Results for 'Kevin Patrick Tobia'

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  1. Cleanliness is Next to Morality, Even for Philosophers.Kevin Patrick Tobia, Gretchen B. Chapman & Stephen Stich - 2013 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 20.
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  2.  51
    The Effects of Cleanliness and Disgust on Moral Judgment.Kevin Patrick Tobia - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (4):556-568.
    Recent experimental studies in cognitive science report the influence of “disgust” and “cleanliness” manipulations on moral judgment, yet little attention has been given to interpreting these studies together or developing models of the causal influence of cleanliness and disgust manipulations on moral judgment. I propose considerations for the causal modeling of these effects. The conclusions are not decisive in favor of one theory of disgust and cleanliness, but suggest several distinct causal roles of disgust- and cleanliness-type manipulations. The incorrect views, (...)
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  3.  65
    Wonder and Value.Kevin Patrick Tobia - 2015 - Res Philosophica 92 (4):959-984.
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  4.  97
    Philosophical Method and Intuitions as Assumptions.Kevin Patrick Tobia - 2015 - Metaphilosophy 46 (4-5):575-594.
    Many philosophers claim to employ intuitions in their philosophical arguments. Others contest that no such intuitions are used frequently or at all in philosophy. This article suggests and defends a conception of intuitions as part of the philosophical method: intuitions are special types of philosophical assumptions to which we are invited to assent, often as premises in argument, that may serve an independent function in philosophical argument and that are not formed through a purely inferential process. A series of philosophical (...)
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  5. A Defense of Scalar Utilitarianism.Kevin Patrick Tobia - 2017 - American Philosophical Quarterly 54 (3):283-294.
    Scalar Utilitarianism eschews foundational notions of rightness and wrongness in favor of evaluative comparisons of outcomes. I defend Scalar Utilitarianism from two critiques, the first against an argument for the thesis that Utilitarianism's commitments are fundamentally evaluative, and the second that Scalar Utilitarianism does not issue demands or sufficiently guide action. These defenses suggest a variety of more plausible Scalar Utilitarian interpretations, and I argue for a version that best represents a moral theory founded on evaluative notions, and offers better (...)
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  6.  37
    Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason, and the Gap Between Us and Them. [REVIEW]Kevin Patrick Tobia - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (5):746-750.
    Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason, and the Gap between Us and Them. . ???aop.label???. doi: 10.1080/09515089.2013.871618.
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  7. More on How and Why: Cause and Effect in Biology Revisited.Kevin N. Laland, John Odling-Smee, William Hoppitt & Tobias Uller - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (5):719-745.
    In 1961, Ernst Mayr published a highly influential article on the nature of causation in biology, in which he distinguished between proximate and ultimate causes. Mayr argued that proximate causes (e.g. physiological factors) and ultimate causes (e.g. natural selection) addressed distinct ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions and were not competing alternatives. That distinction retains explanatory value today. However, the adoption of Mayr’s heuristic led to the widespread belief that ontogenetic processes are irrelevant to evolutionary questions, a belief that has (1) hindered (...)
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  8.  18
    The Contest Between Public Discourse and Authorial Self in Robert Coover’s The Public Burning.Kevin Patrick Finucane - 2001 - Symposium 5 (1):25-39.
    Robert Coover’s Novel, The Public Buming, merges fantasy, history, and popular myth to respond to the American Cold War culture surrounding the trial of Ethal and Julius Rosenberg. While serving as a postmodern response to, and rewrite of, the Cold War ideological narratives, Coover’s novel also raises theoretical and practical questions concerning the author’s agency in the twentieth century. This article makes use of the language theories of Bruce Andrews, Mikhail Bakhtin, and Charles Peirce to consider how Coover’s fiction addresses (...)
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  9. Water is and is Not H 2 O.Kevin P. Tobia, George E. Newman & Joshua Knobe - 2020 - Mind and Language 35 (2):183-208.
