Results for 'Peter Schulte'

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  1. Sammelband: Glaube und Rationalität - Gibt es gute Gründe für den (A)theismus?Romy Jaster & Peter Schulte - 2019 - Münster, Deutschland: mentis.
    Menschen glauben aus den unterschiedlichsten Gründen an Gott. Aber ist dieser Glaube rational gerechtfertigt? In diesem Band streiten führende Religionsphilosoph/-innen um die Frage, ob die besten Gründe für oder gegen den Theismus sprechen. Einige Beiträge unterziehen klassische Argumente für bzw. gegen die Existenz Gottes einer neuen Betrachtung. Andere gehen der Frage nach, welche Bedingungen eigentlich erfüllt sein müssen, damit die Überzeugung, Gott existiere, als vernünftig angesehen werden kann. Gelten hier dieselben Standards wie bei Überzeugungen über die Existenz von Quasaren? Oder (...)
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  2. Was Ist Die Zeit?Peter Gendolla & Dietmar Schulte (eds.) - 2012 - Fink.
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  3.  83
    Perceptual Representations: A Teleosemantic Answer to the Breadth-of-Application Problem.Peter Schulte - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (1):119-136.
    Teleosemantic theories of representation are often criticized as being “too liberal”, i.e. as categorizing states as representations which are not representational at all. Recently, a powerful version of this objection has been put forth by Tyler Burge. Focusing on perception, Burge defends the claim that all teleosemantic theories apply too broadly, thereby missing what is distinctive about representation. Contra Burge, I will argue in this paper that there is a teleosemantic account of perceptual states that does not fall prey to (...)
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  4.  38
    Perceiving the World Outside: How to Solve the Distality Problem for Informational Teleosemantics.Peter Schulte - 2018 - Philosophical Quarterly 68 (271):349-369.
    Perceptual representations have distal content: they represent external objects and their properties, not light waves or retinal images. This basic fact presents a fundamental problem for ‘input-oriented’ theories of perceptual content. As I show in the first part of this paper, this even holds for what is arguably the most sophisticated input-oriented theory to date, namely Karen Neander's informational teleosemantics. In the second part of the paper, I develop a new version of informational teleosemantics, drawing partly on empirical psychology, and (...)
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  5.  45
    Grounding Nominalism.Peter Schulte - forthcoming - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly.
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  6. Truthmakers: A Tale of Two Explanatory Projects.Peter Schulte - 2011 - Synthese 181 (3):413-431.
    Truthmakers are supposed to explain the truth of propositions, but it is unclear what kind of explanation truthmakers can provide. In this paper, I argue that ‘truthmaker explanations’ conflate two different explanatory projects. The first project is essentially concerned with truth, while the second project is concerned with reductive explanation. It is the latter project, I maintain, which is really central to truthmaking theory. On this basis, a general account of truthmaking can be formulated, which, when combined with a specific (...)
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  7. How Frogs See the World: Putting Millikan's Teleosemantics to the Test.Peter Schulte - 2012 - Philosophia 40 (3):483-496.
    How do frogs represent their prey? This question has been the focus of many debates among proponents of naturalistic theories of content, especially among proponents of teleosemantics. This is because alternative versions of the teleosemantic approach have different implications for the content of frog representations, and it is still controversial which of these content ascriptions (if any) is the most adequate. Theorists often appeal to intuitions here, but this is a dubious strategy. In this paper, I suggest an alternative, empirical (...)
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  8.  91
    Can Truthmaker Theorists Claim Ontological Free Lunches?Peter Schulte - 2014 - European Journal of Philosophy 22 (2):249-268.
    Truthmaker theorists hold that propositions about higher-level entities (e.g. the proposition that there is a heap of sand) are often made true by lower-level entities (e.g. by facts about the configuration of fundamental particles). This generates a problem: what should we say about these higher-level entities? On the one hand, they must exist (since there are true propositions about them), on the other hand, it seems that they are completely superfluous and should be banished for reasons of ontological parsimony. Some (...)
