Results for 'Stefan Artmann'

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  1.  11
    Basic Semiosis as Code-Based Control.Stefan Artmann - 2009 - Biosemiotics 2 (1):31-38.
    Though the formal coherence and empirical utility of Marcello Barbieri’s concept of organic code have been starting to become established, a general conception of how the semantics of organic codes is related to the pragmatics of their use is still missing. Barbieri took a first step towards such a conception by distinguishing three types of semiosis in living systems: manufacturing, signalling, and interpretive semiosis. This paper integrates Barbieri’s distinction into Roman Jakobson’s systematization of possible functions of messages in order to (...)
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  2.  45
    Four Principles of Evolutionary Pragmatics in Jacob's Philosophy of Modern Biology.Stefan Artmann - 2004 - Axiomathes 14 (4):381-395.
    The French molecular biologist François Jacob outlined a theory of evolution as tinkering. From a methodological point of view, his approach can be seen as a biologic specification of the relation between laws, describing coherently the dynamics of a system, and contingent boundary conditions on this dynamics. From a semiotic perspective, tinkering is a pragmatic concept well-known from the information-theoretic anthropology of Claude Lévi-Strauss. In idealized contrast to an engineer, the tinkerer has to accept the concrete restrictions on his material (...)
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  3.  10
    Organic Problem Solving: Biology, Decision Theory, and the Physical Symbol System Hypothesis.Stefan Artmann - 2008 - American Journal of Semiotics 24 (1/3):95-105.
    Sign-theoretical concepts have been used in research into the nature of living systems, not only by biologists, semioticians, and philosophers, but also by scientists who analyze organisms from the perspective of Decision Theory. Decision Theory describes both the external behavior and the internal information-processing of any kind of agent in terms of problem solving. Such “problem solving” is considered a complex process of: defining a goal in an environment, selecting the means to reach the defined goal, and controlling the effects (...)
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  4.  9
    Semiootilise määramatuse kolm tüüpi Monod' kaasaegse bioloogia filosoofias. Kokkuvõte.Stefan Artmann - 2002 - Sign Systems Studies 30 (1):161-161.
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  5.  19
    Three Types of Semiotic Indeterminacy in Monod’s Philosophy of Modern Biology.Stefan Artmann - 2002 - Sign Systems Studies 30 (1):149-160.
    Synthesizing important research traditions in information theory, structuralist semiotics, and generative linguistics, at least three main types of semiotic indeterminacy must be distinguished: Kolmogorov’s notion of randomness defined as sequential incompressibility, de Saussure’s principle of contingency of sign which ensures the possibility of translation between different sign systems, and Chomsky’s idea of indefiniteness in generative mechanisms as a requirement for the explanation of semiotic creativity. These types of semiotic indeterminacy form an abstract system useful for the description of concrete sign (...)
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  6.  45
    Stefan Zweig, Hans Rosenkranz und der J. M. Spaeth-Verlag, Berlin.Stefan Litt - 2018 - Naharaim 12 (1-2):101-132.
    Von 1925 bis 1928 wurden im Berliner J. M. Spaeth-Verlag unter der Leitung von Hans Rosenkranz eine Reihe von Werken seinerzeit eher unbekannter, in der Retrospektive jedoch signifikanter Autoren der Zwischenkriegszeit publiziert. Der Beitrag thematisiert Rosenkranz als jungen Verleger und Bewunderer Stefan Zweigs. Er entwirft auf Grundlage der Archivüberlieferung einen neuen Blick auf die Geschichte des Unternehmens und kommentiert das damit verbundene literarische Programm: Welche wichtigen verlegerischen Projekte wurden in jener kurzen Zeit unternommen? Welche Rolle hatte Stefan Zweig (...)
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  7.  8
    Euclid's Elements and its Prehistory.Benno Artmann - 1991 - Apeiron 24 (4):1-48.
  8.  24
    Stefan Sottiaux, De Verenigde Staten van België.Stefan Rummens - 2011 - Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy 40 (2):169-172.
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  9. Stefan Sciaraffa.Stefan Sciaraffa - 1999 - Legal Theory 5 (2):201-219.
