitrūjī, but Ibn Nahmias did not mention them. Nūr al-‘ālam deserves attention, too, because it is the first Arabic text on theoretical astronomy by a Jewish author to come to light. In the body of this article, I will describe and analyze Ibn Nahmias’ theory, from Nūr al-‘ālam , for the motion of the sun. (shrink)
In Alabaster v. Barclays Bank plc and Secretary of State for Social Security (No. 2:  E.W.C.A Civ. 508,  I.R.L.R. 576.) Michelle Alabaster won a grand total of £204.53 (plus £65.86 interest) after eight years of litigation, which included two visits to the Court of Appeal and one to the European Court of Justice. This marathon resulted from the sex discrimination which Alabaster had alleged in relation to the calculation of her Statutory Maternity Pay (S.M.P.) whilst she was pregnant (...) 10 years earlier. The technicalities of the statutory schemes involved should not be allowed to disguise the important principle which finally emerges in the Court of Appeal and which underlines one of the longstanding criticisms of the equality legislation, namely the requirement that a woman must compare herself with a man in order to establish unlawful sex discrimination. (shrink)
This is a collection of fifty essays featured in Edward R. Murrow's 1950s This I Believe radio series. It includes such celebrities of the twentieth century as Pearl Buck, Norman Cousins, Margaret Mead, James Michener, Jackie Robinson, and Harry Truman. With an introduction by Edward R. Murrow and a foreword by Dan Gediman, executive producer of the contemporary This I Believe radio broadcasts, heard weekly on public radio.