Results for 'Laura Hawryluck'

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  1.  81
    Consensus Guidelines on Analgesia and Sedation in Dying Intensive Care Unit Patients.Laura Hawryluck, William Harvey, Louise Lemieux-Charles & Peter Singer - 2002 - BMC Medical Ethics 3 (1):1-9.
    Background Intensivists must provide enough analgesia and sedation to ensure dying patients receive good palliative care. However, if it is perceived that too much is given, they risk prosecution for committing euthanasia. The goal of this study is to develop consensus guidelines on analgesia and sedation in dying intensive care unit patients that help distinguish palliative care from euthanasia. Methods Using the Delphi technique, panelists rated levels of agreement with statements describing how analgesics and sedatives should be given to dying (...)
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  2.  23
    On Pandemics and the Duty to Care: Whose Duty? Who Cares?Carly Ruderman, C. Shawn Tracy, Cécile M. Bensimon, Mark Bernstein, Laura Hawryluck, Randi Z. Shaul & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2006 - BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):5.
    BackgroundAs a number of commentators have noted, SARS exposed the vulnerabilities of our health care systems and governance structures. Health care professionals and hospital systems that bore the brunt of the SARS outbreak continue to struggle with the aftermath of the crisis. Indeed, HCPs – both in clinical care and in public health – were severely tested by SARS. Unprecedented demands were placed on their skills and expertise, and their personal commitment to their profession was severely tried. Many were exposed (...)
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  3.  42
    On Pandemics and the Duty to Care: Whose Duty? Who Cares? [REVIEW]Carly Ruderman, C. Tracy, Cécile Bensimon, Mark Bernstein, Laura Hawryluck, Randi Zlotnik Shaul & Ross Upshur - 2006 - BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-6.
    Background As a number of commentators have noted, SARS exposed the vulnerabilities of our health care systems and governance structures. Health care professionals (HCPs) and hospital systems that bore the brunt of the SARS outbreak continue to struggle with the aftermath of the crisis. Indeed, HCPs – both in clinical care and in public health – were severely tested by SARS. Unprecedented demands were placed on their skills and expertise, and their personal commitment to their profession was severely tried. Many (...)
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  4.  20
    Multi-Professional Recommendations for Access and Utilization of Critical Care Services: Towards Consistency in Practice and Ethical Decision-Making Processes.Laura Hawryluck, Redouane Bouali & Nathalie Danjoux Meth - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (2):254-262.
    Multiprofessional guidelines for fair access to and use of adult critical care services are desperately needed to define a consistent transparent standard of care: when such therapies have the potential to benefit and help a patient as they journey with illness and when they cannot.
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  5.  2
    Multi-Professional Recommendations for Access and Utilization of Critical Care Services: Towards Consistency in Practice and Ethical Decision-Making Processes.Laura Hawryluck, Redouane Bouali & Nathalie Danjoux Meth - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (2):254-262.
    The ethics sections of Critical Care Societies have issued position statements and proposed a variety of position papers and policies describing the appropriate use of critical care services. These policies describe the goals of critical care provision — to support a patient through an acute, potentially reversible, life-threatening illness — and provide broad guidance on physiological and hemodynamic criteria that require the specialized care of an ICU environment. In recent years, many critical care professionals have, however, reported providing care they (...)
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  6. A Paradigm Shift in Theorizing About Justice? A Critique of Sen: Laura Valentini.Laura Valentini - 2011 - Economics and Philosophy 27 (3):297-315.
    In his recent book The Idea of Justice, Amartya Sen suggests that political philosophy should move beyond the dominant, Rawls-inspired, methodological paradigm – what Sen calls ‘transcendental institutionalism’ – towards a more practically oriented approach to justice: ‘realization-focused comparison’. In this article, I argue that Sen's call for a paradigm shift in thinking about justice is unwarranted. I show that his criticisms of the Rawlsian approach are either based on misunderstandings, or correct but of little consequence, and conclude that the (...)
