La constatación de que nuestro universo está constituido de unos y los mismos elementos materiales en cualquier lugar en que podamos observarlo nos lleva directamente a la postulación de un único principio y causa del único proceso universal al que se debe cuanto existe. Y en ese trance parece inevitable preguntar: ¿cómo ha surgido Todo? Todo, aquí, significa cuanto hay; sin excepción alguna. Esta visión puramente física del Universo puede denominarse naturalismo universal, entendiendo el término naturalismo como traducción del término (...) aristotélico physis en su célebre definición. (shrink)
Este artículo analiza las aportaciones que EloyRada hizo a los estudios leibnicianos a través de sus ediciones de textos de Leibniz y al analizar la confrontación entre Leibniz y los newtonianos: polémica sobre el origen del Cálculo y el Análisis Matemático a finales del siglo XVII y contraposición entre las teorías del espacio y el tiempo de Newton y Leibniz. Rada mostró que el sistema newtoniano tenía una fundamentación teológico-religiosa, que fue puesta en cuestión por el (...) sistema leibniciano de la armonía preestablecida, haciendo irreconciliables las posturas de ambos. Las divergencias, incluida la discusión sobre la fuerza de la gravedad, son consecuencia de esa contraposición metafísica y teológica, que afectaba a las raíces de la religión anglicana, tal y como se había conformado a partir del latitudinarismo de los filósofos de Cambridge, de Boyle y del propio Newton y su sistema de la gravitación universal. (shrink)
La cultura del agua debe ser vinculada de forma especial a las manifestaciones del patrimonio cultural intangible de los pueblos, como las tradiciones orales o escritas, la simbología o los rituales, que conforman lo que llamamos los Imaginarios del Agua. Estos deben ser analizados y deconstruidos a la luz de los nuevos paradigmas, como la hermenéutica y la ecocrítica. De este modo, la mitografía ayuda a perfilar el significado profundo de la cultura del agua ante las nuevas demandas medioambientales, educativas (...) y culturales del siglo XXI, en un contexto donde el agua ya no es solo un recurso estratégico, sino un bien cultural ligado al desarrollo local y a las políticas de sostenibilidad. Por ello, al conocer las tradiciones ancestrales y los imaginarios en torno al agua, y al sensibilizar a los alumnos con los valores plurales de estas manifestaciones culturales --que siempre van encaminados al respeto y al conocimiento del patrimonio natural y cultural--, contribuimos de forma decisiva a la gobernanza del agua y a la gestión sostenible y responsable de los recursos hídricos, pues sin duda el principal problema de la sostenibilidad será la educación de los ciudadanos. Water culture must be linked in a special way to expressions of intangible cultural heritage of peoples, such as oral or written traditions, symbols or rituals that make up what we call the imaginary water. They must be analyzed and deconstructed in the light of the new paradigms, such as hermeneutics and the ecocriticism. Thus, mythography helps shape the profound meaning of the culture of the water at the new environmental, educational and cultural demands of the 21st century, in a context where the water is not only a strategic resource but a cultural property linked to local development and sustainability policies. Therefore, to know the ancestral traditions and imaginaries in connection to water, and to educate students with the plural values of these cultural manifestations, --which always aimed to respect and knowledge of the natural and cultural heritage-- we contribute decisively to the governance of the water and the sustainable and responsible management of water resources then no doubt the main problem of sustainability will be the education of citizens. (shrink)
The purpose of this paper is to outline a thesis which in some ways attemts to retrieve the value of meaning as a constituent element of theories. It will be argued that theories possess in common a more or less explicit relational structure, but, at the same time, they possess a meaningful function by means of which they are instruments of knowledge or, rather, by means of which theories have the value ofknowledge in science. In conclusion, it will be suggested (...) that this approach to theories allows those with weak relational structure (social, historical theories, etc.) to be treated with a degree of adequacy by the philosophy of science. Likewise, it will be suggested that the method of semantic analysis linked to the theory of “possible worlds” could be fruitful for this purpose. (shrink)
Leibniz escribió en 1675 un texto titulado Drole de pensée, touchant une nouvelle sorte de representation. Poco conocido, este escrito se centra en proponer la creación de una academia de las representaciones, en la cual todo científico interesado podría presentar sus nuevas invenciones al público interesado en las artes y las ciencias. Del mismo modo, Leibniz propone la creación de una academia de juegos mediante la cual se financiaría tanto la academia de las representaciones como la Académie des Sciencesde París. (...) En este trabajo ofrecemos una traducción inédita del Drole de penséey destacamos la importancia del papel de Leibniz en su faceta de promotor de la comunicación científica y filosófica, faceta que también ha destacado el profesor EloyRada. (shrink)
What if human joy went on endlessly? Suppose, for example, that each human generation were followed by another, or that the Western religions are right when they teach that each human being lives eternally after death. If any such possibility is true in the actual world, then an agent might sometimes be so situated that more than one course of action would produce an infinite amount of utility. Deciding whether to have a child born this year rather than next is (...) a situation wherein an agent may face several alternatives whose effects could well ramify endlessly on such suppositions, for the child born this year would be a different person—one who preferred different things, performed different actions, and had different descendants—from a child born next year. It has recently been suggested that traditional utilitarianism stumbles on such cases of infinite utility. Specifically, utilitarianism seems to require, for its application, that all experience of pleasure and pain cease at some time in the future or asymptotically approach zero.2 If neither of these conditions holds, then the utility produced by each of two alternative actions may turn out to be infinite, and utilitarianism thus loses its ability to discriminate morally between them. (shrink)
El presente trabajo, escrito en ocasión del centenario de García Bacca, pretende poner de manifiesto la dimensión pedagógica del Maestro. Y ello, a propósito de su trabajo como estudioso de la Filosofía Colonial Venezolana, tema frecuentemente obviado cuando se valora el trabajo de este filósofo.
