In their strife for designing a moral system where everyone is given equal consideration, cosmopolitan theorists have merely tolerated partiality as a necessary evil (insofar it means that we give priority to our kin opposite the distant needy). As a result, the cosmopolitan ideal has long departed from our moral psychologies and our social realities. Here I put forward partial cosmopolitanism as an alternative to save that obstacle. Instead of demanding impartial universal action, it requires from us that we are (...) equally responsive in all the relationships we stand in. That goes from the local to the cosmopolitan sphere, since I defend that we are related with strangers as co-members of the global community. Thus, partiality not only is accommodated by cosmopolitanism, but actually supports it: only by having meaningful personal relationships we become able to care for distant strangers. (shrink)
In this paper we develop a view about the disorientation attached to the process of falling out of love and explain its prudential and moral value. We start with a brief background on theories of love and situate our argument within the views concerned with the lovers’ identities. Namely, love changes who we are. In the context of our paper, we explain this common tenet in the philosophy of love as a change in the lovers’ self-concepts through a process of (...) mutual shaping. This, however, is potentially dangerous for people involved in what we call ‘subsuming relationships’, who give up too much autonomy in the process of mutual shaping. We then move on to show how, through the relation between love and the self-concept, we can explain why the process of falling out of love with someone is so disorientating: when one is falling out of love, one loses an important point of reference for self-understanding. While this disorientating process is typically taken to be harmful to the person experiencing it, we will explain how it can also have moral and prudential value. By re-evaluating who we were in the relationship and who we are now, we can escape from oppressive practices in subsuming relationships. We finish by arguing that this gives us reason to be wary of seeking to re-orient ourselves -or others- too quickly after falling out of love. (shrink)
People who experience love often experience break-ups as well. However, philosophers of love have paid little attention to the phenomenon. Here, I address that gap by looking at the grieving process which follows unchosen relationship terminations. I ask which one is the loss that, if it were to be recovered, would stop grief or make it unwarranted. Is it the beloved, the reciprocation of love, the relationship, or all of it? By answering this question I not only provide with an (...) insight on the nature of break-ups, but also make a specific claim about the nature of love. I argue that the object that is universally lost in all break-ups is a person with certain intrinsic qualities, who is in a relationship characterised by certain shared activities and recognized as romantic. That means that, at least in romantic terminations, the beloved and the relationship are not independent objects of grief. So, plausibly, they may not independent objects of value in love. Hence, those who state otherwise should face up to this objection coming from the study of break-ups. (shrink)
Wittgenstein's examination of Private Language Argument and Solipsism in the Philosophical Investigations implies no critics to his earlier theory maintained in the Tractatus. On the contrary, both are inspired by the same idea, namely, the impossibility of finding a thinking subject merely on the ground of thought itself.
Quality of Life Reach in Medical Care Alcance da qualidade de vida no atendimento médico The term quality of life has increasingly widespread use in biomedical practice, especially in end-of-life situations. Experience shows that the expression is often used with very different —and sometimes conflicting— scopes. The present article presents the results of a literature review that show diverse positions, while delimitating the subject. The analysis compares the terms “quality of life,” “human dignity,” and “value of human life.” Para citar (...) este artículo / To reference this article / Para citar este artigo Páez G, López-Gabeiras MP, Moreno-D’Anna M. Alcance de la “calidad de vida” en atención médica. Pers Bioet. 2020;24:14-27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5294/pebi.2020.24.1.2 Recibido: 06/11/2019 Aceptado: 04/03/2020 Publicado: 07/05/2020. (shrink)
