Results for 'Toby Svoboda'

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  1. Duties Regarding Nature: A Kantian Environmental Ethic.Toby Svoboda - 2015 - Routledge.
    In this book, Toby Svoboda develops and defends a Kantian environmental virtue ethic, challenging the widely-held view that Kant's moral philosophy takes an instrumental view toward nature and animals and has little to offer environmental ethics. On the contrary, Svoboda posits that there is good moral reason to care about non-human organisms in their own right and to value their flourishing independently of human interests, since doing so is constitutive of certain virtues. Svoboda argues that Kant’s (...)
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  2.  31
    Response to Commentaries on ‘Ethical and Technical Challenges in Compensating for Harm Due to Solar Radiation Management Geoengineering’.Toby Svoboda & Peter Irvine - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (1):103-105.
    We thank the commentators for their interesting and helpful feedback on our previously published target article (Svoboda and Irvine, 2014). One of our objectives in that article was to identify areas of uncertainty that would need to be addressed in crafting a just SRM compensation system. The commentators have indicated some possible ways of reducing such uncertainty. Although we cannot respond to all their points due to limitations of space, we wish to address here the more pressing criticisms the (...)
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  3. Duties Regarding Nature: A Kantian Approach to Environmental Ethics.Toby Svoboda - 2012 - Kant Yearbook 4 (1):143-163.
    Many philosophers have objected to Kant’s account of duties regarding non-human nature, arguing that it does not ground adequate moral concern for non-human natural entities. However, the traditional interpretation of Kant on this issue is mistaken, because it takes him to be arguing merely that humans should abstain from animal cruelty and wanton destruction of flora solely because such actions could make one more likely to violate one’s duties to human beings. Instead, I argue, Kant’s account of duties regarding nature (...)
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  4. Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering: The Question of Justice.Toby Svoboda, Klaus Keller, Marlos Goes & Nancy Tuana - 2011 - Public Affairs Quarterly 25 (3):157-180.
    Some authors have called for increased research on various forms of geoengineering as a means to address global climate change. This paper focuses on the question of whether a particular form of geoengineering, namely deploying sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere to counteract some of the effects of increased greenhouse gas concentrations, would be a just response to climate change. In particular, we examine problems sulfate aerosol geoengineering (SAG) faces in meeting the requirements of distributive, intergenerational, and procedural justice. We argue (...)
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  5. Ethical and Technical Challenges in Compensating for Harm Due to Solar Radiation Management Geoengineering.Toby Svoboda & Peter Irvine - 2014 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (2):157-174.
    As a response to climate change, geoengineering with solar radiation management has the potential to result in unjust harm. Potentially, this injustice could be ameliorated by providing compensation to victims of SRM. However, establishing a just SRM compensation system faces severe challenges. First, there is scientific uncertainty in detecting particular harmful impacts and causally attributing them to SRM. Second, there is ethical uncertainty regarding what principles should be used to determine responsibility and eligibility for compensation, as well as determining how (...)
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  6. Geoengineering and Non-Ideal Theory.David R. Morrow & Toby Svoboda - 2016 - Public Affairs Quarterly 30 (1):85-104.
    The strongest arguments for the permissibility of geoengineering (also known as climate engineering) rely implicitly on non-ideal theory—roughly, the theory of justice as applied to situations of partial compliance with principles of ideal justice. In an ideally just world, such arguments acknowledge, humanity should not deploy geoengineering; but in our imperfect world, society may need to complement mitigation and adaptation with geoengineering to reduce injustices associated with anthropogenic climate change. We interpret research proponents’ arguments as an application of a particular (...)
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  7. Towards Integrated Ethical and Scientific Analysis of Geoengineering: A Research Agenda.Nancy Tuana, Ryan L. Sriver, Toby Svoboda, Roman Olson, Peter J. Irvine, Jacob Haqq-Misra & Klaus Keller - 2012 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 15 (2):136 - 157.