     
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  10.  36
    What Are Universities For?Stefan Collini - 2012 - Penguin Books.
    Stefan Collini challenges the common claim that universities need to show that they help to make money in order to justify getting more money.
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  11.  1
    Conversation with Prof. Stefan Swieżawski.Stefan Swieżawski & Paweł Kaczorowski - 2021 - Civitas. Studia Z Filozofii Polityki 11:298-308.
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  12.  25
    Die Metallindustrie Anatoliens in der Zeit von 1500–700 Vor Chr. By Stefan Przeworski. Pp. Xii + 206; Pl. 22. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1939. 16 Guilders. [REVIEW]W. Lamb & Stefan Przeworski - 1939 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 59 (2):291-292.
  13.  1
    John Heilbron. Geometry Civilized: History, Culture, and Technique. Viii + 309 Pp., Frontis., Illus., Figs., Tables, Bibl., Index. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. $65. [REVIEW]Benno Artmann - 2002 - Isis 93 (4):667-668.
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  14.  18
    Roger Herz-Fischler, the Shape of the Great Pyramid. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2000. Pp. XII+293. Isbn 0-88920-324-5. $29.95. [REVIEW]Benno Artmann - 2004 - British Journal for the History of Science 37 (3):355-356.
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  15. Strubes Sprechakttheoretische Rekonstruktion Ästhetischer Sprachspiele.R. Artmann - 1988 - Conceptus: Zeitschrift Fur Philosophie 22 (55):65-82.
     
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  16. Benno Artmann, Euclid-the Creation of Mathematics.E. R. Grosholz - 2001 - Philosophia Mathematica 9 (2):246-247.
     
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  17.  7
    ARTMANN, BENNO. Euclid—The Creation of Mathematics. Reviewed by EMILY R. GROSHOLZ 246. [REVIEW]Geoffrey Hellman - 1999 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 40:6-30.
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  18. ARTMANN'S The New Ways of Ontology. [REVIEW]Kaminsky Kaminsky - 1953 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 14:430.
     
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  19.  94
    Theory Construction in Qualitative Research.Stefan Timmermans & Iddo Tavory - 2012 - Sociological Theory 30 (3):167-186.
    A critical pathway for conceptual innovation in the social is the construction of theoretical ideas based on empirical data. Grounded theory has become a leading approach promising the construction of novel theories. Yet grounded theory-based theoretical innovation has been scarce in part because of its commitment to let theories emerge inductively rather than imposing analytic frameworks a priori. We note, along with a long philosophical tradition, that induction does not logically lead to novel theoretical insights. Drawing from the theory of (...)
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  20.  36
    Zorii Comunismului În Rom'nia. Ştefan Foriş, Un Destin Neterminat [The Dawns of Communism in Romania. Ştefan Foriş, an Unaccomplished Destiny].Ștefan Bosomitu - 2015 - History of Communism in Europe 6:233-236.
  21.  54
    The Member for Westminster: Doctrinaire Philosopher, Party Hack, or Public Moralist?*: Stefan Collini.Stefan Collini - 1990 - Utilitas 2 (2):307-322.
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  22.  18
    Stefan Collini's Absent Minds.James F. English, Barbara Caine, Michael Bentley, Jeremy Jennings, Daniel T. Rodgers & Stefan Collini - 2007 - Journal of the History of Ideas 68 (3):363-405.
  23. Towards a Neural Basis of Music-Evoked Emotions.Stefan Koelsch - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (3):131-137.
  24. Conditioning Against the Grain.Stefan Kaufmann - 2004 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 33 (6):583-606.
    This paper discusses counterexamples to the thesis that the probabilities of conditionals are conditional probabilities. It is argued that the discrepancy is systematic and predictable, and that conditional probabilities are crucially involved in the apparently deviant interpretations. Furthermore, the examples suggest that such conditionals have a less prominent reading on which their probability is in fact the conditional probability, and that the two readings are related by a simple step of abductive inference. Central to the proposal is a distinction between (...)
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  25.  69
    Gleiche Gerechtigkeit: Grundlagen Eines Liberalen Egalitarismus.Stefan Gosepath - 2004 - Suhrkamp.