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  9.  24
    Why Mental Content is Not Like Water: Reconsidering the Reductive Claims of Teleosemantics.Peter Schulte - forthcoming - Synthese:1-20.
    According to standard teleosemantics, intentional states are selectional states. This claim is put forward not as a conceptual analysis, but as a ‘theoretical reduction’—an a posteriori hypothesis analogous to ‘water = H2O’. Critics have tried to show that this meta-theoretical conception of teleosemantics leads to unacceptable consequences. In this paper, I argue that there is indeed a fundamental problem with the water/H2O analogy, as it is usually construed, and that teleosemanticists should therefore reject it. Fortunately, there exists a viable alternative (...)
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  10.  22
    Naturalizing the Content of Desire.Peter Schulte - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (1):161-174.
    Desires, or directive representations, are central components of human and animal minds. Nevertheless, desires are largely neglected in current debates about the naturalization of representational content. Most naturalists seem to assume that some version of the standard teleological approach, which identifies the content of a desire with a specific kind of effect that the desire has the function of producing, will turn out to be correct. In this paper I argue, first, that this common assumption is unjustified, since the standard (...)
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  11. The Difference Between Moral and Rational “Oughts”: An Expressivist Account.Peter Schulte - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (2):159-174.
    Morality and rationality are both normative: the moral claim “you ought to help others” is a genuine normative judgment, as well as the rational maxim “you ought to brush your teeth twice a day”. But it seems that there is a crucial difference these two judgments. In the first part of this paper, I argue that this difference is to be understood as a difference between two kinds of normativity: demanding and recommending normativity. But the crucial task is, of course, (...)
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  12.  57
    Beyond Verbal Disputes: The Compatibilism Debate Revisited.Peter Schulte - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (3):669-685.
    The compatibilism debate revolves around the question whether moral responsibility and free will are compatible with determinism. Prima facie, this seems to be a substantial issue. But according to the triviality objection, the disagreement is merely verbal: compatibilists and incompatibilists, it is maintained, are talking past each other, since they use the terms “free will” and “moral responsibility” in different senses. In this paper I argue, first, that the triviality objection is indeed a formidable one and that the standard replies (...)
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  13.  85
    How to Link Particulars to Universals: Four Versions of Bradley's Regress Refuted.Peter Schulte - 2007 - Philosophia Naturalis 44 (2):219-237.
    It is often claimed that Realism about universals is problematic because it cannot account for the relation between particulars and universals without falling prey to ,,Bradley's regress". In this article, I consider four different versions of this regress argument (the semantic regress, the explanatory regress, the ,One over Many' regress, and the truthmaker regress), each based on a different ,regress-generating' assumption. I argue that none of these arguments succeeds in refuting Realism. Still, I contend that two interesting conclusions can be (...)
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  14.  42
    The Structuring Causes of Behavior: Has Dretske Saved Mental Causation?Frank Hofmann & Peter Schulte - 2014 - Acta Analytica 29 (3):267-284.
    Fred Dretske’s account of mental causation, developed in Explaining Behavior and defended in numerous articles, is generally regarded as one of the most interesting and most ambitious approaches in the field. According to Dretske, meaning facts, construed historically as facts about the indicator functions of internal states, are the structuring causes of behavior. In this article, we argue that Dretske’s view is untenable: On closer examination, the real structuring causes of behavior turn out to be markedly different from Dretske’s meaning (...)
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  15.  26
    Plädoyer für einen physikalistischen Naturalismus.Peter Schulte - 2010 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 64 (2):165-189.
    Naturalisten stehen heute vor zwei großen Herausforderungen: Sie müssen zunächst präzisieren, was sie mit dem Ausdruck „Naturalismus“ meinen, und ihre Position anschließend plausibel begründen. Gegner des Naturalismus haben in den letzten Jahren immer wieder zu zeigen versucht, dass der Naturalist diesen Herausforderungen nicht gerecht werden kann. Ich argumentiere in diesem Artikel dafür, dass traditionelle Formulierungen der Naturalismusthese tatsächlich problematisch sind, dass es aber einen Ausweg für den Naturalisten gibt: Er kann natürliche Entitäten durch ihre besondere Beziehung zu physikalischen Tatsachen charakterisieren. (...)
