Results for 'Thomas Kirchhoff'

(not author) ( search as author name )
1000+ found
Order:
  1.  8
    Thomas Kirchhoff, Nicole C. Karafyliss, et al. eds. Naturphilosophie: Ein Lehr‑ und Studienbuch. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2017. 368 pp. [REVIEW]Timm Lampert - 2018 - Philosophy, Theology and the Sciences 5 (2):289.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2.  3
    Between pebbles and organisms: weaving autonomy into the Markov blanket.Thomas van Es & Michael D. Kirchhoff - forthcoming - Synthese:1-22.
    The free energy principle is sometimes put forward as accounting for biological self-organization and cognition. It states that for a system to maintain non-equilibrium steady-state with its environment it can be described as minimising its free energy. It is said to be entirely scale-free, applying to anything from particles to organisms, and interactive machines, spanning from the abiotic to the biotic. Because the FEP is so general in its application, one might wonder whether this framework can capture anything specific to (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3.  3
    A Universal Ethology Challenge to the Free Energy Principle: Species of Inference and Good Regulators.Thomas van Es & Michael D. Kirchhoff - 2021 - Biology and Philosophy 36 (2):1-24.
    The free energy principle portends to provide a unifying principle for the biological and cognitive sciences. It states that for a system to maintain non-equilibrium steady-state with its environment it must minimise its free energy. Under the FEP, to minimise free energy is equivalent to engaging in approximate Bayesian inference. According to the FEP, therefore, inference is at the explanatory base of biology and cognition. In this paper, we discuss a specific challenge to this inferential formulation of adaptive self-organisation. We (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4.  23
    A Historical and Systematic Survey of European Perceptions of Wilderness.Thomas Kirchhoff & Vera Vicenzotti - 2014 - Environmental Values 23 (4):443-464.
    This paper develops a historical and systematic typology of perceptions of wilderness that exist in contemporary western European cultures. After describing notions of wilderness associated with worldviews that emerged during the Enlightenment period and as a critical response to it, we outline four recent transformations of these traditional notions of wilderness: wilderness as an ecological object, as a place of nature's self-reassertion, as a place of thrill and as a sphere of amorality and meaninglessness. In our conclusion, we suggest what (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  5.  7
    The Myth of Frederic Clements’s Mutualistic Organicism, Or: On the Necessity to Distinguish Different Concepts of Organicism.Thomas Kirchhoff - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (2):1-27.
    In the theory and history of ecology, Frederic Clements’s theory of plant communities is usually presented as the historical prototype and a paradigmatic example of synecological organicism, characterised by the assumption that ecological communities are functionally integrated units of mutually dependent species. In this paper, I will object to this standard interpretation of Clements’s theory. Undoubtedly, Clements compares plant communities with organisms and calls them “complex organisms” and “superorganisms”. Further, he can indeed be regarded as a proponent of ecological organicism—provided (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  6.  14
    Kirchhoff, Thomas; Karafyllis, Nicole Et Al. : Naturphilosophie. Ein Lehr - Und Studienbuch. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, 2017, 368 Pp, €24,99, ISBN 9783825247690. [REVIEW]Theodor Leiber - 2018 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 49 (3):491-493.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7.  1
    Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing: Clinical Utility and Ethical Concerns About Recent Advances.Joseph Thomas, James Harraway & David Gerrard Kirchhoffer - 2021 - Medical Journal of Australia.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8. Welche Natur brauchen wir? Analyse einer anthropologischen Grundproblematik des 21. Jahrhunderts.Gerald Hartung & Thomas Kirchhoff (eds.) - 2014 - Freiburg: Alber.
    Was Natur für uns ist und welche Bereiche unserer Umwelt als natürlich erfahren werden, scheint sich einer prinzipiellen Bestimmung zu entziehen. Auch ist weitgehend unklar, worauf sich der verantwortliche Umgang "des" Menschen mit "der" Natur beziehen soll? Etwa auf die Erhaltung des Status quo der Natur oder auf die maßvolle Steuerung des Wandels der Natur? Ist in den gegenwärtigen umweltpolitischen und den Naturschutz betreffenden Überlegungen tatsächlich "die" Natur der Referenzrahmen verantwortlichen Handelns oder geht es uns vor allem um die Erhaltung (...)
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9.  3
    „Ökosystemintegrität“ – ein geeignetes umweltethisches Leitprinzip?Thomas Kirchhoff - 2020 - Zeitschrift Für Praktische Philosophie 7 (2):191-220.
