After an initial consideration of the three main positions discernible within the current literature on the question of the relationship between mystical experience and its interpretation, attention is focused on a new model of this relationship. by utilizing wittgenstein's notion of "seeing-as" in conjunction with a more complex theory of the nexus between experience and interpretation, it is argued that there are varieties of mystical experience. on the other hand, it is maintained that there is a limiting case of mystical (...) experience, the essence of which is its undifferentiated or contentless nature. it is suggested that the contemplative method, while producing a variety of content-filled mystical experiences, nonetheless is most conducive to the attainment of this "pure" contentless mystical state. (shrink)
In the light of the contemporary resurgence of Druidism, this article explores the heyday of the invention of Druidism in the West during the Romantic period. It demonstrates the way in which the construction of Druidism, as the heir of the Patriarchal tradition of the Old Testament and of Primordial religion, played a significant role in the construction of British self-identity from 1750-1850, in contrast to the marginal role which neo-Druidism plays in contemporary British self-understanding. The article explores the perceived (...) connection between Druidism and the great stone circles of Stonehenge and Avebury. (shrink)
This article addresses ethical issues in conducting randomized clinical trials with youth. Ethical considerations that occur prior to treatment, during treatment, and following treatment are reviewed. Recommendations, based on empirical evidence and clinical experience, are offered for conducting ethical treatment research with youth and future directions for carrying out research on the ethics of conducting RCTs with youth are offered.
BackgroundPatient autonomy is a fundamental, yet challenging, principle of professional medical ethics. The idea that individual patients should have the freedom to make choices about their lives, including medical matters, has become increasingly prominent in current literature. However, this has not always been the case, especially in communist countries where paternalistic attitudes have been interwoven into all relationships including medical ones. Patients’ expectations and the role of the doctor in the patient-physician relationship are changing. Croatia, as a transitional country, is (...) currently undergoing this particular process.MethodsQualitative research was conducted by means of six focus group discussions held in the years 2012 and 2013 in Croatia. Focus groups were held separately with each of the following: first year and final year medical students, physicians engaged in medical ethics education, physicians practicing in a clinical hospital, family medicine residents and individuals representing patients with chronic disease. This research specifically addresses issues related to patient autonomy, in particular, the principles of truth telling, confidentiality, and informed consent. All focus group discussions were audio taped and then transcribed verbatim and systematized according to acknowledged qualitative analysis methods.Results and discussionPatient autonomy is much more than a simple notion defined as the patient’s right to make treatment decisions independently. It has to be understood in context of the broader socio-cultural setting. At present, both patients and medical doctors in Croatia are increasingly appreciating the importance of promoting the principle of autonomy in medical decision-making. However, the current views of medical students, physicians and patients reveal inconsistencies.Conclusions Knowing how to respect the various facets of patients’ autonomy should be part of physician’s professional duties, and also be reflected in his or her core clinical competencies. For this reason greater importance should be dedicated to patient autonomy issues in medical education in Croatia. (shrink)
This commentary on Müller's target article is designed to help bridge the gap between method and theory in neurobiological approaches to language. We focus on pathonormal inference as reflective of broader conceptual issues concerning universality and modularity. Our commentary directs attention to how current methodological and analytic procedures are less than optimal and minimize possibilities for reaching theoretical consensus. We make suggestions about alternative analytic strategies that provide a direction for future scientific progress.
MicroRNAs are non‐coding regulators of gene expression and key factors in development, disease, and targets for bioengineering. Consequently, microRNAs have become essential elements of already burgeoning draft plant genome descriptions where their annotation is often particularly poor, contributing unduly to the corruption of public databases. Using the Citrus sinensis as an example, we highlight and review common failings of miRNAome annotations. Understanding and exploiting the role of miRNAs in plant biology will be stymied unless the research community acts decisively to (...) improve the accuracy of miRNAome annotations. We encourage genome annotation teams to do it right or not at all. (shrink)