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  16.  9
    Willensfreiheit und Aufmerksamkeit bei Descartes.Peter Schulte - 2017 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 71 (1):5-36.
    The claims about free will that Descartes makes in his writings seem, at first glance, to be inconsistent. In recent years, several authors have argued that we can dissolve the apparent contradiction by taking a closer look at the role that attention plays in Descartes’s theory of the processes of judging and deciding. Prima facie, this exegetical approach seems promising, thus its considerable influence is understandable. Nevertheless, I aim to show that the approach is doomed to failure, since its proponents (...)
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  17.  19
    Worum geht es in der Kompatibilismusdebatte?Peter Schulte - 2012 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 66 (2):310-334.
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  18.  12
    Brill Online Books and Journals.Julius H. Schoeps, Christoph Schulte, Ernst Benda, Hermann Klenner, Hans-Peter Benöhr, Jörn Eckert, Walter Beltz & Klaus Ebert - 1995 - Zeitschrift für Religions- Und Geistesgeschichte 47 (2).
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  19. Breaking the Spell. Religion as a Natural Phenomenon. [REVIEW]Peter Schulte - 2006 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 60 (3).
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  20. Die Frage nach Gott. [REVIEW]Peter Schulte - 2007 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 61 (1).
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  21. Was ist instrumentelle Irrationalität?Peter Schulte - 2009 - Studia Philosophica: Jahrbuch Der Schweizerischen Philosoph Ischen Gesellschaft, Annuaire de la Société Suisse de Philosphie 68:85-104.
    In this paper, I start from the observation that there are obvious instances of instrumental irrationality, i.e. cases where subjects act knowingly against their strongest preferences. This observation raises an important question: Which facts determine the ‘strength’ of preferences? I consider a standard answer to this question – ‘revealed preference theory’– which turns out to be unsatisfactory. Then I turn to a more promising alternative: the ‘higher order theory’ of preference strength. But this proposal also faces a major problem, the (...)
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  22. Zwecke Und Mittel in Einer Natürlichen Welt: Instrumentelle Rationalität Als Problem für den Naturalismus?Peter Schulte - 2010 - Mentis.
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  23.  48
    Peter Singer on Global Ethics.Madsen Peter - 2004 - Business Ethics Quarterly 14 (1):183-196.
  24.  37
    Donatella Di Cesare: Heidegger, Die Juden, Die Shoah Und Peter Trawny, Andrew J. Mitchell : Heidegger, Die Juden, Noch Einmal.Donatella Di Cesare, Trawny Peter, Andrew J. Mitchell & Reinhard Mehring - 2016 - Philosophischer Literaturanzeiger 69 (2):137-146.
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  25.  34
    Péter Rózsa. Rekurzív Definiciók, Melyek Változó Számu Korábbi Függvényertéket Használnak Fel. Matematikai Lapok , Vol. 5 , Pp. 7–9. An Abstract of XX 176.Péter Rózsa. Ujabb Bizonyítás Arra, Hogy a Csillag-Kalmár-Féle Elemi Függvények Osztálya Szükebb, Mint a Primitiv-Rekurzív Függvényeké. Matematikai Lapok , Vol. 5 , Pp. 244–252. Hungarian Version of XX 282.Péter Rózsa. Kalmár László Matematikai Munkássága . Ebd., Bd. 6 , S. 138–150. [REVIEW]R. Péter - 1957 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (3):295-296.
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  26.  21
    My Life with Censorship: Sís, Peter, 1949- -- Childhood and Youth.SíS. Peter - 2009 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (3):42-45.
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  27. Democratic Legitimacy Without Collective Rationality Fabienne Peter.Fabienne Peter - 2009 - In Boudewijn Paul de Bruin & Christopher F. Zurn (eds.), New Waves in Political Philosophy. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 143.
     
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  28.  19
    Review of Hans Bernhard Schmid, Katinka Schulte-Ostermann, Nikos Psarros (Eds.), Concepts of Sharedness: Essays on Collective Intentionality[REVIEW]Peter Tramel - 2008 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (11).