The physician’s duty of confidentiality is based on the observance of the patient’s privacy and intimacy and on the importance of respecting both of these rights, thus creating a relationship of confidence and collaboration between doctor and patient. The main objective of this work consists of analyzing the aspects that are related to the confidentiality of patients’ data with respect to the training, conduct and opinions of doctors from different Clinical Management Units of a third-level hospital via a questionnaire. The (...) present study aimed to define the problem and determine whether the opinions of these professionals correspond to those observed in a previous work conducted at the same center. Of the 200 questionnaires that were collected, 62.5% were from consultants and the rest were from residents with an average of 14.4 ± 12.5 years in professional practice. The respondents noted habitual situations in which confidentiality was breached in the reference hospital. The section on their attitudes and behaviors towards situations related to confidentiality showed a slightly lower average score than that of their medical knowledge; significant differences in these scores were observed between the consultants and residents as well as between the extreme age groups and years of professional practice, thus more inadequate attitudes were consistently noted in younger doctors who had fewer years of experience. Finally, the respondents answered that the training of doctors in the aspects of healthcare law and ethics was the most important measure that the hospital could adopt regarding confidentiality practices. (shrink)
La transgresión que supone la asociación de la violencia con las mujeres se revela en el tratamiento político y mediático que han recibido las mujeres de ETA, frecuentemente asociadas con una feminidad pervertida. Este artículo analiza la identificación del cuerpo de la mujer de ETA con la sexualidad desviada de los modelos normativos nacionalistas, explora las conflictivas relaciones de las mujeres con la violencia y se detiene en las figuras políticas y el liderazgo de Yoyes y de Idoia López Riaño. (...) En el primer caso se analiza la transgresión representada por la presencia inasimilable de una líder de ETA tras su abandono de la actividad terrorista y tras su maternidad. En el segundo se explora su representación y la negociación política y mediática de su identidad. Si Yoyes ocupa un espacio simbólico en el imaginario político vasco, López Riaño constituye un testimonio vivo en el proceso de esta militancia femenina en ETA. (shrink)
Durante el año 2008, el Seminario de Sociedad y Cultura Contemporáneas de nuestra universidad quiso celebrar un ciclo de conferencias sobre la actualidad de lo trágico. Nuestra convicción era que la cultura contemporánea volvía a necesitar la voz y la energía del pensamiento de la tragedia, después de que estas hubieran sido interesadamente neutralizadas en los últimos tiempos. Para este proyecto, se contó con la presencia de toda una autoridad mundial en esta área, Sergio Givone, así como con reputados profesores (...) españoles como Luis Enrique de Santiago Guervós, Pilar López de Santamaría, Marco Parmeggiani o Celso Sánchez Capdequí; acompañados a su vez de jóvenes promesas del panorama nacional. El resultado de ese ciclo es este volumen, donde se recorre a ese respecto un trayecto tanto cronológico (que pasa por Schopenhauer, Dostoievski, Nietzsche, Unamuno, los futuristas) como temático (con asuntos tales que la libertad, el amor fati, el arte contemporáneo, la novedad y la educación). (shrink)
Catalan young adults have found themselves as prominent actors in important social, political and economic changes that Catalonia is currently experiencing. How are their life goals related to these events? We explore self-oriented, prosocial and change-oriented life goals and their expected social benefits among 160 Catalan university students who completed an online survey. Mean differences between highly and scantly change-oriented students were strong in their endorsement of prosocial life goals and mild in self-oriented life goals. Linear regression found modest predictive (...) value for students’ expectations of producing social benefits based on prosocial and change-oriented life goals, but not self-oriented life goals. (shrink)
The stream on political corporate social responsibility argues that companies have recently assumed state-like roles to influence global governance. However, following emerging calls for greater contextualization of CSR, we trace the historic evolution of PCSR in the case of Colombia and argue that such political engagement by firms is not new. Looking beyond a linear chronological account, we reveal the sedimentation process behind PCSR by exploring the archetypical political roles businesses have taken on in providing public goods and acting as (...) regulators, and chart their transformation. Our findings allow us to make two main contributions. First, by unearthing different strata of business and society relations, we enrich the research on PCSR, highlighting its historical sedimentation dynamics. By integrating institutional and historical perspectives, we respond to calls for complementary accounts of one of the premises found in the literature that considers globalization as the starting point of PCSR. Second, our exploration of the past and present of PCSR in Colombia provides scholars and practitioners with an overview of the complex state and stakes of CSR in that country. We also discuss the implications of sedimentation for PCSR theory and future research directions. (shrink)
This article argues that current data for the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplants as a treatment for any indication, including recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection, is low-quality. It develops a governance proposal that encourages production of high-quality evidence by incentivizing well-designed RCTs of stool and stoolderived microbial products. The proposal would require that FDA change its current enforcement approach, but it would not require any change in statutes or regulations.
