Results for 'Michael R. Ransom'

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  1.  44
    It’s a Miracle: Separating the Miraculous From the Mundane.Michael R. Ransom & Mark D. Alicke - 2012 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 34 (2):243-275.
    What aspects and features of events impel people to label them as miraculous? Three studies examined people's miracle conceptions and the factors that lead them to designate an event as a miracle. Study 1 identified the basic elements of laypersons’ miracle beliefs by instructing participants to define a miracle, to list five events that they considered miraculous, and to state what they believed to be the purpose of miracles. Results showed that individuals tend to view miracles as highly improbable and (...)
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  2.  28
    It’s a Miracle: Separating the Miraculous From the Mundane.Michael R. Ransom & Mark D. Alicke - 2012 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 34 (2):243-275.
    What aspects and features of events impel people to label them as miraculous? Three studies examined people’s miracle conceptions and the factors that lead them to designate an event as a miracle. Study 1 identified the basic elements of laypersons’ miracle beliefs by instructing participants to define a miracle, to list five events that they considered miraculous, and to state what they believed to be the purpose of miracles. Results showed that individuals tend to view miracles as highly improbable and (...)
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  3.  6
    Camera Perspective Bias in Videotaped Confessions: Evidence That Visual Attention is a Mediator.Lezlee J. Ware, G. Daniel Lassiter, Stephen M. Patterson & Michael R. Ransom - 2008 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 14 (2):192-200.
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  4. Science Teaching: The Role of History and Philosophy of Science.Michael R. Matthews - 1994 - Routledge.
    History, Philosophy and Science Teaching argues that science teaching and science teacher education can be improved if teachers know something of the history and philosophy of science and if these topics are included in the science curriculum. The history and philosophy of science have important roles in many of the theoretical issues that science educators need to address: the goals of science education; what constitutes an appropriate science curriculum for all students; how science should be taught in traditional cultures; what (...)
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  5. Rethinking Intuition: The Psychology of Intuition and its Role in Philosophical Inquiry.Michael R. DePaul & William Ramsey (eds.) - 1998 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Ancients and moderns alike have constructed arguments and assessed theories on the basis of common sense and intuitive judgments. Yet, despite the important role intuitions play in philosophy, there has been little reflection on fundamental questions concerning the sort of data intuitions provide, how they are supposed to lead us to the truth, and why we should treat them as important. In addition, recent psychological research seems to pose serious challenges to traditional intuition-driven philosophical inquiry. Rethinking Intuition brings together a (...)
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  6. Computers and Intractability. A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness.Michael R. Garey & David S. Johnson - 1983 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 48 (2):498-500.
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  7.  15
    The Rationality of Belief in God: MICHAEL R. DEPAUL.Michael R. Depaul - 1981 - Religious Studies 17 (3):343-356.
    In the introduction to his account of the debate concerning religion between Cleanthes, Philo and Demea, Pamphilus remarks that ‘reasonable men may be allowed to differ where no one can reasonably be positive’. Pamphilus goes on to suggest that natural theology is an area that abounds with issues about which ‘no one can reasonably be positive’. Assuming that the beliefs of reasonable men are themselves reasonable, Pamphilus can be interpreted as holding that If no one is reasonably positive that the (...)
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  8. Rethinking Intuition: The Psychology of Intuition and its Role in Philosophical Inquiry.Michael R. DePaul & William Ramsey (eds.) - 1998 - Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
    Students and scholars in both fields will find this book to be of great value.
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  9.  85
    Balance and Refinement: Beyond Coherence Methods of Moral Inquiry.Michael R. DePaul - 1993 - Routledge.
    We all have moral beliefs. But what if one beleif conflicts with another? DePaul argues that we have to make our beliefs cohere, but that the current coherence methods are seriously flawed. It is not just the arguments that need to be considered in moral enquiry. DePaul asserts that the ability to make sensitive moral judgements is vital to any philosophical inquiry into morality. The inquirer must consider how her life experiences and experiences with literature, film and theatre have influenced (...)
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  10.  20
    Moral Realism and the Foundations of Ethics.Michael R. Depaul - 1993 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 53 (3):731-735.
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  11.  40
    Paradox and Persuasion: Negotiating the Place of Molecular Evolution Within Evolutionary Biology. [REVIEW]Michael R. Dietrich - 1998 - Journal of the History of Biology 31 (1):85 - 111.
  12. The Origins of the Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution.Michael R. Dietrich - 1994 - Journal of the History of Biology 27 (1):21-59.