  29.  61
    Do We Need a New Theory of Truthmaking? Some Comments on Disjunction Thesis, Conjunction Thesis, Entailment Principle and Explanation.Mieszko Tałasiewicz, Joanna Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Wojciech Wciórka & Piotr Wilkin - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 165 (2):591-604.
    In the paper we discuss criticisms against David Armstrong’s general theory of truthmaking by Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra, Peter Schulte and Benjamin Schnieder, and conclude that Armstrong’s theory survives these criticisms. Special attention is given to the problems concerning Entailment Principle, Conjunction Thesis, Disjunction Thesis and to the notion of explanation.
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  30. Peter Singer’s “Famine, Affluence, and Morality”: Three Libertarian Refutations.J. C. Lester - manuscript
    Peter Singer’s famous and influential essay is criticised in three main ways that can be considered libertarian, although many non-libertarians could also accept them: 1) it mistakes the relevant moral principle, which more plausibly relates to easily-satisfied local contracts (fitting Hayek’s “Great Society”) rather than impractically-onerous global intuitions (with evolutionary origins); 2) its suggested principle of the immorality of not doing good is paradoxical as it overlooks the converse aspect that would be the positive morality of not doing bad, (...)
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  31. Singer, Peter (1946-).Anthony Skelton - 2014 - In Michael Gibbons (ed.), Encyclopedia of Political Thought. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 3454-3455.
    A short encyclopedia article on Peter Singer which discusses his views on the obligations that the global wealthy have to the global poor and on our obligations to non-human animals.
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  32. The Early Reception of Peter Auriol at Oxford.Rondo Keele - 2015 - Recherches de Theologie Et Philosophie Medievales 82:301-361.
    The important impact of the French Franciscan Peter Auriol (ca. 1280-1322) upon contemporary philosophical theology at Oxford is well known and has been well documented and analyzed, at least for a narrow range of issues, particularly in epistemology. This article attempts a more systematic treatment of his effects upon Oxford debates across a broader range of subjects and over a more expansive duration of time than has been done previously. Topics discussed include grace and merit, future contingents and divine (...)
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  33. Exploring Evil and Philosophical Failure: A Critical Notice of Peter van Inwagen's *The Problem of Evil.John Martin Fischer & Neal A. Tognazzini - 2007 - Faith and Philosophy 24 (4):458-474.
    In his recent book on the problem of evil, Peter van Inwagen argues that both the global and local arguments from evil are failures. In this paper, we engagevan Inwagen’s book at two main points. First, we consider his understanding of what it takes for a philosophical argument to succeed. We argue that while his criterion for success is interesting and helpful, there is good reason to think it is too stringent. Second, we consider his responses to the global (...)
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  34. Peter Boghossian, A Manual for Creating Atheists. [REVIEW]Rick Repetti - 2014 - Science, Religion and Culture 1 (2):93-96.
    Book review of Peter Boghossian, A Manual for Creating Atheists, Pitchstone Publishing, 2013, 280pp., $14.95, ISBN 978-1939578099 (paperback). Foreword by Michael Shermer. Science, Religion & Culture 1:2 (August 2014), 93-96 .
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  35.  46
    Into Terra Incognita: Charting Beyond Peter Harrison's the Territories of Science and Religion.Michael Fuller - 2016 - Zygon 51 (3):729-741.
    Peter Harrison's The Territories of Science and Religion throws down a serious challenge to advocates of dialogue as the primary means of engagement between science and religion. This article accepts the validity of this challenge and looks at four possible responses to it. The first—a return to the past—is rejected. The remaining three—exploring new epistemic frameworks for the encounter of science and religion, broadening out the engagement beyond the context of the physical sciences and Western culture, and looking at (...)
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  36. The Active Nature of the Soul in Sense Perception: Robert Kilwardby and Peter Olivi.Juhana Toivanen & José Filipe Silva - 2010 - Vivarium 48 (3):245-278.