As Social Economy financial institutions, credit unions have traditionally been considered less efficient than traditional banking entities. However, like banks and savings banks, they have to be as efficient and competitive as possible to survive in today’s business environment, especially at times of crisis. To date, there have been very few studies on their efficiency and practically none for the crisis period. Moreover, almost all the existing studies assess only financial efficiency, without considering their social function. This study examines the (...) levels of both financial and social efficiency in Spanish credit unions as well as their main determinants during the recent crisis. We apply the two-stage double bootstrap data envelopment analysis methodology based on panel data corresponding to all the credit unions active in Spain between 2008 and 2013. The empirical results indicate that financial and social efficiency achieved an acceptable level, although on average the former was slightly greater than the latter. We also find that both age and merger and acquisition activity were positively influential on the financial efficiency of credit unions but had a significant negative effect on their social efficiency. Moreover, the regional location of such entities and the financial crisis were also crucial determinants of both types of efficiency. Our findings are therefore useful for all the stakeholders of credit unions to know if these entities have been efficient according to a double bottom line accounting in the crisis period and hence to maintain successful social management that is compatible with satisfactory financial efficiency. (shrink)
A la muerte de Suárez algunos de sus escritos permanecían aún inéditos. De ellos se hablaba ya en las primeras cartas que comunicaban su fallecimiento. Así, el P. Núñez Mascarenhas, superior de la casa de Lisboa donde falleció el insigne teólogo, decía al provincial de la Compañía de Jesús en el reino de Aragón: "El P. Suárez se había recogido en el Noviciado para preparar la impresión de varios volúmenes: primero, el De Angelis; segundo, el De opere sex dierum [en (...) adelante, DOSD]; tercero, De fide; cuarto y quinto, De gratia y De auxiliis; sexto y séptimo, De statu religionis; octavo, De voluntario et involuntario"3. (shrink)
In the recent literature on contextualism and relativism, one often finds disputes as to which kind of consideration would be relevant for positing a feature of a context as a parameter in the ‘‘circumstance of evaluation’: via the presence of an operator in the language which shifts that feature (Stanley) or by being a feature of a context with respect to which the truth of ‘‘propositions’’ expressed in the context is relative (McFarlane). This kind of dispute arises from two different (...) independent roles that elements in ‘‘circumstances of evaluation’’ are sometimes assumed to have. I distinguish indices from points of evaluation, and motivate its significance in the debate. (shrink)
I argue for a version of logical pluralism based on the plurality of legitimate formalizations of the logical vocabulary. In particular, I argue that the apparent rivalry between classical and relevant logic can be resolved, given that both logics capture and formalize normative and legitimate senses of logical consequence: classical logic encodes “follows from” as truth preservation and captures the truth conditions of the logical constants, while relevant logic encodes a notion of “follows from” which, apart from preserving truth, avoids (...) the violation of certain Gricean maxims and captures a different inferential role for the same logical constants, enriching their meaning pragmatically. (shrink)
In Lukács: Praxis and the Absolute, Daniel Andrés López reassembles Lukács’s philosophy of praxis on a Hegelian basis, as a conceptual-historical totality, both defending him and proposing an unprecedented, immanent critique that raises problems for Marxian philosophy as a whole.
Our work is a contribution to the model theory of fuzzy predicate logics. In this paper we characterize elementary equivalence between models of fuzzy predicate logic using elementary mappings. Refining the method of diagrams we give a solution to an open problem of Hájek and Cintula (J Symb Log 71(3):863–880, 2006, Conjectures 1 and 2). We investigate also the properties of elementary extensions in witnessed and quasi-witnessed theories, generalizing some results of Section 7 of Hájek and Cintula (J Symb Log (...) 71(3):863–880, 2006) and of Section 4 of Cerami and Esteva (Arch Math Log 50(5/6):625–641, 2011) to non-exhaustive models. (shrink)
This essay identifies two legal lineages underlying the common heritage concept, and applies each to the human genome. The essay notes some advantages and disadvantages of each approach, and argues that patenting of human genes would be allowable under either approach.
The present global financial crisis has revived the notion that competitive markets may lead some directors and executives to behave in opportunistic ways considered unethical and even illegal, through the pursuit of self-interest. This article proposes and tests an integrated model that offers new insights into the relationship between board structure, independence and firm value. By incorporating the proportion of independent directors on the board as a moderating factor in this relationship, this study contributes to a better understanding of the (...) entrenchment and convergence-of-interests hypotheses. Using empirical data obtained from 114 Spanish listed companies in a context of economic crisis, from 2007 to 2010, we conclude that having a board with a greater proportion of independent directors reduces the negative association existing between firm value and a large board size and significant board share ownership. (shrink)