    Spätestens mit der 1992er Rio Declaration on Environment and Development hat sich der Begriff „Ökosystemintegrität“ als Leitprinzip internationaler Umweltpolitik etabliert. Seinen Ursprung hat dieser Begriff in Bestrebungen in Kanada und den USA, mit Hilfe der positiven Konnotationen des aus der menschlich-sozialen Sphäre stammenden Begriffs der „Integrität“ die Wertschätzung und den Schutz von Natur zu fördern. Die Kombination mit dem Begriff „Ökosystem“ ergibt sich aus der Absicht, eine zugleich integrativ-holistische und naturwissenschaftlich-empirische Bewertungsmöglichkeit zu etablieren – anstelle einer entweder naturwissenschaftlich-reduktionistischen oder spirituell-holistischen (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10. Naturphilosophie. Ein Lehr- Und Studienbuch.Thomas Kirchhoff, Nicole C. Karafyllis, Dirk Evers, Brigitte Falkenburg, Myriam Gerhard, Gerald Hartung, Jürgen Hübner, Kristian Köchy, Ulrich Krohs, Thomas Potthast, Otto Schäfer, Gregor Schiemann, Magnus Schlette, Reinhard Schulz & Frank Vogelsang (eds.) - 2017 - Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck / UTB.
    Was ist Natur oder was könnte sie sein? Diese und weitere Fragen sind grundlegend für Naturdenken und -handeln. Das Lehr- und Studienbuch bietet eine historisch-systematische und zugleich praxisbezogene Einführung in die Naturphilosophie mit ihren wichtigsten Begriffen. Es nimmt den pluralen Charakter der Wahrnehmung von Natur in den philosophischen Blick und ist auch zum Selbststudium bestens geeignet.
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11.  2
    Kirchhoff. Studien zur Geschichte des griechischen Alphabets.E. A. G. & Kirchhoff - 1887 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 8:533.
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  40
    Thomas Kuhn.Thomas Nickles (ed.) - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    Contemporary Philosophy in Focus offers a series of introductory volumes to many of the dominant philosophical thinkers of the current age. Thomas Kuhn, the author of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, is probably the best-known and most influential historian and philosopher of science of the last 25 years, and has become something of a cultural icon. His concepts of paradigm, paradigm change and incommensurability have changed the way we think about science. This volume offers an introduction to Kuhn's life (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  13. Thomas Aquinas, Theologian.Thomas F. O'meara - 1997
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  14. Extended Consciousness and Predictive Processing: A Third-Wave View.Michael David Kirchhoff & Julian Kiverstein - forthcoming - London, UK: Routledge.
    This book is forthcoming in Routledge. Here is the barest sketch of our aims: -/- We have two aims in this book. First, we aim to persuade you that conscious experience is sometimes realised by cycles of embodied and world-involving engagement. Second, we aim to persuade you that it is possible to develop and defend the thesis of extended consciousness through the increasingly powerful predictive processing theory developed in cognitive neuroscience.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  15.  37
    How to Determine the Boundaries of the Mind: A Markov Blanket Proposal.Michael D. Kirchhoff & Julian Kiverstein - 2019 - Synthese 198 (5):4791-4810.
    We develop a truism of commonsense psychology that perception and action constitute the boundaries of the mind. We do so however not on the basis of commonsense psychology, but by using the notion of a Markov blanket originally employed to describe the topological properties of causal networks. We employ the Markov blanket formalism to propose precise criteria for demarcating the boundaries of the mind that unlike other rival candidates for “marks of the cognitive” avoids begging the question in the extended (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  16. Extended Cognition & the Causal‐Constitutive Fallacy: In Search for a Diachronic and Dynamical Conception of Constitution.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 90 (2):320-360.
    Philosophical accounts of the constitution relation have been explicated in terms of synchronic relations between higher‐ and lower‐level entities. Such accounts, I argue, are temporally austere or impoverished, and are consequently unable to make sense of the diachronic and dynamic character of constitution in dynamical systems generally and dynamically extended cognitive processes in particular. In this paper, my target domain is extended cognition based on insights from nonlinear dynamics. Contrariwise to the mainstream literature in both analytical metaphysics and extended cognition, (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   32 citations  
  17.  53
    Enactivism and Predictive Processing: A Non-Representational View.Michael David Kirchhoff & Ian Robertson - 2018 - Philosophical Explorations 21 (2):264-281.