    This article discusses the theories of perception of Robert Kilwardby and Peter of John Olivi. Our aim is to show how in challenging certain assumptions of medieval Aristotelian theories of perception they drew on Augustine and argued for the active nature of the soul in sense perception. For both Kilwardby and Olivi, the soul is not passive with respect to perceived objects; rather, it causes its own cognitive acts with respect to external objects and thus allows the subject to (...)
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  37. Truth and Paradox in Late XIVth Century Logic : Peter of Mantua’s Treatise on Insoluble Propositions.Riccardo Strobino - 2012 - Documenti E Studi Sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale 23:475-519.
    This paper offers an analysis of a hitherto neglected text on insoluble propositions dating from the late XiVth century and puts it into perspective within the context of the contemporary debate concerning semantic paradoxes. The author of the text is the italian logician Peter of Mantua (d. 1399/1400). The treatise is relevant both from a theoretical and from a historical standpoint. By appealing to a distinction between two senses in which propositions are said to be true, it offers an (...)
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  38. Peter Olivi on Practical Reasoning.Juhana Toivanen - 2012 - In A. Musco (ed.), Universality of Reason, Plurality of Philosophies in the Middle Ages: Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Medieval Philosophy (S.I.E.P.M.), vol. II-2. Palermo: Officina di Studi Medievali. pp. 1033-1045.
    The subject matter of this essay is Peter of John Olivi’s (ca.1248–98) conception of reason from the viewpoint of human action.
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  39.  28
    Peter Lombard on God’s Knowledge: Sententiae, Book I, Distinctions 35-38, as the Basis for Later Theological Discussions.Rostislav Tkachenko - 2017 - Sententiae 36 (1):17-30.
    Since the mid-90’s the figure of Peter Lombard and his Book of Sentences has regained the importance in scholarly world and been studied from both historical-theological and historical-philosophical perspectives. But some aspects of his thinking, encapsulated in the written form, which was to become the material basis for the thirteenth- through the fifteenth-century theological projects, remained somewhat insufficiently researched. Therefore this article analyzes the select parts of the Book of Sentences with the purpose of looking at how Peter (...)
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  40.  58
    Peter de Rivo, Boethius and the Problem of Future Contingents.Jonathan Evans - 2001 - Carmina Philosophiae 10:39-55.
    Peter de Rivo (b. ca. 1420), argues for the existence of human freedom despite its alleged incompatibility with the truth of future contingent propositions. Rivo’s solution doesn’t follow the common medieval attempt to dissolve the alleged incompatibility, but claims that future contingent propositions aren’t determinately true. This approach troubled Rivo’s contemporaries, who thought it was incompatible with biblical infallibility, particularly the veracity of prophetic statements. Rivo tries to reconcile his solution with orthodox Christianity by grounding authentic prophetic statements in (...)
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  41. Perception and Objective Being: Peter Auriol on Perceptual Acts and Their Objects.Lukáš Lička - 2016 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 90 (1):49-76.
    This article discusses the theory of perception of Peter Auriol. Arguing for the active nature of the senses in perception, Auriol applies the Scotistic doctrine of objective being to the theory of perception. Nevertheless, he still accepts some parts of the theory of species. The paper introduces Auriol's view on the mechanism of perception and his account of illusions. I argue for a direct realist reading of Auriol's theory of perception and propose that his position becomes clearer if we (...)
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  42. On Peter Klein's Concept of Arbitrariness.Coos Engelsma - 2014 - Metaphilosophy 45 (2):192-200.
    According to Peter Klein, foundationalism fails because it allows a vicious form of arbitrariness. The present article critically discusses his concept of arbitrariness. It argues that the condition Klein takes to be necessary and sufficient for an epistemic item to be arbitrary is neither necessary nor sufficient. It also argues that Klein's concept of arbitrariness is not a concept of something that is obviously vicious. Even if Klein succeeds in establishing that foundationalism allows what he regards as arbitrariness, this (...)
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  43.  52
    Attention, Perceptual Content, and Mirrors: Two Medieval Models of Active Perception in Peter Olivi and Peter Auriol.Lukáš Lička - 2017 - Perception in Scholastics and Their Interlocutors.