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  7.  45
    Neuromuscular Blockers--A Means of Palliation?L. Hawryluck - 2002 - Journal of Medical Ethics 28 (3):170-172.
    As we die, our respiratory pattern is altered and we seem to gasp and struggle for each breath. Such gasping is commonly seen as a clear sign of dyspnoea and suffering by families and loved ones, however, it is unclear whether it is perceived at all by the dying person. Narcotics and sedatives do not seem to affect these gasping respirations. In this issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics, we are asked to consider whether the last gasp of a (...)
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  8. Ideal Vs. Non‐Ideal Theory: A Conceptual Map.Laura Valentini - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (9):654-664.
    This article provides a conceptual map of the debate on ideal and non‐ideal theory. It argues that this debate encompasses a number of different questions, which have not been kept sufficiently separate in the literature. In particular, the article distinguishes between the following three interpretations of the ‘ideal vs. non‐ideal theory’ contrast: full compliance vs. partial compliance theory; utopian vs. realistic theory; end‐state vs. transitional theory. The article advances critical reflections on each of these sub‐debates, and highlights areas for future (...)
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  9. Free Will: A Philosophical Study.Laura W. Ekstrom - 1999 - Westview.
    In this comprehensive new study of human free agency, Laura Waddell Ekstrom critically surveys contemporary philosophical literature and provides a novel account of the conditions for free action. Ekstrom argues that incompatibilism concerning free will and causal determinism is true and thus the right account of the nature of free action must be indeterminist in nature. She examines a variety of libertarian approaches, ultimately defending an account relying on indeterministic causation among events and appealing to agent causation only in (...)
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  10.  79
    The Essential Moral Perfection of God: LAURA L. GARCIA.Laura L. Garcia - 1987 - Religious Studies 23 (1):137-144.
    Many theists of a traditional bent have been bothered by the apparent tension between God's essential omnipotence and his essential moral goodness. Nelson Pike draws attention to the conflict between these two attributes in his article ‘Omnipotence and God's Ability to Sin’, and there have been many attempts to respond to it since that time. Most of these responses argue that the essential omnipotence and essential goodness of God are not logically incompatible, so that the traditional conception of God is (...)
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  11.  64
    Laura F. Hodges, Chaucer and Clothing: Clerical and Academic Costume in the General Prologue to “The Canterbury Tales.” (Chaucer Studies, 34.) Woodbridge, Eng., and Rochester, N.Y.: Boydell and Brewer, 2005. Pp. Xiv, 316 Plus 8 Color Plates; 16 Black-and-White Plates. $90. [REVIEW]Laura L. Howes - 2006 - Speculum 81 (4):1209-1211.
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  12. Interpreting Quantum Theories: The Art of the Possible.Laura Ruetsche - 2011 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Philosophers of quantum mechanics have generally addressed exceedingly simple systems. Laura Ruetsche offers a much-needed study of the interpretation of more complicated systems, and an underexplored family of physical theories, such as quantum field theory and quantum statistical mechanics, showing why they repay philosophical attention. She guides those familiar with the philosophy of ordinary QM into the philosophy of 'QM infinity', by presenting accessible introductions to relevant technical notions and the foundational questions they frame--and then develops and defends answers (...)
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  13. On the Apparent Paradox of Ideal Theory.Laura Valentini - 2009 - Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (3):332-355.
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  14.  76
    Does Size Matter? The State of the Art in Small Business Ethics.Laura J. Spence - 1999 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 8 (3):163–174.
    In this paper the exclusive focus on large firms in the field of business ethics is challenged. Some of the idiosyncrasies of small firms are explained, and links are made between these and potential ethical issues. A review of the existing literature on ethics in small firms demonstrates the lack of appropriate research, so that to date we can draw no firm conclusions in relation to ethics in the small firm. Recommendations are made as to the way forward for small (...)
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  15.  54
    Justice in a Globalized World: A Normative Framework.Laura Valentini - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    Are wealthy countries' duties towards developing countries grounded in justice or in weaker concerns of charity? Justice in a Globalized World offers both an in-depth critique of the most prominent philosophical answers to this question, and a distinctive approach for addressing it.