  13.  31
    Distributional Regularity and Phonotactic Constraints Are Useful for Segmentation.Michael R. Brent & Timothy A. Cartwright - 1996 - Cognition 61 (1-2):93-125.
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  14. International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching.Michael R. Matthews (ed.) - 2014 - Springer.
    This inaugural handbook documents the distinctive research field that utilizes history and philosophy in investigation of theoretical, curricular and pedagogical issues in the teaching of science and mathematics. It is contributed to by 130 researchers from 30 countries; it provides a logically structured, fully referenced guide to the ways in which science and mathematics education is, informed by the history and philosophy of these disciplines, as well as by the philosophy of education more generally. The first handbook to cover the (...)
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  15.  17
    Causal Models and the Acquisition of Category Structure.Michael R. Waldmann, Keith J. Holyoak & Angela Fratianne - 1995 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 124 (2):181.
  16. Realism and Instrumentalism in 19th-Century Atomism.Michael R. Gardner - 1979 - Philosophy of Science 46 (1):1-34.
    Sometimes a theory is interpreted realistically--i.e., as literally true--whereas sometimes a theory is interpreted instrumentalistically--i.e., as merely a convenient device for summarizing, systematizing, deducing, etc., a given body of observable facts. This paper is part of a program aimed at determining the basis on which scientists decide on which of these interpretations to accept a theory. I proceed by examining one case: the nineteenth-century debates about the existence of atoms. I argue that there was a gradual transition from an instrumentalist (...)
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  17.  8
    Feng Shui: Teaching About Science and Pseudoscience.Michael R. Matthews - 2019 - Springer Verlag.
    This book provides a richly documented account of the historical, cultural, philosophical and practical dimensions of feng shui. It argues that where feng shui is entrenched educational systems have a responsibility to examine its claims, and that this examination provides opportunities for students to better learn about the key features of the nature of science, the demarcation of science and non-science, the characteristics of pseudoscience, and the engagement of science with culture and worldviews. The arguments presented for feng shui being (...)
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  18. Individuals Without Sortals.Michael R. Ayers - 1974 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 4 (1):113 - 148.
    Consideration of the counting and reidentification of particulars leads naturally enough to the orthodox doctrine that, “on pain of indefiniteness,” an identity statement in some way involves or presupposes a general term or “covering concept”: i.e., that the principium individuationis or criterion of identity implied depends upon the kind of thing in question. Thus it is said that an auditor understands the question whether A is the same as B only in so far as he knows, however informally or implicitly, (...)
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  19.  2
    Constructivism in Science Education a Philosophical Examination.Michael R. Matthews - 1998 - Springer Verlag.
    Constructivism is one of the most influential theories in contemporary education and learning theory. It has had great influence in science education. The papers in this collection represent, arguably, the most sustained examination of the theoretical and philosophical foundations of constructivism yet published. Topics covered include: orthodox epistemology and the philosophical traditions of constructivism; the relationship of epistemology to learning theory; the connection between philosophy and pedagogy in constructivist practice; the difference between radical and social constructivism, and an appraisal of (...)
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  20.  77
    (Mis)Interpreting Mathematical Models: Drift as a Physical Process.Michael R. Dietrich, Robert A. Skipper Jr & Roberta L. Millstein - 2009 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 1 (20130604):e002.
    Recently, a number of philosophers of biology have endorsed views about random drift that, we will argue, rest on an implicit assumption that the meaning of concepts such as drift can be understood through an examination of the mathematical models in which drift appears. They also seem to implicitly assume that ontological questions about the causality of terms appearing in the models can be gleaned from the models alone. We will question these general assumptions by showing how the same equation (...)
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  21.  36
    Predicting Novel Facts.Michael R. Gardner - 1982 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 33 (1):1-15.
  22.  16
    The Role of Exposure to Isolated Words in Early Vocabulary Development.Michael R. Brent & Jeffrey Mark Siskind - 2001 - Cognition 81 (2):B33-B44.
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  23. Locke Versus Aristotle on Natural Kinds.Michael R. Ayers - 1981 - Journal of Philosophy 78 (5):247-272.
  24. Grief: Putting the Past Before Us.Michael R. Kelly - 2016 - Quaestiones Disputatae 7 (1):156-177.
    Grief research in philosophy agrees that one who grieves grieves over the irreversible loss of someone whom the griever loved deeply, and that someone thus factored centrally into the griever’s sense of purpose and meaning in the world. The analytic literature in general tends to focus its treatments on the paradigm case of grief as the death of a loved one. I want to restrict my account to the paradigm case because the paradigm case most persuades the mind that grief (...)