    The Twin Earth thought experiment invites us to consider a liquid that has all of the superficial properties associated with water (clear, potable, etc.) but has entirely different deeper causal properties (composed of “XYZ” rather than of H2O). Although this thought experiment was originally introduced to illuminate questions in the theory of reference, it has also played a crucial role in empirically informed debates within the philosophy of psychology about people’s ordinary natural kind concepts. Those debates have sought to accommodate (...)
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  10.  31
    The Contest Between Public Discourse and Authorial Self in Robert Coover's The Public Burning.Kevin Patrick Finucane - 2001 - Symposium: Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy/Revue canadienne de philosophie continentale 5 (1):25-39.
    Robert Coover’s Novel, The Public Buming, merges fantasy, history, and popular myth to respond to the American Cold War culture surrounding the trial of Ethal and Julius Rosenberg. While serving as a postmodern response to, and rewrite of, the Cold War ideological narratives, Coover’s novel also raises theoretical and practical questions concerning the author’s agency in the twentieth century. This article makes use of the language theories of Bruce Andrews, Mikhail Bakhtin, and Charles Peirce to consider how Coover’s fiction addresses (...)
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  11. Personal Identity, Direction of Change, and Neuroethics.Kevin Tobia - 2016 - Neuroethics 9 (1):37-43.
    The personal identity relation is of great interest to philosophers, who often consider fictional scenarios to test what features seem to make persons persist through time. But often real examples of neuroscientific interest also provide important tests of personal identity. One such example is the case of Phineas Gage – or at least the story often told about Phineas Gage. Many cite Gage’s story as example of severed personal identity; Phineas underwent such a tremendous change that Gage “survived as a (...)
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  12. Moral Intuitions: Are Philosophers Experts?Kevin Tobia, Wesley Buckwalter & Stephen Stich - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology 26 (5):629-638.
    Recently psychologists and experimental philosophers have reported findings showing that in some cases ordinary people's moral intuitions are affected by factors of dubious relevance to the truth of the content of the intuition. Some defend the use of intuition as evidence in ethics by arguing that philosophers are the experts in this area, and philosophers' moral intuitions are both different from those of ordinary people and more reliable. We conducted two experiments indicating that philosophers and non-philosophers do indeed sometimes have (...)
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  13.  44
    Water is and is Not H 2 O.Kevin P. Tobia, George E. Newman & Joshua Knobe - 2020 - Mind and Language 35 (2):183-208.
    The Twin Earth thought experiment invites us to consider a liquid that has all of the superficial properties associated with water (clear, potable, etc.) but has entirely different deeper causal properties (composed of “XYZ” rather than of H2O). Debates about natural kind concepts have sought to accommodate an apparent fact about ordinary people's judgments: Intuitively, the Twin Earth liquid is not water. We present results showing that people do not have this intuition. Instead, people tend to judge that there is (...)
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  14. Personal Identity and the Phineas Gage Effect.Kevin P. Tobia - 2015 - Analysis 75 (3):396-405.
    Phineas Gage’s story is typically offered as a paradigm example supporting the view that part of what matters for personal identity is a certain magnitude of similarity between earlier and later individuals. Yet, reconsidering a slight variant of Phineas Gage’s story indicates that it is not just magnitude of similarity, but also the direction of change that affects personal identity judgments; in some cases, changes for the worse are more seen as identity-severing than changes for the better of comparable magnitude. (...)
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  15. Rule Consequentialism and the Problem of Partial Acceptance.Kevin Tobia - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (3):643-652.
    Most plausible moral theories must address problems of partial acceptance or partial compliance. The aim of this paper is to examine some proposed ways of dealing with partial acceptance problems as well as to introduce a new Rule Utilitarian suggestion. Here I survey three forms of Rule Utilitarianism, each of which represents a distinct approach to solving partial acceptance issues. I examine Fixed Rate, Variable Rate, and Optimum Rate Rule Utilitarianism, and argue that a new approach, Maximizing Expectation Rate Rule (...)