    This paper starts by considering an argument for thinking that predictive processing (PP) is representational. This argument suggests that the Kullback–Leibler (KL)-divergence provides an accessible measure of misrepresentation, and therefore, a measure of representational content in hierarchical Bayesian inference. The paper then argues that while the KL-divergence is a measure of information, it does not establish a sufficient measure of representational content. We argue that this follows from the fact that the KL-divergence is a measure of relative entropy, which can (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   17 citations  
  18.  1
    Thomas White’s ‘De Mundo’ Examined.Thomas Hobbes - 1976 - Bradford University Press in Association with Crosby Lockwood Staples.
  19.  69
    Thomas Reid's Inquiry and Essays.Thomas Reid - 1863 - Bobbs-Merrill.
    INTRODUCTION Although the writings of Thomas Reid are very fertile and interesting, his life is biographically barren in comparison to such seventeenth - and ...
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  20. Integrative Social Contracts Theory: Thomas Donaldson & Thomas W. Dunfee.Thomas Donaldson - 1995 - Economics and Philosophy 11 (1):85-112.
    Difficult moral issues in economic life, such as evaluating the impact of hostile takeovers and plant relocations or determining the obligations of business to the environment, constitute the raison d'etre of business ethics. Yet, while the ultimate resolution of such issues clearly requires detailed, normative analysis, a shortcoming of business ethics is that to date it has failed to develop an adequate normative theory. 1 The failing is especially acute when it results in an inability to provide a basis for (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   58 citations  
  21. Extended Cognition and Fixed Properties: Steps to a Third-Wave Version of Extended Cognition. [REVIEW]Michael David Kirchhoff - 2012 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (2):287-308.
    This paper explores several paths a distinctive third wave of extended cognition might take. In so doing, I address a couple of shortcomings of first- and second-wave extended cognition associated with a tendency to conceive of the properties of internal and external processes as fixed and non-interchangeable. First, in the domain of cognitive transformation, I argue that a problematic tendency of the complementarity model is that it presupposes that socio-cultural resources augment but do not significantly transform the brain’s representational capacities (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   30 citations  
  22. Thomas Paine's Citizenship Record.Thomas Dewitt Scoble - 1946 - New Rochelle, N.Y., Thomas Paine National Historical Assn..
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23. Thomas Linke: Rudolf Otto: Parallelen und Wertunterschiede im Christentum und Buddhatum.Thomas Linke - 2020 - Journal for the History of Modern Theology/Zeitschrift für Neuere Theologiegeschichte 27 (2):311-350.
    This is a new edition of a speech about Buddhism by Rudolf Otto from 1913. This speech is his first academic reflexion of his journey around the world and his most detailed explanation of his view on this religion. In the first part of his speech Otto compares Buddhism with Christianity and finds a lot of parallels. In the second part he defines differences between these two religions and proclaims – from a Christian perspective – Christianity as more valuable than (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24.  89
    Thomas Hobbes and the Ethics of Freedom.Thomas Pink - 2011 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 54 (5):541 - 563.
    Abstract Freedom in the sense of free will is a multiway power to do any one of a number of things, leaving it up to us which one of a range of options by way of action we perform. What are the ethical implications of our possession of such a power? The paper examines the pre-Hobbesian scholastic view of writers such as Peter Lombard and Francisco Suárez: freedom as a multiway power is linked to the right to liberty understood as (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  25.  1
    Thomas Reid on Logic, Rhetoric, and the Fine Arts: Papers on the Culture of the Mind.Thomas Reid - 2005 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Thomas Reid saw the three subjects of logic, rhetoric, and the fine arts as closely cohering aspects of one endeavor that he called the culture of the mind. This was a topic on which Reid lectured for many years in Glasgow, and this volume presents as near a reconstruction of these lectures as is now possible. Though virtually unknown today, this material in fact relates closely to Reid's published works and in particular to the late Essays on the Intellectual (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  26.  73
    In Search of Ontological Emergence: Diachronic, But Non-Supervenient.Michael Kirchhoff - 2014 - Axiomathes 24 (1):89-116.
    Most philosophical accounts of emergence are based on supervenience, with supervenience being an ontologically synchronic relation of determination. This conception of emergence as a relation of supervenience, I will argue, is unable to make sense of the kinds of emergence that are widespread in self-organizing and nonlinear dynamical systems, including distributed cognitive systems. In these dynamical systems, an emergent property is ontological and diachronic.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  27.  28
    Predictive Brains and Embodied, Enactive Cognition: An Introduction to the Special Issue.Michael Kirchhoff - 2018 - Synthese 195 (6):2355-2366.
  28.  2
    The Complete Writings of Thomas Paine.Thomas Paine - 1945 - New York: Citadel Press.