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  16.  16
    Behind Closed Doors: Irbs and the Making of Ethical Research.Laura Jeanine Morris Stark - 2011 - University of Chicago Press.
    IRBs in action -- Everyone's an expert? Warrants for expertise -- Local precedents -- Documents and deliberations: an anticipatory perspective -- Setting IRBs in motion in Cold War America -- An ethics of place -- The many forms of consent -- Deflecting responsibility -- Conclusion: the making of ethical research.
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  17.  55
    Assessing Social Capital: Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Germany and the U.K. [REVIEW]Laura J. Spence, René Schmidpeter & André Habisch - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 47 (1):17 - 29.
    "Social capital" can be considered to be the product of co-operationbetween various institutions, networks and business partners. It haspotential as a useful tool for business ethics. In this article weidentify categories pertinent to the measurement of social capital insmall and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). By drawing on three differentsectors, one business-to-business service, one business-to-customerservice, and one manufacturing, we have enabled the consideration ofsectoral differences. We find sector to play an important part inrelation to business practices and social capital. Our inclusion (...)
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  18. A Rebuttal of Nussbaum Laura Cannon.Laura Cannon - 2005 - In Barbara S. Andrew, Jean Clare Keller & Lisa H. Schwartzman (eds.), Feminist Interventions in Ethics and Politics: Feminist Ethics and Social Theory. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 97.
  19. Global Justice and the Role of the State: A Critical Survey.Laura Valentini & Miriam Ronzoni - 2020 - In Thom Brooks (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Global Justice. New York, NY, USA:
    Reference to the state is ubiquitous in debates about global justice. Some authors see the state as central to the justification of principles of justice, and thereby reject their extension to the international realm. Others emphasize its role in the implementation of those principles. This chapter scrutinizes the variety of ways in which the state figures in the global-justice debate. Our discussion suggests that, although the state should have a prominent role in theorizing about global justice, contrary to what is (...)
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  20.  57
    CSR and Small Business in a European Policy Context: The Five “C”s of CSR and Small Business Research Agenda 2007.Laura J. Spence - 2007 - Business and Society Review 112 (4):533-552.
  21.  34
    Reforming Philosophy: A Victorian Debate on Science and Society.Laura J. Snyder - 2006 - University of Chicago Press.
    A philosophically and historically sensitive account of the engagement of the major protagonists of Victorian British philosophy, Reforming Philosophy considers the controversies between William Whewell and John Stuart Mill on the topics of science, morality, politics, and economics. By situating their debate within the larger context of Victorian society and its concerns, Laura Snyder shows how two very different men—Whewell, an educator, Anglican priest, and critic of science; and Mill, a philosopher, political economist, and parliamentarian—reacted to the challenges of (...)
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  22.  30
    Anger and its Desires.Laura Luz Silva - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    The orthodox view of anger takes desires for revenge or retribution to be central to the emotion. In this paper, I develop an empirically informed challenge to the retributive view of anger. In so doing, I argue that a distinct desire is central to anger: a desire for recognition. Desires for recognition aim at the targets of anger acknowledging the wrong they have committed, as opposed to aiming for their suffering. In light of the centrality of this desire for recognition, (...)
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  23.  29
    Patient and Citizen Participation in Health: The Need for Improved Ethical Support.Laura Williamson - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (6):4-16.
    Patient and citizen participation is now regarded as central to the promotion of sustainable health and health care. Involvement efforts create and encounter many diverse ethical challenges that have the potential to enhance or undermine their success. This article examines different expressions of patient and citizen participation and the support health ethics offers. It is contended that despite its prominence and the link between patient empowerment and autonomy, traditional bioethics is insufficient to guide participation efforts. In addition, the turn to (...)
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  24.  49
    Business Ethical Values in China and the U.S.Laura L. Whitcomb, Carolyn B. Erdener & Chen Li - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (8):839-852.