    Equal Justice explores the role of the idea of equality in liberal theories of justice. The title indicates the book’s two-part thesis: first, I claim that justice is the central moral category in the socio-political domain; second, I argue for a specific conceptual and normative connection between the ideas of justice and equality. This pertains to the age-old question concerning the normative significance of equality in a theory of justice. The book develops an independent, systematic, and comprehensive theory of equality (...)
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  26.  29
    How Does the Perceived Ethicality of Corporate Services Brands Influence Loyalty and Positive Word-of-Mouth? Analyzing the Roles of Empathy, Affective Commitment, and Perceived Quality.Stefan Markovic, Oriol Iglesias, Jatinder Jit Singh & Vicenta Sierra - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 148 (4):721-740.
    In the past few decades, a growth in ethical consumerism has led brands to increasingly develop conscientiousness and depict ethical image at a corporate level. However, most of the research studying business ethics in the field of corporate brand management is either conceptual or has been empirically conducted in relation to goods/products contexts. This is surprising because corporate brands are more relevant in services contexts, because of the distinct nature of services and the key role that employees have in the (...)
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  27.  54
    Mechanisms and Difference-Making.Stefan Dragulinescu - unknown
    I argue that difference-making should be a crucial element for evaluating the quality of evidence for mechanisms, especially with respect to the robustness of mechanisms, and that it should take central stage when it comes to the general role played by mechanisms in establishing causal claims in medicine. The difference- making of mechanisms should provide additional compelling reasons to accept the gist of Russo-Williamson thesis and include mechanisms in the protocols for Evidence- Based Medicine, as the EBM+ research group has (...)
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  28.  64
    Conditionals Right and Left: Probabilities for the Whole Family.Stefan Kaufmann - 2009 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (1):1-53.
    The fact that the standard probabilistic calculus does not define probabilities for sentences with embedded conditionals is a fundamental problem for the probabilistic theory of conditionals. Several authors have explored ways to assign probabilities to such sentences, but those proposals have come under criticism for making counterintuitive predictions. This paper examines the source of the problematic predictions and proposes an amendment which corrects them in a principled way. The account brings intuitions about counterfactual conditionals to bear on the interpretation of (...)
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  29.  34
    Inference to the Best Explanation and Mechanisms in Medicine.Stefan Dragulinescu - 2016 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 37 (3):211-232.
    This article considers the prospects of inference to the best explanation as a method of confirming causal claims vis-à-vis the medical evidence of mechanisms. I show that IBE is actually descriptive of how scientists reason when choosing among hypotheses, that it is amenable to the balance/weight distinction, a pivotal pair of concepts in the philosophy of evidence, and that it can do justice to interesting features of the interplay between mechanistic and population level assessments.
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  30.  55
    Conditional Truth and Future Reference.Stefan Kaufmann - 2005 - Journal of Semantics 22 (3):231-280.
    This paper proposes a compositional model-theoretic account of the way the interpretation of indicative conditionals is determined and constrained by the temporal and modal expressions in their constituents. The main claim is that the tenses in both the antecedent and the consequent of an indicative conditional are interpreted in the same way as in isolation. This is controversial for the antecedents of predictive conditionals like ‘If he arrives tomorrow, she will leave’, whose Present tense is often claimed to differ semantically (...)
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  31.  89
    Towards a Neural Basis of Music Perception.Stefan Koelsch & Walter A. Siebel - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (12):578-584.
  32.  72
    Nietzsche, the Overhuman, and Transhumanism.Stefan Lorenz Sorgner - 2008 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 20 (1):29-42.
    Bostrom rejects Nietzsche as an ancestor of the transhumanist movement, as he claims that there were merely some “surface-level similarities with the Nietzschean vision” (Bostrom 2005a, 4). In contrast to Bostrom, I think that significant similarities between the posthuman and the overhuman can be found on a fundamental level. In addition, it seems to me that Nietzsche explained the relevance of the overhuman by referring to a dimension which seems to be lacking in transhumanism. In order to explain my position, (...)
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  33.  30
    Which Evolutionary Model Best Explains the Culture of Honour?Stefan Linquist - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (2):213-235.