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  25.  9
    MINERVA-DM: A Memory Processes Model for Judgments of Likelihood.Michael R. P. Dougherty, Charles F. Gettys & Eve E. Ogden - 1999 - Psychological Review 106 (1):180-209.
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  26.  6
    History, Philosophy and Science Teaching: New Perspectives.Michael R. Matthews (ed.) - 2017 - Springer Verlag.
    This anthology opens new perspectives in the domain of history, philosophy, and science teaching research. Its four sections are: first, science, culture and education; second, the teaching and learning of science; third, curriculum development and justification; and fourth, indoctrination. The first group of essays deal with the neglected topic of science education and the Enlightenment tradition. These essays show that many core commitments of modern science education have their roots in this tradition, and consequently all can benefit from a more (...)
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  27.  33
    History, Philosophy, and Science Teaching: The Present Rapprochement.Michael R. Matthews - 1992 - Science & Education 1 (1):11-47.
  28. Ugly Analyses and Value.Michael R. DePaul - 2009 - In Adrian Haddock, Alan Millar & Duncan Pritchard (eds.), Epistemic Value. Oxford University Press.
     
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  29.  51
    Manipulating Underdetermination in Scientific Controversy: The Case of the Molecular Clock.Michael R. Dietrich & Robert A. Skipper - 2007 - Perspectives on Science 15 (3):295-326.
    : Where there are cases of underdetermination in scientific controversies, such as the case of the molecular clock, scientists may direct the course and terms of dispute by playing off the multidimensional framework of theory evaluation. This is because assessment strategies themselves are underdetermined. Within the framework of assessment, there are a variety of trade-offs between different strategies as well as shifting emphases as specific strategies are given more or less weight in assessment situations. When a strategy is underdetermined, scientists (...)
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  30.  86
    Supervenience and Moral Dependence.Michael R. Depaul - 1987 - Philosophical Studies 51 (3):425 - 439.
    One aim philosophers have in constructing moral theories is to identify the natural or non-Moral characteristics that make actions right or obligatory, Things good, Or persons virtuous. Yet we have no clear understanding of what it is for certain of a thing's non-Moral properties to be responsible for its moral properties. Given the recent interest in the concept of supervenience one might think that the dependence of moral on natural properties could be explained in terms of it. Unfortunately, None of (...)
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  31.  20
    Autonomous Processing in Parallel Distributed Processing Networks.Michael R. W. Dawson & Don P. Schopflocher - 1992 - Philosophical Psychology 5 (2):199-219.
    This paper critically examines the claim that parallel distributed processing (PDP) networks are autonomous learning systems. A PDP model of a simple distributed associative memory is considered. It is shown that the 'generic' PDP architecture cannot implement the computations required by this memory system without the aid of external control. In other words, the model is not autonomous. Two specific problems are highlighted: (i) simultaneous learning and recall are not permitted to occur as would be required of an autonomous system; (...)
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  32.  32
    Embodied Free Will Beliefs: Some Effects of Physical States on Metaphysical Opinions.Michael R. Ent & Roy F. Baumeister - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 27:147-154.
  33. Review Essay on Jonathan Kvanvig's the Value of Knowledge and the Pursuit of Understanding.Michael R. Depaul & Stephen R. Grimm - 2007 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 74 (2):498–514.
  34. I—R. M. Sainsbury and Michael Tye: An Originalist Theory of Concepts.R. M. Sainsbury & Michael Tye - 2011 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 85 (1):101-124.
    We argue that thoughts are structures of concepts, and that concepts should be individuated by their origins, rather than in terms of their semantic or epistemic properties. Many features of cognition turn on the vehicles of content, thoughts, rather than on the nature of the contents they express. Originalism makes concepts available to explain, with no threat of circularity, puzzling cases concerning thought. In this paper, we mention Hesperus/Phosphorus puzzles, the Evans-Perry example of the ship seen through different windows, and (...)
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  35.  13
    Moral Judgment.Michael R. Waldmann, Jonas Nagel & Alex Wiegmann - 2012 - The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning.
    The past decade has seen a renewed interest in moral psychology. A unique feature of the present endeavor is its unprecedented interdisciplinarity. For the first time, cognitive, social, and developmental psychologists, neuroscientists, experimental philosophers, evolutionary biologists, and anthropologists collaborate to study the same or overlapping phenomena. This review focuses on moral judgments and is written from the perspective of cognitive psychologists interested in theories of the cognitive and affective processes underlying judgments in moral domains. The review will first present and (...)