    The research presented in this paper focuses on business ethical values inChina, a country in which the process of institutional transformation has left cultural values in a state of flux. A survey was conducted in China and the U.S. by using five business scenarios. Survey results show similarities between the Chinese and American decision choices for three out of five scenarios. However, the results reveal significant differences in rationales, even forsimilar decisions. The implications of similarities and differences between the U.S. (...)
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  25. Global Justice and Practice‐Dependence: Conventionalism, Institutionalism, Functionalism.Laura Valentini - 2011 - Journal of Political Philosophy 19 (4):399-418.
  26.  35
    SMEs, Social Capital and the Common Good.Laura J. Spence & René Schmidpeter - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 45 (1/2):93 - 108.
    In this paper we report on empirical research which investigates social capital of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs). Bringing an international perspective to the work, we make a comparison between 30 firms located in West London and Munich in the sectors of food manufacturing/production, marketing services and garages. Here we present 6 case studies, which we use to illustrate the early findings from this pilot project. We identify differences in approach to associational membership in Germany and the U.K., with (...)
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  27.  65
    Death and Organ Procurement: Public Beliefs and Attitudes.Laura A. Siminoff, Christopher Burant & Stuart J. Youngner - 2004 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (3):217-234.
    : Although "brain death" and the dead donor rule—i.e., patients must not be killed by organ retrieval—have been clinically and legally accepted in the U.S. as prerequisites to organ removal, there is little data about public attitudes and beliefs concerning these matters. To examine the public attitudes and beliefs about the determination of death and its relationship to organ transplantation, 1351 Ohio residents ≥18 years were randomly selected and surveyed using random digit dialing (RDD) sample frames. The RDD telephone survey (...)
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  28.  25
    Small Business and Empirical Perspectives in Business Ethics: Editorial. [REVIEW]Laura J. Spence & Robert Rutherfoord - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 47 (1):1 - 5.
    In this editorial to a collection of papers on ethics in small firms, the case is made for greater use of high quality empirical research on business ethics. Sociological perspectives have much to offer to the field of business ethics that continues to be dominated by normative, moral philosophy. The second contribution of the paper is to argue for a reorientation away from the large multi-national firm as a benchmark subject of business ethics research. One important point of view to (...)
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  29.  28
    Small Business Social Responsibility: Expanding Core CSR Theory.Laura J. Spence - 2016 - Business and Society 55 (1):23-55.
    This article seeks to expand business and society research in a number of ways. Its primary purpose is to redraw two core corporate social responsibility theories, enhancing their relevance for small business. This redrawing is done by the application of the ethic of care, informed by the value of feminist perspectives and the extant empirical research on small business social responsibility. It is proposed that the expanded versions of core theory have wider relevance, value, and implications beyond the small firm (...)
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  30. On the Distinctive Procedural Wrong of Colonialism.Laura Valentini - 2015 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 43 (4):312-331.
  31. Justice, Disagreement, and Democracy.Laura Valentini - 2013 - British Journal of Political Science 43 (1):177-99.
    Is democracy a requirement of justice or an instrument for realizing it? The correct answer to this question, I argue, depends on the background circumstances against which democracy is defended. In the presence of thin reasonable disagreement about justice, we should value democracy only instrumentally (if at all); in the presence of thick reasonable disagreement about justice, we should value it also intrinsically, as a necessary demand of justice. Since the latter type of disagreement is pervasive in real-world politics, I (...)
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  32. Coercion and Justice.Laura Valentini - 2011 - American Political Science Review 105 (1):205-220.
    In this article, I develop a new account of the liberal view that principles of justice are meant to justify state coercion, and consider its implications for the question of global socioeconomic justice. Although contemporary proponents of this view deny that principles of socioeconomic justice apply globally, on my newly developed account this conclusion is mistaken. I distinguish between two types of coercion, systemic and interactional, and argue that a plausible theory of global justice should contain principles justifying both. The (...)
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  33.  59
    Communicating About Ethics with Small Firms: Experiences From the U.K. And Spain. [REVIEW]Laura J. Spence & José Félix Lozano - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 27 (1-2):43 - 53.