    The culture of honour hypothesis offers a compelling example of how human psychology differentially adapts to pastoral and horticultural environments. However, there is disagreement over whether this pattern is best explained by a memetic, evolutionary psychological, dual inheritance, or niche construction model. I argue that this disagreement stems from two shortcomings: lack of clarity about the theoretical commitments of these models and inadequate comparative data for testing them. To resolve the first problem, I offer a theoretical framework for deriving competing (...)
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  34.  32
    Cross‐Linguistic Differences in Processing Double‐Embedded Relative Clauses: Working‐Memory Constraints or Language Statistics?Stefan L. Frank, Thijs Trompenaars & Shravan Vasishth - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (3):554-578.
    An English double-embedded relative clause from which the middle verb is omitted can often be processed more easily than its grammatical counterpart, a phenomenon known as the grammaticality illusion. This effect has been found to be reversed in German, suggesting that the illusion is language specific rather than a consequence of universal working memory constraints. We present results from three self-paced reading experiments which show that Dutch native speakers also do not show the grammaticality illusion in Dutch, whereas both German (...)
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  35.  70
    Conditional Predictions.Stefan Kaufmann - 2005 - Linguistics and Philosophy 28 (2):181 - 231.
    The connection between the probabilities of conditionals and the corresponding conditional probabilities has long been explored in the philosophical literature, but its implementation faces both technical obstacles and objections on empirical grounds. In this paper I ?rst outline the motivation for the probabilistic turn and Lewis’ triviality results, which stand in the way of what would seem to be its most straightforward implementation. I then focus on Richard Jeffrey’s ’random-variable’ approach, which circumvents these problems by giving up the notion that (...)
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  36.  74
    A Gentzen Calculus for Nothing but the Truth.Stefan Wintein & Reinhard Muskens - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (4):451-465.
    In their paper Nothing but the Truth Andreas Pietz and Umberto Rivieccio present Exactly True Logic, an interesting variation upon the four-valued logic for first-degree entailment FDE that was given by Belnap and Dunn in the 1970s. Pietz & Rivieccio provide this logic with a Hilbert-style axiomatisation and write that finding a nice sequent calculus for the logic will presumably not be easy. But a sequent calculus can be given and in this paper we will show that a calculus for (...)
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  37.  33
    Heartbeat Detection and the Experience of Emotions.Stefan Wiens, Elizabeth S. Mezzacappa & Edward S. Katkin - 2000 - Cognition and Emotion 14 (3):417-427.
  38.  57
    The Psychology of the Monty Hall Problem: Discovering Psychological Mechanisms for Solving a Tenacious Brain Teaser.Stefan Krauss & X. T. Wang - 2003 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 132 (1):3.
  39. Two Myths About Somatic Markers.Stefan Linquist & Jordan Bartol - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):455-484.
    Research on patients with damage to ventromedial frontal cortices suggests a key role for emotions in practical decision making. This field of investigation is often associated with Antonio Damasio’s Somatic Marker Hypothesis—a putative account of the mechanism through which autonomic tags guide decision making in typical individuals. Here we discuss two questionable assumptions—or ‘myths’—surrounding the direction and interpretation of this research. First, it is often assumed that there is a single somatic marker hypothesis. As others have noted, however, Damasio’s ‘hypothesis’ (...)
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  40.  5
    Toward a Neural Basis of Music Perception – A Review and Updated Model.Stefan Koelsch - 2011 - Frontier in Psychology 2.
  41.  53
    Measuring the Time Stability of Prospect Theory Preferences.Stefan Zeisberger, Dennis Vrecko & Thomas Langer - 2012 - Theory and Decision 72 (3):359-386.
    Prospect Theory (PT) is widely regarded as the most promising descriptive model for decision making under uncertainty. Various tests have corroborated the validity of the characteristic fourfold pattern of risk attitudes implied by the combination of probability weighting and value transformation. But is it also safe to assume stable PT preferences at the individual level? This is not only an empirical but also a conceptual question. Measuring the stability of preferences in a multi-parameter decision model such as PT is far (...)