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  16.  51
    More on How and Why: A Response to Commentaries.Kevin N. Laland, John Odling-Smee, William Hoppitt & Tobias Uller - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (5):793-810.
    We are grateful to the commentators for taking the time to respond to our article. Too many interesting and important points have been raised for us to tackle them all in this response, and so in the below we have sought to draw out the major themes. These include problems with both the term ‘ultimate causation’ and the proximate-ultimate causation dichotomy more generally, clarification of the meaning of reciprocal causation, discussion of issues related to the nature of development and phenotypic (...)
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  17. Folk teleology drives persistence judgments.David Rose, Jonathan Schaffer & Kevin Tobia - 2020 - Synthese 197 (12):5491-5509.
    Two separate research programs have revealed two different factors that feature in our judgments of whether some entity persists. One program—inspired by Knobe—has found that normative considerations affect persistence judgments. For instance, people are more inclined to view a thing as persisting when the changes it undergoes lead to improvements. The other program—inspired by Kelemen—has found that teleological considerations affect persistence judgments. For instance, people are more inclined to view a thing as persisting when it preserves its purpose. Our goal (...)
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  18. How People Judge What Is Reasonable.Kevin P. Tobia - 2018 - Alabama Law Review 70 (2):293-359.
    A classic debate concerns whether reasonableness should be understood statistically (e.g., reasonableness is what is common) or prescriptively (e.g., reasonableness is what is good). This Article elaborates and defends a third possibility. Reasonableness is a partly statistical and partly prescriptive “hybrid,” reflecting both statistical and prescriptive considerations. Experiments reveal that people apply reasonableness as a hybrid concept, and the Article argues that a hybrid account offers the best general theory of reasonableness. -/- First, the Article investigates how ordinary people judge (...)
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  19. Does Religious Belief Impact Philosophical Analysis?Kevin P. Tobia - 2016 - Religion, Brain and Behavior 6 (1):56-66.
    One popular conception of natural theology holds that certain purely rational arguments are insulated from empirical inquiry and independently establish conclusions that provide evidence, justification, or proof of God’s existence. Yet, some raise suspicions that philosophers and theologians’ personal religious beliefs inappropriately affect these kinds of arguments. I present an experimental test of whether philosophers and theologians’ argument analysis is influenced by religious commitments. The empirical findings suggest religious belief affects philosophical analysis and offer a challenge to theists and atheists, (...)
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  20. Normative Judgments and Individual Essence.Julian De Freitas, Kevin P. Tobia, George E. Newman & Joshua Knobe - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S3).
    A growing body of research has examined how people judge the persistence of identity over time—that is, how they decide that a particular individual is the same entity from one time to the next. While a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the types of features that people typically consider when making such judgments, to date, existing work has not explored how these judgments may be shaped by normative considerations. The present studies demonstrate that normative beliefs do (...)
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  21. Experimental Philosophy and the Philosophical Tradition.Stephen Stich & Kevin P. Tobia - 2016 - In Justin Sytsma & Wesley Buckwalter (eds.), Blackwell Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 5.
  22. Personal Identity.David Shoemaker & Kevin P. Tobia - forthcoming - In Oxford Handbook of Moral Psychology. Oxford:
    Our aim in this entry is to articulate the state of the art in the moral psychology of personal identity. We begin by discussing the major philosophical theories of personal identity, including their shortcomings. We then turn to recent psychological work on personal identity and the self, investigations that often illuminate our person-related normative concerns. We conclude by discussing the implications of this psychological work for some contemporary philosophical theories and suggesting fruitful areas for future work on personal identity.
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  23. Evolutionary Causation: Biological and Philosophical Reflections.Tobias Uller & Kevin Laland (eds.) - forthcoming
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  24. Rule-Consequentialism's Assumptions.Kevin P. Tobia - 2018 - Utilitas 30 (4):458-471.
