The number of available legal documents has presented an enormous growth in recent years, and the digital processing of such materials is prompting the necessity of systems that support the automatic relevant information extraction. This work presents a system for ontology-based information extraction from natural language texts, able to identify a set of legal events. The system is based on an innovative methodology based on domain ontology of legal events and a set of linguistic rules, integrated through inference mechanism, resulting (...) in a flexible approach and scalable approach. A case study with the use of documents from the Superior Court in Brazil is related, with satisfactory results in precision and recall. (shrink)
Os artigos contidos neste número de Veritas, como é de praxe, na edição que corresponde ao mês de dezembro de cada ano, versam sobre temas ligados direta e indiretamente à dialética. Os projetos integrados de Dialética: conhecimento e linguagem, ética e política, sob a coordenação do professor Dr. Carlos Roberto V. Cirne Lima, com a participação dos professores Dr. Manfredo Araújo de Oliveira, Dr. Tadeu Weber, Dr. Jayme Paviani, Me. Angelo Cenci, Doutorando Eduardo Luft, Doutorando Sérgio Augusto Sardi, Doutorando (...) Custódio Luís S. de Almeida e outros professores que estão se integrando ao programa de pesquisa, começam a mostrar os primeiros resultados de uma política de coordenação e sistematização da produção científica. Estes projetos sintonizados com as linhas de pesquisa do Curso de Pós-Graduação em Filosofia, Mestrado e Doutorado, da PUCRS, contribuem para a investigação de problemas filosóficos reatualizados e aprofundados sob o enfoque dialético. Os projetos de pesquisa em andamento ao responderem às perguntas o que é dialética e o que é filosofia investigam questões fundamentais da filosofia e da cultura contemporâneas remetendo-as aos métodos filosóficos desde as suas origens gregas. Os números especiais da revista Veritas têm, portanto, a função de publicar resultados parciais destas pesquisas realizadas pelos professores do núcleo Dialética: conhecimento e linguagem, ética e política e de seus colaboradores e interlocutores. (shrink)
Fueled by ever-growing amounts of data and advances in artificial intelligence, decision-making in contemporary societies is increasingly delegated to automated processes. Drawing from social science theories and from the emerging body of research about algorithmic appreciation and algorithmic perceptions, the current study explores the extent to which personal characteristics can be linked to perceptions of automated decision-making by AI, and the boundary conditions of these perceptions, namely the extent to which such perceptions differ across media, health, and judicial contexts. Data (...) from a scenario-based survey experiment with a national sample show that people are by and large concerned about risks and have mixed opinions about fairness and usefulness of automated decision-making at a societal level, with general attitudes influenced by individual characteristics. Interestingly, decisions taken automatically by AI were often evaluated on par or even better than human experts for specific decisions. Theoretical and societal implications about these findings are discussed. (shrink)
In this paper we propose that the term skill acquisition, as commonly used in traditional psychology, and the philosophy, education, movement science and performance development literatures, has been biased by an organismic asymmetry. In cognitive and experimental psychology, for example, it refers to the establishment of an internal state or representation of an act which is believed to be acquired as a result of learning and task experience. Here we elucidate an ecological perspective which suggests that the term skill acquisition (...) may not refer to an entity but rather to the emergence of an adaptive, functional relationship between an organism and its environment, thus avoiding an inherent organismic asymmetry in theorizing. In this respect, the terms 'skill adaptation' or 'skill attunement' might be more suitable to describe this process. (shrink)
In 2015 a team of scientists used a new gene-editing technique called CRISPR-Cas9 to edit the genome of 86 non-viable human embryos. The experiment sparked a global debate on the ethics of gene editing. In this paper; I first review the key ethical issues that have been addressed in this debate. Although there is an emerging consensus now that research on the editing of human somatic cells for therapeutic purpose should be pursued further; the prospect of using gene-editing techniques for (...) the purpose of human enhancement has been met with strong criticism. The main thesis that I defend in this paper is that some of the most vocal objections recently raised against the prospect of genetic human enhancement are not justified. I put forward two arguments for the morality of genetic human enhancement. The first argument shows how the moral and legal framework within which we currently claim our procreative rights; especially in the context of IVF procedures; could be deployed in the assessment of the morality and legality of genetic human enhancement. The second argument calls into question the assumption that the average level of human cognitive performance should have a normative character. (shrink)