    In the paper I argue that medieval philosophers proposed several notions of the senses’ activity in perception. I illustrate the point using the example of two Franciscan thinkers – Peter Olivi (ca. 1248–1298) and Peter Auriol (ca. 1280–1322). Olivi’s notion of active perception assumes that every perceptual act demands a prior focusing of the mind’s attention. Furthermore, Olivi is partially inspired by the extramissionist theories of vision and reinterprets the notion of a visual ray postulated by them as (...)
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  44. Péter Pázmánys Seelenlehre.Paul Richard Blum - 2013 - In Alinka Ajkay Rita Bajáki (ed.), Pázmány Nyomában. Tanulmányok Hargittay Emil tiszteletére. Mondat.
    Péter Pázmány taught philosophy at the Jesuit university of Graz, end of 16th century. This analyzes his interpretation of Aristotelian psychology.
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  45. Review: Peter Godfrey-Smith. Philosophy of Biology. [REVIEW]Cailin O’Connor - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (4):731-733.
    Review of Peter Godfrey-Smith's Philosophy of Biology.
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  46.  43
    Peter Olivi on Political Power, Will, and Human Agency.Juhana Toivanen - 2016 - Vivarium 54 (1):22-45.
    _ Source: _Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 22 - 45 This essay discusses the views of Peter Olivi on the foundations of political power and agency. The central argument is that there is a strong connection between Olivi’s voluntarist psychology and his views concerning political power. According to Olivi, political power is ultimately based on the will of God, but in such a way that both the rulers and their subjects have, through their individual freedom, the liberty to use (...)
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  47.  58
    Peter Auriol on the Intuitive Cognition of Nonexistents. Revisiting the Charge of Skepticism in Walter Chatton and Adam Wodeham.Han Thomas Adriaenssen - 2017 - Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy 5:151-180.
    This paper looks at the critical reception of two central claims of Peter Auriol’s theory of cognition: the claim that the objects of cognition have an apparent or objective being that resists reduction to the real being of objects, and the claim that there may be natural intuitive cognitions of nonexistent objects. These claims earned Auriol the criticism of his fellow Franciscans, Walter Chatton and Adam Wodeham. According to them, the theory of apparent being was what had led Auriol (...)
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  48.  60
    Review of Peter Sloterdijk, 'In the Shadow of Mt. Sinai,' and Alain Badiou, 'Our Wounds Are Not So Recent'. [REVIEW]Eric D. Meyer - 2016 - Marxism and Philosophy Review of Books.
    Peter Sloterdijk's 'In the Shadow of Mt. Sinai' and Alain Badiou's 'Our Wounds Are Not So Recent' represent distinctly different attempts to come to grips with the conflict between the West (the US, the UK, France) and the Muslim world after the September 11th attacks. Although Sloterdijk finds the source of conflict in the religious zealotry of the Abrahamic religions, while Badiou blames the multinational capitalist system for drating a disaffected underclass, the two complementary perspectives work together to make (...)
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  49.  31
    Cruelty, Singular Individuality, and Peter the Great.Amihud Gilead - 2015 - Philosophia 43 (2):337-354.
    In discussing cruelty toward human beings, I argue that disregarding the singularity of any human being is necessary for treating her or him cruelly. The cruelty of Peter the Great, relying upon the intolerance of any human singular individuality, serves me as a paradigm-case to illustrate that. The cruelty of Procrustes and that of Stalin rely upon similar grounds. Relating to a person’s singularity is sufficient to prevent cruelty toward that person. In contrast, a liberal state of mind or (...)
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  50. Peter van Inwagen, Substitutional Quantification, and Ontological Commitment.William Craig - 2014 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 55 (4):553-561.
    Peter van Inwagen has long claimed that he doesn’t understand substitutional quantification and that the notion is, in fact, meaningless. Van Inwagen identifies the source of his bewilderment as an inability to understand the proposition expressed by a simple sentence like “,” where “$\Sigma$” is the existential quantifier understood substitutionally. I should think that the proposition expressed by this sentence is the same as that expressed by “.” So what’s the problem? The problem, I suggest, is that van Inwagen (...)
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