    Rule-Consequentialism faces “the problem of partial acceptance”: How should the ideal code be selected given the possibility that its rules may not be universally accepted? A new contender, “Calculated Rates” Rule-Consequentialism claims to solve this problem. However, I argue that Calculated Rates merely relocates the partial acceptance question. Nevertheless, there is a significant lesson from this failure of Calculated Rates. Rule-Consequentialism’s problem of partial acceptance is more helpfully understood as an instance of the broader problem of selecting the ideal code (...)
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    Personal Transformation and Advance Directives: An Experimental Bioethics Approach.Brian D. Earp, Stephen R. Latham & Kevin P. Tobia - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (8):72-75.
  26.  9
    Lessons From a Master: Montaigne’s Pedagogy of Conversation.Kevin Williams & Patrick Williams - 2017 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 49 (3):253-263.
    There remains much to be learned from searching exploration of the great authors who have meditated on education. Montaigne is one such thinker and this essay endeavors to draw together the strands of his pedagogy and to demonstrate how they gain purchase in the business of teaching and learning. The article also proposes to supplement his vision with practical examples from fiction and autobiography. Perhaps the most striking theme is the need to be able to decentre from the comfort zone (...)
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  27. Experimental Philosophy of Identity and the Self.Kevin Tobia (ed.) - forthcoming - London: Bloomsbury.
     
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  28.  16
    An Evolutionary Comparison of the Handicap Principle and Hybrid Equilibrium Theories of Signaling.Patrick Kane & Kevin J. S. Zollman - unknown
    The handicap principle has come under significant challenge both from empirical studies and from theoretical work. As a result, a number of alternative explanations for honest signaling have been proposed. This paper compares the evolutionary plausibility of one such alternative, the "hybrid equilibrium," to the handicap principle. We utilize computer simulations to compare these two theories as they are instantiated in Maynard Smith's Sir Philip Sidney game. We conclude that, when both types of communication are possible, evolution is unlikely to (...)
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  29. Personal Identity and Moral Psychology.David Shoemaker & Kevin P. Tobia - forthcoming - In John M. Doris & Manuel Vargas (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Moral Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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  30. Estimating the Reproducibility of Experimental Philosophy.Florian Cova, Brent Strickland, Angela Abatista, Aurélien Allard, James Andow, Mario Attie, James Beebe, Renatas Berniūnas, Jordane Boudesseul, Matteo Colombo, Fiery Cushman, Rodrigo Diaz, Noah N’Djaye Nikolai van Dongen, Vilius Dranseika, Brian D. Earp, Antonio Gaitán Torres, Ivar Hannikainen, José V. Hernández-Conde, Wenjia Hu, François Jaquet, Kareem Khalifa, Hanna Kim, Markus Kneer, Joshua Knobe, Miklos Kurthy, Anthony Lantian, Shen-yi Liao, Edouard Machery, Tania Moerenhout, Christian Mott, Mark Phelan, Jonathan Phillips, Navin Rambharose, Kevin Reuter, Felipe Romero, Paulo Sousa, Jan Sprenger, Emile Thalabard, Kevin Tobia, Hugo Viciana, Daniel Wilkenfeld & Xiang Zhou - 2018 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology (1):1-36.
    Responding to recent concerns about the reliability of the published literature in psychology and other disciplines, we formed the X-Phi Replicability Project to estimate the reproducibility of experimental philosophy. Drawing on a representative sample of 40 x-phi studies published between 2003 and 2015, we enlisted 20 research teams across 8 countries to conduct a high-quality replication of each study in order to compare the results to the original published findings. We found that x-phi studies – as represented in our sample (...)
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  31. Conceptual Marxism and Truth: Inquiry Symposium on Kevin Scharp’s Replacing Truth.Patrick Greenough - 2019 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 62 (4):403-421.