    Concerns about the risks of unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions are growing. At the same time, confidence that international policy agreements will succeed in considerably lowering anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is declining. Perhaps as a result, various geoengineering solutions are gaining attention and credibility as a way to manage climate change. Serious consideration is currently being given to proposals to cool the planet through solar-radiation management. Here we analyze how the unique and nontrivial risks of geoengineering strategies pose fundamental questions at (...)
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  8.  31
    Is Climate Change Morally Good From Non-Anthropocentric Perspectives?Toby Svoboda & Jacob Haqq-Misra - 2018 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 21 (2):215-228.
    Anthropogenic climate change poses some difficult ethical quandaries for non-anthropocentrists. While it is hard to deny that climate change is a substantial moral ill, many types of non-human organisms stand to benefit from climate change. Modelling studies provide evidence that net primary productivity (NPP) could be substantially boosted, both regionally and globally, as a result of warming from increased concentrations of greenhouse gases. The same holds for deployment of certain types of climate engineering, or large-scale, technological modifications of the global (...)
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  9. A Reconsideration of Indirect Duties Regarding Non-Human Organisms.Toby Svoboda - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (2):311-323.
    According to indirect duty views, human beings lack direct moral duties to non-human organisms, but our direct duties to ourselves and other humans give rise to indirect duties regarding non-humans. On the orthodox interpretation of Kant’s account of indirect duties, one should abstain from treating organisms in ways that render one more likely to violate direct duties to humans. This indirect duty view is subject to several damaging objections, such as that it misidentifies the moral reasons we have to treat (...)
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  10. Is Aerosol Geoengineering Ethically Preferable to Other Climate Change Strategies?Toby Svoboda - 2012 - Ethics and the Environment 17 (2):111-135.
    In this paper, I address the question of whether aerosol geoengineering (AG) ought to be deployed as a response to climate change. First, I distinguish AG from emissions mitigation, adaptation, and other geoengineering strategies. Second, I discuss advantages and disadvantages of AG, including its potential to result in substantial harm to some persons. Third, I critique three arguments against AG deployment, suggesting reasons why these arguments should be rejected. Fourth, I consider an argument that, in scenarios in which all available (...)
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  11.  82
    Engineering the Climate: The Ethics of Solar Radiation Management. [REVIEW]Toby Svoboda - 2017 - Environmental Ethics 39 (1):101-104.
    This important edited collection addresses ethical issues associated with solar radiation management (SRM), a category of climate engineering techniques that would increase the planet’s reflectivity in order to offset some of the impacts of anthropogenic climate change. Such techniques include injecting sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere or brightening marine clouds with seawater. Although SRM has the potential to cool the planet by reducing the amount of incoming solar radiation absorbed by the planet, it raises a wide array of difficult and (...)
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  12.  6
    The Potential for Climate Engineering with Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol Injections to Reduce Climate Injustice.Toby Svoboda, Peter J. Irvine, Daniel Callies & Masahiro Sugiyama - 2018 - Journal of Global Ethics 14 (3):353-368.
    Climate engineering with stratospheric sulfate aerosol injections (SSAI) has the potential to reduce risks of injustice related to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Relying on evidence from modeling studies, this paper makes the case that SSAI could have the potential to reduce many of the key physical risks of climate change identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Such risks carry potential injustice because they are often imposed on low-emitters who do not benefit from climate change. Because SSAI has (...)
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  13. Why Moral Error Theorists Should Become Revisionary Moral Expressivists.Toby Svoboda - 2015 - Journal of Moral Philosophy:1-25.
    Moral error theorists hold that morality is deeply mistaken, thus raising the question of whether and how moral judgments and utterances should continue to be employed. Proposals include simply abolishing morality, adopting some revisionary fictionalist stance toward morality, and conserving moral judgments and utterances unchanged. I defend a fourth proposal, namely revisionary moral expressivism, which recommends replacing cognitivist moral judgments and utterances with non-cognitivist ones. Given that non-cognitivist attitudes are not truth apt, revisionary expressivism does not involve moral error. Moreover, (...)