El objeto de este artículo es doble. Por una parte, examina el uso que Vives hace de la lengua y del lenguaje, y, por otra parte, indica sus aportaciones al campo de la traducción e interpretación. La diversidad temática presente en su obra hace que su persona sea un punto de referencia para diferentes campos científicos, entre ellos la Filología. Para Vives, tanto el acercamiento filológico, como el aprendizaje de la lengua no sólo deben tener en cuenta la lengua desde (...) un punto teórico, sino también sociocultural. Su especial interés por las lenguas le llevó a realizar un considerable esfuerzo filológico haciendo lecturas e introducciones de varios textos clásicos latinos y también griegos, y transmitiendo su opinión acerca de la forma de realizar versiones o interpretaciones. (shrink)
El comentario se concentra en la práctica del voto como mecanismo de decisión y en las estrategias de disolución de las fuerzas antidemocráticas. El que las prácticas efectivas en ambos casos no difieran parece redundar en un déficit para el deliberacionismo, el cual, a diferencia del agonismo, no puede justificar claramente dichas prácticas. A su vez, se detiene en las diferencias epistemológicas que ambas posiciones presentan. The discussion concentrates on two aspects: the practice of voting as a decision mechanism and (...) the strategies for the dissolution of the anti-democratic forces. The fact that effective practices in both cases do not differ leads to a deficit for deliberationism, which, unlike agonism, seems to not be able to clearly justify such practices from its theoretical position. The discussion also pays attention to the differences between the epistemological assumptions that sustain both positions. (shrink)
The paper approximates Jakob von Uexküll’s theory of meaning and the process-thought in Alfred Whitehead’s philosophy. As the main idea, the paper points at the compatibility of meaning and process according to the perspectives of Uexküll and Whitehead. It suggests that Uexküll’s common meaning rule can describe the processes of novelty in the world as does Whitehead’s principle of creativity. It is also suggested that Uexküll and Whitehead abandon a substantialist view of the organism – the organism means much more (...) process, activity and creation than anything thing-like. In approaching Uexküll’s theory of meaning, a semiotic interpretation of Whitehead’s principle of creativity is proposed in which the concept of the threshold is fundamental to defining the boundary between the semiotic and the non-semiotic areas corresponding to the living and the non-living. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the activity of meaning distinguishes animate entities from inanimate ones in the sense that meaning and life overlap – meaning could not have existed prior to life. (shrink)
ANDREO, Igor Luis. Teologia da libertação e cultura política maia chiapaneca: O Congresso Indígena de 1974 e as raízes do Exército Zapatista de Libertação Nacional. São Paulo: Alameda, 2013, 313p. ISBN: 978 85 7216 618-8.
This article describes the Ethics and Citizenship Program, a moral education project developed by the Brazilian government to promote education in ethics and citizenship in Brazilian fundamental and middle schools through four key themes: ethics, democratic coexistence, human rights and social inclusion. Some findings from a research project that investigated whether such a program did in fact promote the ethical and citizenship awareness of participating students are outlined. As an introduction to the paper's main concerns, the Brazilian socioeconomic context is (...) characterised, followed by a description of the historical background of moral education in Brazil. (shrink)
Urban populations that live in the outskirts of major Latin American cities usually face conditions of vulnerability attached to complex environmental issues, such as the lack of sewerage, floods, pollution and soil and water contamination. This article reports an intervention research programme in S?o Paulo, Brazil that combines a moral education approach with sustainability awareness in vulnerable communities. The main conceptual foundations of the project, designed to empower the community and promote ethical and environmental awareness are: strengthening the ties between (...) the school and the surrounding community in order to construct ?moral atmosphere?; adoption of Problem- and Project-based Learning and the Design Thinking approach to reach the proposed goals. (shrink)
This paper examines the Hans Blumeberg’s philosophical program: the metaphorology. My intention is to show the importance of Blumenberg’s ideas into the current debate on the relations between philosophy and metaphor.