    In Replacing Truth, Scharp takes the concept of truth to be fundamentally incoherent. As such, Scharp reckons it to be unsuited for systematic philosophical theorising and in need of replacement – at least for regions of thought and talk which permit liar sentences and their ilk to be formulated. This replacement methodology is radical because it not only recommends that the concept of truth be replaced, but that the word ‘true’ be replaced too. Only Tarski has attempted anything like it (...)
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    Experimental Jurisprudence.Kevin Tobia - manuscript
    Experimental jurisprudence” is a novel empirical approach to jurisprudence. This practice has grown into a movement, as scholars increasingly conduct experimental studies of legal language and concepts including causation, consent, intent, knowledge and reasonableness. Despite its progress, the approach’s justification is still surprisingly opaque. To put it most provocatively: Jurisprudence is the study of deep and longstanding theoretical questions about law’s nature, but “experimental jurisprudence” simply surveys laypeople. Experimental jurisprudence seems to miss the mark, twice. First, laypeople—with no legal expertise—are (...)
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  33.  95
    Correction to: Estimating the Reproducibility of Experimental Philosophy.Florian Cova, Brent Strickland, Angela Abatista, Aurélien Allard, James Andow, Mario Attie, James Beebe, Renatas Berniūnas, Jordane Boudesseul, Matteo Colombo, Fiery Cushman, Rodrigo Diaz, Noah N’Djaye Nikolai van Dongen, Vilius Dranseika, Brian D. Earp, Antonio Gaitán Torres, Ivar Hannikainen, José V. Hernández-Conde, Wenjia Hu, François Jaquet, Kareem Khalifa, Hanna Kim, Markus Kneer, Joshua Knobe, Miklos Kurthy, Anthony Lantian, Shen-yi Liao, Edouard Machery, Tania Moerenhout, Christian Mott, Mark Phelan, Jonathan Phillips, Navin Rambharose, Kevin Reuter, Felipe Romero, Paulo Sousa, Jan Sprenger, Emile Thalabard, Kevin Tobia, Hugo Viciana, Daniel Wilkenfeld & Xiang Zhou - 2018 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 12 (1):45-48.
    Appendix 1 was incomplete in the initial online publication. The original article has been corrected.
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  34.  7
    Gauging Personal Identity.Kevin Tobia - 2016 - Forum for European Philosophy Blog.
    Kevin Tobia on how our intuitions about personal identity reflect moral norms.
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    Insights Pertaining to Patient Assessments of States Worse Than Death.Robert A. Pearlman, Kevin C. Cain, Donald L. Patrick, M. Appelbaum-Maizel, H. E. Starks, N. S. Jecker & R. F. Uhlmann - 1993 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 4 (1):33.
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  36.  4
    Perspectives on Learning Styles in Motor and Sport Skills.Ian Tobias Fuelscher, Kevin Ball & Clare MacMahon - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
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    Connecting the Dots Without Top-Down Knowledge: Evidence for Rapidly-Learned Low-Level Associations That Are Independent of Object Identity.Patrick Sadil, Kevin W. Potter, David E. Huber & Rosemary A. Cowell - 2019 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 148 (6):1058-1070.
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  38. Disparate Statistics.Kevin P. Tobia - 2017 - Yale Law Journal 126 (8):2382-2420.
    Statistical evidence is crucial throughout disparate impact’s three-stage analysis: during (1) the plaintiff’s prima facie demonstration of a policy’s disparate impact; (2) the defendant’s job-related business necessity defense of the discriminatory policy; and (3) the plaintiff’s demonstration of an alternative policy without the same discriminatory impact. The circuit courts are split on a vital question about the “practical significance” of statistics at Stage 1: Are “small” impacts legally insignificant? For example, is an employment policy that causes a one percent disparate (...)
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    The Language of War.Kevin P. Tobia - 2016 - The Monist 99 (1):40-54.
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  40.  4
    A Parliament of Minds: Philosophy for a New Millennium.Michael Tobias, J. Patrick Fitzgerald & David Rothenberg (eds.) - 1999 - State University of New York Press.