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  14. Geoengineering, Agent-Regret, and the Lesser of Two Evils Argument.Toby Svoboda - 2015 - Environmental Ethics 37 (2):207-220.
    According to the “Lesser of Two Evils Argument,” deployment of solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering in a climate emergency would be morally justified because it likely would be the best option available. A prominent objection to this argument is that a climate emergency might constitute a genuine moral dilemma in which SRM would be impermissible even if it was the best option. However, while conceiving of a climate emergency as a moral dilemma accounts for some ethical concerns about SRM, it (...)
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  15. The Ethics of Geoengineering: Moral Considerability and the Convergence Hypothesis.Toby Svoboda - 2012 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (3):243-256.
    Although it could avoid some harmful effects of climate change, sulphate aerosol geoengineering (SAG), or injecting sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere in order to reflect incoming solar radiation, threatens substantial harm to humans and non-humans. I argue that SAG is prima facie ethically problematic from anthropocentric, animal liberationist, and biocentric perspectives. This might be taken to suggest that ethical evaluations of SAG can rely on Bryan Norton's convergence hypothesis, which predicts that anthropocentrists and non-anthropocentrists will agree to implement the same (...)
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  16. Hybridizing Moral Expressivism and Moral Error Theory.Toby Svoboda - 2011 - Journal of Value Inquiry 45 (1):37-48.
    Philosophers should consider a hybrid meta-ethical theory that includes elements of both moral expressivism and moral error theory. Proponents of such an expressivist-error theory hold that all moral utterances are either expressions of attitudes or expressions of false beliefs. Such a hybrid theory has two advantages over pure expressivism, because hybrid theorists can offer a more plausible account of the moral utterances that seem to be used to express beliefs, and hybrid theorists can provide a simpler solution to the Frege-Geach (...)
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  17.  55
    Aerosol Geoengineering Deployment and Fairness.Toby Svoboda - 2016 - Environmental Values 25 (1):51-68.
    If deployed, aerosol geoengineering (AG) could involve unfairness to both present and future parties. I discuss three broad risks of unfairness that an AG deployment policy might carry: (1) causing disproportionate harm to those least responsible for climate change, (2) burdening future parties with the costs and risks of AG, and (3) excluding some interested parties from contributing to AG decision-making. Yet despite these risks, it may be too hasty to reject AG deployment as a potential climate change policy. I (...)
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  18.  14
    Why Moral Error Theorists Should Become Revisionary Moral Expressivists.Toby Svoboda - 2015 - New Content is Available for Journal of Moral Philosophy.
    _ Source: _Page Count 25 Moral error theorists hold that morality is deeply mistaken, thus raising the question of whether and how moral judgments and utterances should continue to be employed. Proposals include simply abolishing morality, adopting some revisionary fictionalist stance toward morality, and conserving moral judgments and utterances unchanged. I defend a fourth proposal, namely revisionary moral expressivism, which recommends replacing cognitivist moral judgments and utterances with non-cognitivist ones. Given that non-cognitivist attitudes are not truth apt, revisionary expressivism does (...)
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  19. The Ethics of Climate Engineering: Solar Radiation Management and Non-Ideal Justice.Toby Svoboda - 2017 - Routledge.
    This book analyzes major ethical issues surrounding the use of climate engineering, particularly solar radiation management techniques, which have the potential to reduce some risks of anthropogenic climate change but also carry their own risks of harm and injustice. The book argues that we should approach the ethics of climate engineering via "non-ideal theory," which investigates what justice requires given the fact that many parties have failed to comply with their duty to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Specifically, it argues that (...)
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  20. Boží předurčení a svoboda rozhodování.David Svoboda - 2004 - Filosoficky Casopis 52:559-568.
    [Physical premotion and self-determination].
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  21.  2
    Toby Svoboda, Duties Regarding Nature: A Kantian Environmental Ethic.Emily Brady - 2017 - Ethics 127 (4):967-972.
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    Toby Svoboda, Duties Regarding Nature: A Kantian Environmental Ethic.Martin Schönfeld - 2017 - Environmental Values 26 (3):394-396.