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  42.  36
    Interdisciplinary Workshop in the Philosophy of Medicine: Death.Stefan J. Wagner, Elselijn Kingma & Mary Margaret McCabe - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):1072–1078.
  43.  31
    On All Strong Kleene Generalizations of Classical Logic.Stefan Wintein - 2016 - Studia Logica 104 (3):503-545.
    By using the notions of exact truth and exact falsity, one can give 16 distinct definitions of classical consequence. This paper studies the class of relations that results from these definitions in settings that are paracomplete, paraconsistent or both and that are governed by the Strong Kleene schema. Besides familiar logics such as Strong Kleene logic, the Logic of Paradox and First Degree Entailment, the resulting class of all Strong Kleene generalizations of classical logic also contains a host of unfamiliar (...)
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  44.  57
    The Framing of Corporate Social Responsibility and the Globalization of National Business Systems: A Longitudinal Case Study.Stefan Tengblad & Claes Ohlsson - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (4):653-669.
    The globalization movement in recent decades has meant rapid growth in trade, financial transactions, and cross-country ownership of economic assets. In this article, we examine how the globalization of national business systems has influenced the framing of corporate social responsibility (CSR). This is done using text analysis of CEO letters appearing in the annual reports of 15 major corporations in Sweden during a period of transformational change. The results show that the discourse about CSR in the annual reports has changed (...)
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  45.  55
    Do Ethical Guidelines Give Guidance? A Critical Examination of Eight Ethics Regulations.Stefan Eriksson, Anna T. Höglund & Gert Helgesson - 2008 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17 (1):15-29.
    The number of legal and nonlegal ethical regulations in the biomedical field has increased tremendously, leaving present-day practitioners and researchers in a virtual crossfire of legislations and guidelines. Judging by the production and by the way these regulations are motivated and presented, they are held to be of great importance to ethical practice. This view is shared by many commentators. For instance, Commons and Baldwin write that, within the nursing profession, patient care can be performed unethically or ethically depending on (...)
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  46. Public Moralists Political Thought and Intellectual Life in Britain 1850-1930.Stefan Collini - 1991
     
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  47. Combinations of Tense and Modality for Predicate Logic.Stefan Wölfl - 1999 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 28 (4):371-398.
    In recent years combinations of tense and modality have moved intothe focus of logical research. From a philosophical point of view, logical systems combining tense and modality are of interest because these logics have a wide field of application in original philosophical issues, for example in the theory of causation, of action, etc. But until now only methods yielding completeness results for propositional languages have been developed. In view of philosophical applications, analogous results with respect to languages of predicate logic (...)
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  48.  11
    Crowds and Democracy: The Idea and Image of the Masses From Revolution to Fascism.Stefan Jonsson - 2013 - Columbia University Press.
    This volume is the second installment in Stefan Jonsson’s epic study of the crowd and the mass in modern Europe, building on his work in A Brief History of the Masses, which focused on monumental artworks produced in 1789, 1889, and 1989.
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  49.  12
    Exploring the Folkbiological Conception of Human Nature.Stefan Linquist, Edouard Machery, Paul E. Griffiths & Karola Stotz - 2011 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 366 (1563):444--453.
    Integrating the study of human diversity into the human evolutionary sciences requires substantial revision of traditional conceptions of a shared human nature. This process may be made more difficult by entrenched, 'folkbiological' modes of thought. Earlier work by the authors suggests that biologically naive subjects hold an implicit theory according to which some traits are expressions of an animal's inner nature while others are imposed by its environment. In this paper, we report further studies that extend and refine our account (...)
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  50. Uncertainty Reduction as a Measure of Cognitive Load in Sentence Comprehension.Stefan L. Frank - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):475-494.
    The entropy-reduction hypothesis claims that the cognitive processing difficulty on a word in sentence context is determined by the word's effect on the uncertainty about the sentence. Here, this hypothesis is tested more thoroughly than has been done before, using a recurrent neural network for estimating entropy and self-paced reading for obtaining measures of cognitive processing load. Results show a positive relation between reading time on a word and the reduction in entropy due to processing that word, supporting the entropy-reduction (...)
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