    This article introduces the important issue of communicating with small firms about ethical issues. Evidence from two research projects from the U.K. and Spain are used to indicate some of the important issues and how small firms may differ from large firms in this area. The importance of informal mechanisms such as the influence of friends, family and employees are highlighted, and the likely ineffectiveness of formal tools such as Codes and Social and Ethical Standards suggested. Further resarch in the (...)
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  34.  16
    On the Apparent Paradox of Ideal Theory.Laura Valentini - 2009 - Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (3):332-355.
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  35. Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema.Laura Mulvey - 2010 - In Marc Furstenau (ed.), The Film Theory Reader: Debates and Arguments. Routledge.
     
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  36.  26
    Moral Status: Obligations to Persons and Other Living Things.Laura Purdy & Mary Anne Warren - 1999 - Philosophical Review 108 (4):569.
    Moral Status asks what creates moral obligations toward entities. Warren’s thesis is that attempts to ground moral status on a single criterion have been unsuccessful, as they inevitably lead to Procrustean measures to fit diverse values into a single mold. She proposes instead a “multi-criterial’ approach that promises to accommodate these values. In so doing, she expands and generalizes on a strategy she uses quite successfully in her 1990 article “The Moral Significance of Birth” to show why a personhood approach (...)
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  37.  15
    Digital Wellness and Persuasive Technologies.Laura Specker Sullivan & Peter Reiner - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-12.
    The development of personal technologies has recently shifted from devices that seek to capture user attention to those that aim to improve user well-being. Digital wellness technologies use the same attractive qualities of other persuasive apps to motivate users towards behaviors that are personally and socially valuable, such as exercise, wealth-management, and meaningful communication. While these aims are certainly an improvement over the market-driven motivations of earlier technologies, they retain their predecessors’ focus on influencing user behavior as a primary metric (...)
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  38.  70
    Accountability and Community on the Internet: A Plea for Restorative Justice.Laura Wildemann Kane - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (4):594-611.
    In this article, I analyze norm enforcement on social media, specifically cases where an agent has committed a moral transgression online and is brought to account by an Internet mob with incongruously injurious results in their offline life. I argue that users problematically imagine that they are members of a particular kind of moral community where shaming behaviors are not only acceptable, but morally required to ‘take down’ those who appear to violate community norms. I then demonstrate the costs that (...)
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  39.  11
    Improving Executive Function in Childhood: Evaluation of a Training Intervention for 5-Year-Old Children.Laura Traverso, Paola Viterbori & Maria Carmen Usai - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  40. Towards a Computational Theory of Mood.Laura Sizer - 2000 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (4):743-770.
    Moods have global and profound effects on our thoughts, motivations and behavior. To understand human behavior and cognition fully, we must understand moods. In this paper I critically examine and reject the methodology of conventional ?cognitive theories? of affect. I lay the foundations of a new theory of moods that identifies them with processes of our cognitive functional architecture. Moods differ fundamentally from some of our other affective states and hence require distinct explanatory tools. The computational theory of mood I (...)
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  41. Respect for Persons and the Moral Force of Socially Constructed Norms.Laura Valentini - 2021 - Noûs 55 (2):385-408.
    When and why do socially constructed norms—including the laws of the land, norms of etiquette, and informal customs—generate moral obligations? I argue that the answer lies in the duty to respect others, specifically to give them what I call “agency respect.” This is the kind of respect that people are owed in light of how they exercise their agency. My central thesis is this: To the extent that (i) existing norms are underpinned by people’s commitments as agents and (ii) they (...)
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  42. Assessing the Global Order: Justice, Legitimacy, or Political Justice?Laura Valentini - 2012 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 15 (5):593-612.
    Which standards should we employ to evaluate the global order? Should they be standards of justice or standards of legitimacy? In this article, I argue that liberal political theorists need not face this dilemma, because liberal justice and legitimacy are not distinct values. Rather, they indicate what the same value, i.e. equal respect for persons, demands of institutions under different sets of circumstances. I suggest that under real-world circumstances? characterized by conflicts and disagreements? equal respect demands basic-rights protection and democratic (...)