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  23.  1
    Toby Svoboda, Duties Regarding Nature: A Kantian Environmental Ethic.Emily Brady - 2017 - Ethics 127 (4):967-972.
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  24.  1
    Svoboda, Toby. Duties Regarding Nature: A Kantian Environmental Ethic. New York: Routledge, 2015. Pp. 186. $148.00.Emily Brady - 2017 - Ethics 127 (4):967-972.
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  25. Reflective Equilibrium and the Principles of Logical Analysis: Understanding the Laws of Logic.Jaroslav Peregrin & Vladimír Svoboda - 2017 - Routledge.
    This book offers a comprehensive account of logic that addresses fundamental issues concerning the nature and foundations of the discipline. The authors claim that these foundations can not only be established without the need for strong metaphysical assumptions, but also without hypostasizing logical forms as specific entities. They present a systematic argument that the primary subject matter of logic is our linguistic interaction rather than our private reasoning and it is thus misleading to see logic as revealing "the laws of (...)
     
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  26.  9
    Circumcision Is Unethical and Unlawful.J. Steven Svoboda, Peter W. Adler & Robert S. Van Howe - 2016 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 44 (2):263-282.
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  27.  13
    Circumcision Registry Promotes Precise Research and Fosters Informed Parental Decisions.Robert S. Van Howe, Morten Frisch, Peter W. Adler & J. Steven Svoboda - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):6.
    In 2017 Ploug and Holm argued that anonymizing individuals in the Danish circumcision registry was insufficient to protect these individuals from what they regard as the potential harms of being in the registry. We argue that Ploug and Holm’s fears in each of the areas are misguided, not supported by the evidence, and could interfere with the gathering of accurate data. The extent of the risks and harms associated with ritual circumcision is not well known. The anonymized personal health data (...)
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  28.  4
    Out of Step: Fatal Flaws in the Latest AAP Policy Report on Neonatal Circumcision.J. Steven Svoboda & Robert S. Van Howe - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (7):434-441.
    The American Academy of Pediatrics recently released a policy statement and technical report on circumcision, in both of which the organisation suggests that the health benefits conferred by the surgical removal of the foreskin in infancy definitively outweigh the risks and complications associated with the procedure. While these new documents do not positively recommend neonatal circumcision, they do paradoxically conclude that its purported benefits ‘justify access to this procedure for families who choose it,’ claiming that whenever and for whatever reason (...)
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  29. Towards a Just Solar Radiation Management Compensation System: A Defense of the Polluter Pays Principle.Robert K. Garcia - 2014 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (2):178-182.
    In their ‘Ethical and Technical Challenges in Compensating for Harm Due to Solar Radiation Management Geoengineering’ (2014), Toby Svoboda and Peter Irvine (S&I) argue that there are significant technical and ethical challenges that stand in the way of crafting a just solar radiation management (SRM) compensation system. My aim in this article is to contribute to the project of addressing these problems. I do so by focusing on one of S&I’s important ethical challenges, their claim that the polluter (...)
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  30.  61
    Criteria for Logical Formalization.Jaroslav Peregrin & Vladimír Svoboda - 2013 - Synthese 190 (14):2897-2924.
    The article addresses two closely related questions: What are the criteria of adequacy of logical formalization of natural language arguments, and what gives logic the authority to decide which arguments are good and which are bad? Our point of departure is the criticism of the conception of logical formalization put forth, in a recent paper, by M. Baumgartner and T. Lampert. We argue that their account of formalization as a kind of semantic analysis brings about more problems than it solves. (...)
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  31.  29
    Circumcision of Male Infants as a Human Rights Violation.J. Steven Svoboda - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (7):469-474.
    Every infant has a right to bodily integrity. Removing healthy tissue from an infant is only permissible if there is an immediate medical indication. In the case of infant male circumcision there is no evidence of an immediate need to perform the procedure. As a German court recently held, any benefit to circumcision can be obtained by delaying the procedure until the male is old enough to give his own fully informed consent. With the option of delaying circumcision providing all (...)