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  36. Pragmatism and the Philosophy of Religion.Michael R. Slater - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this book, Michael R. Slater provides a new assessment of pragmatist views in the philosophy of religion. Focusing on the tension between naturalist and anti-naturalist versions of pragmatism, he argues that the anti-naturalist religious views of philosophers such as William James and Charles Peirce provide a powerful alternative to the naturalism and secularism of later pragmatists such as John Dewey and Richard Rorty. Slater first examines the writings of the 'classical pragmatists' - James, Peirce, and Dewey - and (...)
     
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  37.  11
    Predictive and Diagnostic Learning Within Causal Models: Asymmetries in Cue Competition.Michael R. Waldmann & Keith J. Holyoak - 1992 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 121 (2):222-236.
  38.  73
    Richard Goldschmidt's "Heresies" and the Evolutionary Synthesis.Michael R. Dietrich - 1995 - Journal of the History of Biology 28 (3):431-461.
  39. Is Quantum Logic Really Logic?Michael R. Gardner - 1971 - Philosophy of Science 38 (4):508-529.
    Putnam and Finkelstein have proposed the abandonment of distributivity in the logic of quantum theory. This change results from defining the connectives, not truth-functionally, but in terms of a certain empirical ordering of propositions. Putnam has argued that the use of this ordering ("implication") to govern proofs resolves certain paradoxes. But his resolutions are faulty; and in any case, the paradoxes may be resolved with no changes in logic. There is therefore no reason to regard the partially ordered set of (...)
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  40.  21
    A Double Causal Contrast Theory of Moral Intuitions in Trolley Dilemmas.Michael R. Waldmann & Alex Wiegmann - 2010 - In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 2589--2594.
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  41.  9
    Teaching the Philosophical and Worldview Components of Science.Michael R. Matthews - 2009 - Science & Education 18 (6-7):697-728.
  42.  26
    Science, Worldviews and Education.Michael R. Matthews - 2014 - In International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 1585-1635.
    Science has always engaged with the worldviews of societies and cultures. The theme is of particular importance at the present time as many national and provincial education authorities are requiring that students learn about the nature of science (NOS) as well as learning science content knowledge and process skills. NOS topics are being written into national and provincial curricula. Such NOS matters give rise to at least the following questions about science, science teaching and worldviews: -/- What is a worldview? (...)
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  43.  27
    Sellars, Price, and the Myth of the Given.Michael R. Hicks - 2020 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 8 (7).
    Wilfrid Sellars's "Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind" begins with an argument against sense-datum epistemology. There is some question about the validity of this attack, stemming in part from the assumption that Sellars is concerned with epistemic foundationalism. This paper recontextualizes Sellars's argument in two ways: by showing how the argument of EPM relates to Sellars's 1940s work, which does not concern foundationalism at all; and by considering the view of H.H. Price, Sellars's teacher at Oxford and the only classical (...)
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  44.  10
    Estimating Causal Strength: The Role of Structural Knowledge and Processing Effort.Michael R. Waldmann & York Hagmayer - 2001 - Cognition 82 (1):27-58.
  45.  80
    Speech Segmentation and Word Discovery: A Computational Perspective.Michael R. Brent - 1999 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (8):294-301.
  46.  10
    Psychological Plausibility of the Theory of Probabilistic Mental Models and the Fast and Frugal Heuristics.Michael R. Dougherty, Ana M. Franco-Watkins & Rick Thomas - 2008 - Psychological Review 115 (1):199-211.
  47.  9
    How to Choose Your Research Organism.Michael R. Dietrich, Rachel A. Ankeny, Nathan Crowe, Sara Green & Sabina Leonelli - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 80:101227.
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  48.  21
    Introductory Comments on Philosophy and Constructivism in Science Education.Michael R. Matthews - 1997 - Science & Education 6 (1-2):5-14.
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  49.  91
    Two Conceptions of Coherence Methods in Ethics.Michael R. DePaul - 1987 - Mind 96 (384):463-481.
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  50. The Role of Causal Processes in the Neutral and Nearly Neutral Theories.Michael R. Dietrich & Roberta L. Millstein - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (5):548-559.
    The neutral and nearly neutral theories of molecular evolution are sometimes characterized as theories about drift alone, where drift is described solely as an outcome, rather than a process. We argue, however, that both selection and drift, as causal processes, are integral parts of both theories. However, the nearly neutral theory explicitly recognizes alleles and/or molecular substitutions that, while engaging in weakly selected causal processes, exhibit outcomes thought to be characteristic of random drift. A narrow focus on outcomes obscures the (...)
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