    Thomas Paine was an English-American political activist, philosopher, political theorist, and revolutionary. One of the Founding Fathers of the United States, he authored the two most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution, and he inspired the rebels in 1776 to declare independence from Britain. His ideas reflected Enlightenment-era rhetoric of transnational human rights. He has been called "a corsetmaker by trade, a journalist by profession, and a propagandist by inclination." Odin's Library Classics is dedicated to bringing (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29. Selected Writings of Thomas Paine.Thomas Paine - 1945 - New York: Everybody's Vacation Publishing Co..
    A central figure in Western history and American political thought, Thomas Paine continues to provoke debate among politicians, activists, and scholars. People of all ideological stripes are inspired by his trenchant defense of the rights and good sense of ordinary individuals, and his penetrating critiques of arbitrary power. This volume contains Paine’s explosive Common Sense in its entirety, including the oft-ignored Appendix, as well as selections from his other major writings: The American Crisis, Rights of Man, and The Age (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30. Extensive Enactivism: Why Keep It All In?Daniel D. Hutto, Michael D. Kirchhoff & Erik Myin - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8 (706).
    Radical enactive and embodied approaches to cognitive science oppose the received view in the sciences of the mind in denying that cognition fundamentally involves contentful mental representation. This paper argues that the fate of representationalism in cognitive science matters significantly to how best to understand the extent of cognition. It seeks to establish that any move away from representationalism toward pure, empirical functionalism fails to provide a substantive “mark of the cognitive” and is bereft of other adequate means for individuating (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  31. Thomas Reid's Inquiry and Essays Edited by Keith Lehrer and Ronald E. Beanblossom; Introd. By Ronald E. Beanblossom. --.Thomas Reid, Keith ed Lehrer & Ronald E. Beanblossom - 1975 - Bobbs-Merrill.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32.  1
    The Works of Thomas Reid, D.D., Now Fully Collected, with Selections From His Unpublished Letters.Thomas Reid & William Hamilton - 1846 - Maclachlan, Stewart & Co. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  33.  13
    The Correspondence of Thomas Reid.Thomas Reid - 2002 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    " This collection proves otherwise, for the letters illuminate virtually every aspect of Reid's life and career and, in some instances, provide us with invaluable evidence about activities otherwise undocumented in his manuscripts or ...
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  34.  10
    The Enactive Roots of STEM: Rethinking Educational Design in Mathematics.Michael David Kirchhoff, Daniel D. Hutto & Dor Abrahamson - 2015 - Educational Psychology Review 27 (3):371–389.
    New and radically reformative thinking about the enactive and embodied basis of cognition holds out the promise of moving forward age-old debates about whether we learn and how we learn. The radical enactive, embodied view of cognition (REC) poses a direct, and unmitigated, challenge to the trademark assumptions of traditional cognitivist theories of mind—those that characterize cognition as always and everywhere grounded in the manipulation of contentful representations of some kind. REC has had some success in understanding how sports skills (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  35. The Commentary of St. Thomas Aquinas on Book I of the Physics of Aristotle.Thomas - 1947 - [Minneapolis.
  36.  9
    II—Thomas Baldwin.Thomas Baldwin - 2001 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 75 (1):157-174.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  37.  69
    Cognitive Assembly: Towards a Diachronic Conception of Composition.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (1):33–53.
    In this paper, I focus on a recent debate in extended cognition known as “cognitive assembly” and how cognitive assembly shares a certain kinship with the special composition question advanced in analytical metaphysics. Both the debate about cognitive assembly and the special composition question ask about the circumstances under which entities (broadly construed) compose or assemble another entity. The paper argues for two points. The first point is that insofar as the metaphysics of composition presupposes that composition is a synchronic (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  38. Writings of Thomas Paine: A Collection of Pamphlets From America's Most Radical Founding Father.Thomas Paine - 2010 - Red and Black Publishers.
    Common sense -- African slavery in America -- An occasional letter on the female sex -- Agrarian justice -- The rights of man -- The age of reason.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39. Thomas Jefferson, Political Writings.Thomas Jefferson - 1999 - Cambridge University Pres.
    Thomas Jefferson is among the most important and controversial of American political thinkers: his influence (libertarian, democratic, participatory, and agrarian-republican) is still felt today. A prolific writer, Jefferson left 18,000 letters, Notes on the State of Virginia, an Autobiography, and numerous other papers. Joyce Appleby and Terence Ball have selected the most important of these for presentation in the Cambridge Texts series: Jefferson's views on topics such as revolution, self-government, the role of women and African-American and Native Americans emerge (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  40.  31
    Multiscale Integration: Beyond Internalism and Externalism.Maxwell J. D. Ramstead, Michael D. Kirchhoff, Axel Constant & Karl J. Friston - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 1):41-70.