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  32.  97
    Compensation for Geoengineering Harms and No-Fault Climate Change Compensation.Pak-Hang Wong, Tom Douglas & Julian Savulescu - 2014 - The Climate Geoengineering Governance Working Papers.
    While geoengineering may counteract negative effects of anthropogenic climate change, it is clear that most geoengineering options could also have some harmful effects. Moreover, it is predicted that the benefits and harms of geoengineering will be distributed unevenly in different parts of the world and to future generations, which raises serious questions of justice. It has been suggested that a compensation scheme to redress geoengineering harms is needed for geoengineering to be ethically and politically acceptable. Discussions of compensation for geoengineering (...)
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  33.  7
    Growing World Consensus to Leave Circumcision Decision to the Affected Individual.J. Steven Svoboda - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (2):46-48.
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  34.  4
    A Thermodynamic Approach to Grain Growth and Coarsening.F. D. Fischer, J. Svoboda & P. Fratzl - 2003 - Philosophical Magazine 83 (9):1075-1093.
  35.  2
    Crystallization Behaviour of Ge17Sb23Se60thin Films.Roman Svoboda, Jan Přikryl, Jaroslav Barták, Milan Vlček & Jiří Málek - 2014 - Philosophical Magazine 94 (12):1301-1310.
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  36.  4
    Application of the Thermodynamic Extremal Principle to Modeling of Thermodynamic Processes in Material Sciences.J. Svoboda, I. Turek & F. D. Fischer - 2005 - Philosophical Magazine 85 (31):3699-3707.
  37.  97
    Logical Form and Reflective Equilibrium.Vladimír Svoboda & Jaroslav Peregrin - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Though, at first sight, logical formalization of natural language sentences and arguments might look like an unproblematic enterprise, the criteria of its success are far from clear and, surprisingly, there have only been a few attempts at making them explicit. This paper provides a picture of the enterprise of logical formalization that does not conceive of it as a kind of translation from one language (a natural one) into another language (a logical one), but rather as a construction of a (...)
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  38. Od jazyka k logice. : [From language to logic].Vladimír Svoboda & Jaroslav Peregrin - 2010 - Filosoficky Casopis 58:281-287.
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  39.  3
    Onsager's Coefficients and Diffusion Laws—a Monte Carlo Study.Markus A. Hartmann, Richard Weinkamer, Peter Fratzl *, JiŘÍ Svoboda & Franz Dieter Fischer - 2005 - Philosophical Magazine 85 (12):1243-1260.
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  40.  10
    Modelling of Grain Refinement Driven by Negative Grain Boundary Energy.F. D. Fischer, G. A. Zickler & J. Svoboda - 2017 - Philosophical Magazine 97 (23):1963-1977.
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  41.  21
    Logically Incorrect Arguments.Vladimír Svoboda & Jaroslav Peregrin - 2016 - Argumentation 30 (3):263-287.
    What do we learn when we find out that an argument is logically incorrect? If logically incorrect means the same as not logically correct, which in turn means not having a valid logical form, it seems that we do not learn anything too useful—an argument which is logically incorrect can still be conclusive. Thus, it seems that it makes sense to fix a stronger interpretation of the term under which a logically incorrect argument is guaranteed to be wrong. In this (...)
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  42. Thomas Aquinas on Whole and Part.David Svoboda - 2012 - The Thomist 76 (2):273-304.
     
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  43.  12
    A Lewisian Taxonomy for Deontic Logic.Vladimír Svoboda - 2018 - Synthese 195 (7):3241-3266.
    Philosophers like G.H. von Wright and D. Makinson have pointed to serious challenges regarding the foundations of deontic logic. In this paper, I suggest that to deal successfully with these challenges a reconsideration of the research program of the discipline is useful. Some problems that have troubled this particular field of logical study for decades may disappear or appear more tractable if we view them from the perspective of a language game introduced by D. Lewis involving three characters: the Master, (...)
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  44.  35
    The Importance of Scholastic Theology.David Svoboda - 2011 - Studia Neoaristotelica 8 (2):249-257.