    In this companion volume to the national public television documentary of the same name, interviews of philosophy luminaries expose the relevance of philosophy to everyday life.
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    Julian Drews; Ottmar Ette; Tobias Kraft; Barbara Schneider-Kempf; Jutta Weber . Forster—Humboldt—Chamisso: Weltreisende im Spannungsfeld der Kulturen. 432 pp., figs., bibl. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2017. €50 . ISBN 9783847107514. [REVIEW]Patrick Anthony - 2019 - Isis 110 (2):414-415.
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    Legal Essentialism: Cross-Cultural Evidence.Ivar Hannikainen, Kevin P. Tobia, Vilius Dranseika, Markus Kneer, Guilherme de F. C. F. De Aleida, Raff Donelson, Niek Strohmaier, Piotr Bystranowski, Kristina Dolinina, Bartosz Janik, Sothie Keo, Eglè Lauraitytè, Alice Liefgreen, Maciej Próchnicki, Alejandro Rosas & Noel Struchiner - manuscript
  43.  53
    Against Epistemic Circularity.Patrick Bondy & Kevin Delaplante - 2011
    One finds a surprising number of defenses of the legitimacy of some kinds of question-begging arguments or beliefs in the literature. Without wanting to deny the importance of dialectical analyses of begging the question, what I do here is explore the epistemic side of the issue. In particular, I want to explore the legitimacy of “epistemically circular” arguments and beliefs. My tentative conclusion is that epistemically circular arguments and beliefs are never legitimate. *Note: this is an unpublished manuscript presented at (...)
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  44.  21
    Factors That Degrade the Match Distribution in Iris Biometrics.Kevin W. Bowyer, Sarah E. Baker, Amanda Hentz, Karen Hollingsworth, Tanya Peters & Patrick J. Flynn - 2009 - Identity in the Information Society 2 (3):327-343.
    We consider three accepted truths about iris biometrics, involving pupil dilation, contact lenses and template aging. We also consider a relatively ignored issue that may arise in system interoperability. Experimental results from our laboratory demonstrate that the three accepted truths are not entirely true, and also that interoperability can involve subtle performance degradation. All four of these problems affect primarily the stability of the match, or authentic, distribution of template comparison scores rather than the non-match, or imposter, distribution of scores. (...)
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    Kevin Krisciunas, Astronomical Centres of the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press1988. Pp. X + 320 ISBN 0-521-30278-1 £17.50. - Patrick A. Wayman, Dunsink Observatory, 1785–1985: A Bicentennial History. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies and Royal Dublin Society, 1987. Pp. Xiii + 353. ISBN 0-86027-020-3. IR £25. [REVIEW]Mari E. W. Williams - 1990 - British Journal for the History of Science 23 (1):102-103.
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  46. Bastable, Patrick, Kevin Dublin, October 25, 1918 September 27, 1992-in-Memoriam.T. Iglesias - 1993 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 1 (1):173-173.
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  47.  20
    Double Yield.Patrick McVeigh & Kevin O’Keefe - 2003 - Business Ethics: The Magazine of Corporate Responsibility 17 (1):18-20.
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    Double Yield.Patrick McVeigh & Kevin O’Keefe - 2004 - Business Ethics: The Magazine of Corporate Responsibility 18 (1):18-21.
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    Fritz Allhoff, Patrick Lin, James Moor, and John Weckert , Nanoethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Nanotechnology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley‐Interscience , 385 Pp., $42.50. [REVIEW]Kevin C. Elliott - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (3):405-408.
  50.  2
    »Vor beliebigen Interpretationen ist im Laufe seiner Rezeption kein Text gefeit«: Über Tobias Wimbauers Lesart der ›Burgunderszene‹ Ernst Jüngers.Patrick Pfaff - 2017 - In Lutz Hagestedt & Andrea Benedetti (eds.), Totalität Als Faszination: Systematisierung des Heterogenen Im Werk Ernst Jüngers. De Gruyter. pp. 271-320.
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