    We present a multiscale integrationist interpretation of the boundaries of cognitive systems, using the Markov blanket formalism of the variational free energy principle. This interpretation is intended as a corrective for the philosophical debate over internalist and externalist interpretations of cognitive boundaries; we stake out a compromise position. We first survey key principles of new radical views of cognition. We then describe an internalist interpretation premised on the Markov blanket formalism. Having reviewed these accounts, we develop our positive multiscale account. (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  41.  83
    Essays on the Active Powers of Man.Thomas Reid - 1788 - john Bell, and G.G.J. & J. Robinson.
    The Scottish philosopher Thomas Reid first published Essays on Active Powers of Man in 1788 while he was Professor of Philosophy at King's College, Aberdeen. The work contains a set of essays on active power, the will, principles of action, the liberty of moral agents, and morals. Reid was a key figure in the Scottish Enlightenment and one of the founders of the 'common sense' school of philosophy. In Active Powers Reid gives his fullest exploration of sensus communis as (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   63 citations  
  42. Kant on the Cheap: Thomas Scanlon Interviewed.Thomas Scanlon & Alex Voorhoeve - 2001 - The Philosophers' Magazine 16:29-30.
    A short interview with Thomas Scanlon about his contractualist moral theory. (Note: A revised and expanded version appears in Conversations on Ethics, OUP 2009).
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. Death.Thomas Nagel - 1970 - Noûs 4 (1):73-80.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   181 citations  
  44. The Collected Works of Thomas Hobbes.Thomas Hobbes - 1839 - Routledge Thoemmes Press.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  45.  74
    The Commentary of St. Thomas Auqinas on Aristotle's Treatise on the Soul.Aquinas Saint Thomas - 1946 - [St. Paul.
    Aquinas Saint Thomas. The Commentary of St. Thomas Aquinas on Aristotle's Treatise on the soul Aquinas Saint Thomas TI-IE COMMENTARY . OF * ST. THOMAS AQUINAS ON I. Front Cover.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. St. Thomas Aquinas on Analogy a Textual Analysis and Systematic Synthesis. --.George Peter Klubertanz & Thomas - 1960 - Loyola University Press.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  47.  82
    Thomas Kuhn on Revolution and Paul Feyerabend on Anarchy.Thomas J. Hickey - 2005 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 33 (1):102-114.
    The paper discusses some aspects of the relationship between Feyerabend and Kuhn. First, some biographical remarks concerning their connections are made. Second, four characteristics of Feyerabend and Kuhn's concept of incommensurability are discussed. Third, Feyerabend's general criticism of Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions is reconstructed. Fourth and more specifically, Feyerabend's criticism of Kuhn's evaluation of normal science is critically investigated. Finally, Feyerabend's re-evaluation of Kuhn's philosophy towards the end of his life is presented.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  48.  9
    Kirchhoff’s Theory for Optical Diffraction, its Predecessor and Subsequent Development: The Resilience of an Inconsistent Theory.Chen-Pang Yeang & Jed Buchwald - 2016 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 70 (5):463-511.
    Kirchhoff’s 1882 theory of optical diffraction forms the centerpiece in the long-term development of wave optics, one that commenced in the 1820s when Fresnel produced an empirically successful theory based on a reinterpretation of Huygens’ principle, but without working from a wave equation. Then, in 1856, Stokes demonstrated that the principle was derivable from such an equation albeit without consideration of boundary conditions. Kirchhoff’s work a quarter century later marked a crucial, and widely influential, point for he produced (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  49.  5
    The Writings of Thomas Paine.Thomas Paine - 1902 - New York: B. Franklin.
    Dr. Benjamin Rush, who was much impressed by the essay, says, " He [Paine] told me the essay to which I alluded was the first thing he had ever published in ...
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  50. Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man.Thomas Reid - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    Thomas Reid was a philosopher who founded the Scottish school of 'common sense'. Much of Reid's work is a critique of his contemporary, David Hume, whose empiricism he rejects. In this work, written after Reid's appointment to a professorship at the university of Glasgow, and published in 1785, he turns his attention to ideas about perception, memory, conception, abstraction, judgement, reasoning and taste. He examines the work of his predecessors and contemporaries, arguing that 'when we find philosophers maintaining that (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   430 citations  
1 — 50 / 1000