    Huius recensione subiectum liber est, qui ab Ulrico G. Leinsle sub titulo Einführung in die scholastische Theologie Germanice conscriptus, a M. J. Miller magna cum sollertia Anglice redditus est. In hoc libro Leinsle materiae historicae copiam diligentissime collegit ac ordine disposuit, contributionem faciens singularem et novam ad philosophiae historiam cognoscendam. Scholaribus et viris scientificis, qui hisce legatis intellectualiis studeant, liber dictus conspectum offerit latum et valde comprehensivum principaliorum problematum ac methodorum theologiae scholasticae, rebus tamen minutis non neglectis. Leinsle demonstravit, locupletem (...)
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  45.  24
    Participace V Díle Tomáše Akvinského.David Svoboda - 2010 - Studia Neoaristotelica 7 (2):161-179.
    The paper deals with Aquinas’s concept of participation. Its goal is to introduce the reader to the problem, since no significant attention has been paid to it in Czech literature so far. The article is divided into three main parts: first a general description and division of participation is given, second the mutually opposite properties “to be through essence” and “to be through participation” are explained and finally the other general characteristics of participation are put forth.Tractatio proposita circa Thomae Aquinatis (...)
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  46.  20
    The Logical and Metaphysical Structure of a Common Nature.David Svoboda - 2010 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 17 (2):185-200.
    The paper deals with a type of whole and part that can be found in Aquinas’ work and to which no attention has been paid so far. This type of whole and part can be called metaphysical whole and metaphysical part, respectively. In the paper, metaphysical whole and part are put forth on the problem of the logical and metaphysical structure of a common nature.
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  47.  30
    Theories of Cognition in the Later Middle Ages.David Svoboda - 2006 - Studia Neoaristotelica 3 (2):183-190.
  48.  4
    Je Tomášovo pojetí matematiky instrumentalistické?Prokop Sousedík & David Svoboda - 2017 - Studia Neoaristotelica 14 (4):19-36.
    Responsione nostra disputationem cum L. Novák prosequimur, qui tractationem nostram, cui titulus “Různá pojetí matematiky u vybraných autorů od antiky po raný novověk”, impugnavit. Impugnatio a L. Novák sub titulo “Tomáš Akvinský instrumentalistou v matematice?” conscripta ansam praebuit nobis ad nonnulla, quae dixeramus, non solum clarius, sed etiam latius ac profundius explananda. Qua in re inprimis ad hoc attendimus, quomodo S. Thomas mathematicam, scientiasque medias necnon philosophiam intellexerit. Adhuc in nostra sententia sistimus, duplicem scil. ac valde diversam interpretationem harum disciplinarum (...)
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  49.  18
    Transcendentálie a kategorie v díle Tomáše Akvinského.David Svoboda - 2008 - Studia Neoaristotelica 5 (2):165-184.
    Transcendentalia et praedicamenta secundum Thomam AquinatemDissertatio haec doctrinam Thomae Aquinatis de transcendentalibus et praedicamentis pertractat. Initium expositionis suae auctor a discussione huius materiae, quae in s. Thomae De veritate q. 1, a. 1. invenitur, capit. Hoc loco Thomas determinat, doctrinis Aristotelis Avicennaeque innitens, quae sint primae conceptiones intellectus. Conceptio simpliciter prima, in qua resolutio omnium conceptuum terminatur, est notio entis; omnes aliae conceptiones, et transcendentes et praedicamentales, accipiuntur ex additione quadam conceptuali ad ens. Auctor s. Thomae doctrinam de additione conceptuali (...)
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  50.  20
    The Ratio of Unity.David Svoboda - 2012 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 86 (1):47-70.
    The paper deals with the problem of the ratio of unity in the work of Thomas Aquinas. More specifically, it tries to answer the question wherein the ratio of unity consists: whether it is a “positive entity of being” or rather the “negative aspect of being undivided.” In order to answer the question properly the paper is divided into four main parts. In the first two parts the constitutive characteristics of unity are explained and attention is focused on the concepts (...)
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