Nursing is at the same time a vocation, a profession and a job. By nature, nursing is a moral endeavor, and being a ‘good nurse’ is an issue and an aspiration for professionals. The aim of our qualitative research project carried out with 18 nurse teachers at a university nursing school in Brazil was to identify the ethical image of nursing. In semistructured interviews the participants were asked to choose one of several pictures, to justify their choice and explain what (...) they meant by an ethical nurse. Five different perspectives were revealed: good nurses fulfill their duties correctly; they are proactive patient advocates; they are prepared and available to welcome others as persons; they are talented, competent, and carry out professional duties excellently; and they combine authority with power sharing in patient care. The results point to a transition phase from a historical introjection of religious values of obedience and service to a new sense of a secular, proactive, scientific and professional identity. (shrink)
Modern semiotics is a branch of logics that formally defines symbol-based communication. In recent years, the semiotic classification of signs has been invoked to support the notion that symbols are uniquely human. Here we show that alarm-calls such as those used by African vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), logically satisfy the semiotic definition of symbol. We also show that the acquisition of vocal symbols in vervet monkeys can be successfully simulated by a computer program based on minimal semiotic and neurobiological constraints. (...) The simulations indicate that learning depends on the tutor-predator ratio, and that apprentice-generated auditory mistakes in vocal symbol interpretation have little effect on the learning rates of apprentices (up to 80% of mistakes are tolerated). In contrast, just 10% of apprentice-generated visual mistakes in predator identification will prevent any vocal symbol to be correctly associated with a predator call in a stable manner. Tutor unreliability was also deleterious to vocal symbol learning: a mere 5% of “lying” tutors were able to completely disrupt symbol learning, invariably leading to the acquisition of incorrect associations by apprentices. Our investigation corroborates the existence of vocal symbols in a non-human species, and indicates that symbolic competence emerges spontaneously from classical associative learning mechanisms when the conditioned stimuli are self-generated, arbitrary and socially efficacious. We propose that more exclusive properties of human language, such as syntax, may derive from the evolution of higher-order domains for neural association, more removed from both the sensory input and the motor output, able to support the gradual complexification of grammatical categories into syntax. (shrink)
The possibility of morally enhancing the behavior of individuals by means of drugs and genetic engineering has been the object of intense philosophical discussion over the last few years. However; although moral enhancement may turn out to be useful to promote cooperation in some areas of human interaction; it will not promote cooperation in the domain of international relations in those areas that are critical to state security. Unlike some moral enhancement theorists; I argue that; because of the structure of (...) the system of states; moral enhancement cannot be used to avert such major threats to humankind as terrorism and nuclear conflict. My analysis of the political implications of moral enhancement is pursued through a critical discussion of two different versions of political realism; namely human nature realism and structural realism. I conclude that; as far as major threats to the survival of humankind are concerned; moral enhancement can at most be used as a means to change the present structure of the system of states. (shrink)
The existence of non-standard numbers in first-order arithmetics is a semantic obstacle for modelling our arithmetical skills. This article argues that so far there is no adequate approach to overcome such a semantic obstacle, because we can also find out, and deal with, non-standard elements in Turing machines.
O artigo apresenta a posição ocupada pela teoria discursiva de Jürgen Habermas no debate entre liberalismo e multiculturalismo. Adotando uma perspectiva universalista sensível às diferenças, resultante da tese da relação interna entre democracia e estado constitucional, Habermas enfoca três aspectos interligados e diretamente vinculados à questão do reconhecimento: a idéia liberal de igualdade, os direitos de grupos e o igual tratamento das culturas. A defesa da conjugação do ideal igualitário da cidadania democrática com as demandas legítimas de indivíduos e grupos (...) se funda numa abordagem peculiar situada entre o liberalismo cego e o multiculturalismo forte. PALAVRAS-CHAVE – Igualitarismo. Liberalismo. Multiculturalismo. Reconhecimento. ABSTRACT The article presents the position occupied by Jürgen Habermas’s discourse theory in the debate between liberalism and multiculturalism. Adopting a difference-sensitive universalistic perspective, resulting from the thesis of the internal relation between democracy and constitutional state, Habermas focuses on three linked aspects that are directly connected with the question of recognition: the liberal idea of equality, group rights, and the equal treatment of cultures. The defense of the connection of the egalitarian ideal of democratic citizenship with the legitimate demands of individual persons and groups is based on a peculiar approach situated between blind liberalism and strong multiculturalism. KEY WORDS – Egalitarianism. Liberalism. Multiculturalism. Recognition. (shrink)
In this paper, I offer two counterexamples to the so-called ‘Uniqueness Thesis.’ As one of these examples rely on the thesis that it is possible for a justified belief to be based on an inconsistent body of evidence, I also offer reasons for this further thesis. On the assumption that doxastic justification entails propositional justification, the counterexamples seem to work.