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  43.  81
    The Content-Independence of Political Obligation: What It is and How to Test It.Laura Valentini - 2018 - Legal Theory 24 (2):135-157.
    One of the distinctive features of the obligation to obey the law is its content-independence. We ought to do what the law commands because the law commands it, and not because of the law's content—i.e., the independent merits of the actions it prescribes. Despite its popularity, the notion of content-independence is marked by ambiguity. In this paper, I first clarify what content-independence is. I then develop a simple test—the “content-independence test”—which allows us to establish whether any candidate justification of the (...)
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  44.  29
    Trust, Risk, and Race in American Medicine.Laura Specker Sullivan - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (1):18-26.
    Trust is a core feature of the physician-patient relationship, and risk is central to trust. Patients take risks when they trust their providers to care for them effectively and appropriately. Not all patients take these risks: some medical relationships are marked by mistrust and suspicion. Empirical evidence suggests that some patients and families of color in the United States may be more likely to mistrust their providers and to be suspicious of specific medical practices and institutions. Given both historical and (...)
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  45.  8
    Utilitarian Principlism as a Framework for Crisis Healthcare Ethics.Laura Vearrier & Carrie M. Henderson - 2021 - HEC Forum 33 (1):45-60.
    This paper introduces the model of Utilitarian Principlism as a framework for crisis healthcare ethics. In modern Western medicine, during non-crisis times, principlism provides the four guiding principles in biomedical ethics—autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice; autonomy typically emerges as the decisive principle. The physician–patient relationship is a deontological construct in which the physician’s primary duty is to the individual patient and the individual patient is paramount. For this reason, we term the non-crisis ethical framework that guides modern medicine Deontological Principlism. (...)
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  46.  28
    Keeping Disability in Mind: A Case Study in Implantable Brain–Computer Interface Research.Laura Specker Sullivan, Eran Klein, Tim Brown, Matthew Sample, Michelle Pham, Paul Tubig, Raney Folland, Anjali Truitt & Sara Goering - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (2):479-504.
    Brain–Computer Interface research is an interdisciplinary area of study within Neural Engineering. Recent interest in end-user perspectives has led to an intersection with user-centered design. The goal of user-centered design is to reduce the translational gap between researchers and potential end users. However, while qualitative studies have been conducted with end users of BCI technology, little is known about individual BCI researchers’ experience with and attitudes towards UCD. Given the scientific, financial, and ethical imperatives of UCD, we sought to gain (...)
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  47. The Case for Ideal Theory.Laura Valentini - 2018 - In Robyn Eckersley & Chris Brown (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of International Political Theory. New York, NY, USA: pp. 664-676.
  48.  9
    The What, the When, and the Whether of Intentional Action in the Brain: A Meta-Analytical Review.Laura Zapparoli, Silvia Seghezzi & Eraldo Paulesu - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
  49.  76
    Canine Justice: An Associative Account.Laura Valentini - 2014 - Political Studies 62 (1):37-52.
    A prominent view in contemporary political theory, the ‘associative view’, says that duties of justice are triggered by particular cooperative relations between morally significant agents, and that ‘therefore’ principles of justice apply only among fellow citizens. This view has been challenged by advocates of global justice, who point to the existence of a world-wide cooperative network to which principles of justice apply. Call this the challenge from geographical extension. In this paper, I pose a structurally similar challenge to the associative (...)
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  50. No Global Demos, No Global Democracy? A Systematization and Critique.Laura Valentini - 2014 - Perspectives on Politics 12 (4):789-807.
    A globalized world, some argue, needs a global democracy. But there is considerable disagreement about whether global democracy is an ideal worth pursuing. One of the main grounds for scepticism is captured by the slogan: “No global demos, no global democracy.” The fact that a key precondition of democracy—a demos—is absent at the global level, some argue, speaks against the pursuit of global democracy. The paper discusses four interpretations of the skeptical slogan—each based on a specific account of the notion (...)
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