Many theists of a traditional bent have been bothered by the apparent tension between God's essential omnipotence and his essential moral goodness. Nelson Pike draws attention to the conflict between these two attributes in his article ‘Omnipotence and God's Ability to Sin’, and there have been many attempts to respond to it since that time. Most of these responses argue that the essential omnipotence and essential goodness of God are not logically incompatible, so that the traditional conception of God is (...) not incoherent; I think the arguments have been largely successful. However, some theists have found the typical responses to Pike less than convincing, and are tempted to surrender the claim that God has moral perfection essentially in favour of the more modest claim that God is morally perfect in the actual world though in some possible worlds God is morally defective. I argue in this paper that this fall-back position is incoherent. More accurately, I argue that a necessary being who is essentially omniscient and essentially omnipotent cannot be contingently morally perfect or contingently morally defective. Any such being is either essentially good or essentially evil. Since the latter alternative seems unattractive, I argue that theists should embrace the essential moral perfection of God. (shrink)
I analyze the relationship between women and nationalism and argue that women's identity and relationship to the “Other” is different from that of men, hence even when women participate in nationalism it is in a less violent form. I argue, further, that the structures of nationalism are fundamentally homosocial, and antagonism toward women of one's own nation is one of the first forms of attack on the “Other,” and is constitutive of “extreme nationalism.”.
Cosmopolitan critics attack the scope-limitation of justice of egalitarian liberal theorists to states. They treat justice as the production of a given set of outcomes for people regardless of location or relationship. However, in doing so they either ignore the relevant agent towards whom principles of justice are addressed or see the question of agency as a practical, derivative question, of a secondary character. This paper argues that a principle of justice without a clearly justified agent is not a genuine (...) principle at all. This is what writers like Rawls mean by the "subject" of justice (analogous to the grammatical subject of a sentence, i.e.,the agent). We should reflect on agents and why they would or would not justifiably carry certain burdens for others and what kind of benefits or goods they are able to secure. The answers to those questions explain why the idea of cosmopolitan global justice is incomplete, either requiring a global basic structural agency or not applying because no relevant agent is present that can create cooperative arrangements between individual persons across the globe. Other moral principles will still apply globally, but they will be distinct from those that apply to basic-structural agencies. This account is not a practice dependence account, as it bases the distinctness of moral and political principles on purely moral and value-based considerations. (shrink)
I defend a Deferred Ostension view of quotation, on which quotation-marks are the linguistic bearers of reference, functioning like a demonstrative; the quoted material merely plays the role of a demonstratum. On this view, the quoted material works like Nunberg’s indexes in his account of deferred ostensión in general. The referent is obtained through some contextually suggested relation; in the default case the relation will be … instantiates the linguistic type __, but there are other possibilities. In this way, the (...) deferred ostension view deals with a problem I pointed out for the identity proposal in my earlier work, that we do not merely refer with quotations to expression-types, but also to other entities related in some way to the relevant token we use: features exhibited by the token distinct from those constituting its linguistic type, features exhibited by other tokens of the same type but not by the one actually used (as when, by using a graphic token, we refer to its phonetic type), or even other related tokens (see the examples on p. 261 of García-Carpintero 1994). (shrink)
This paper presents the notion of transfinite developed by García Bacca in his «Infinito, transfinito, finito». This concept is a reaction to the Aristotelian concepts of «nature» and «finite», making man a historical being. García Bacca argues that man has lost his nature and his finitude through technology. So, strictly speaking, is not finite, nor infinite.
Inspired by Castañeda (1966, 1968), Perry (1979) and Lewis (1979) showed that a specific variety of singular thoughts, thoughts about oneself “as oneself” – de se thoughts, as Lewis called them – raise special issues, and they advanced rival accounts. Their suggestive examples raise the problem of de se thought – to wit, how to characterize it so as to give an accurate account of the data, tracing its relations to singular thoughts in general. After rehearsing the main tenets of (...) two contrasting accounts – a Lewisian one and a Perrian one – in the first section of this paper, in the second I will present a proposal of my own, which is a specific elaboration of the Perrian account. In the first section I will indicate some weaknesses of Perry’s presentation of his view; the proposal I will articulate in the second overcomes them. I will conclude with a brief discussion of reasons for preferring one or another account, in particular regarding the issue of the communication of de se thoughts. (shrink)