Results for 'David S. Schwarz'

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  1.  55
    Referring, Singular Terms, and Presupposition.David S. Schwarz - 1976 - Philosophical Studies 30 (1):63 - 74.
  2.  59
    On Pragmatic Presupposition.David S. Schwarz - 1977 - Linguistics and Philosophy 1 (2):247 - 257.
    I argue that (a) the phenomenon characteristic of pragmatic presupposition, is distinct from (b) the phenomenon characteristic of semantic presupposition, and that there are sentences exhibiting (a) alone. I apply this to Stalnaker's defense of van Fraassen's theory of semantic presupposition against Karttunen. I show that, since Stalmaker fails to distinguish (a) from (b), this defense amounts to an unsuccessful attempt to explain pragmatically the supposed instances of (b) in Karttunen's counter-examples. I observe that, given the distinction between (a) and (...)
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  3. Causality, Referring, and Proper Names.David S. Schwarz - 1978 - Linguistics and Philosophy 2 (2):225 - 233.
    I argue that (a) the causal theory of proper names and (b) Kripke's chain of references thesis are logically independent of each other, and that the case for (a) is very weak. I observe that rejecting (a) we lose one powerful reason for treating proper names as rigid designators. I then consider reasons for subscribing to (b), and I argue that (b) is compatible with either a rigid or a non-rigid (descriptive) semantic treatment of proper names.
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  4.  43
    Naming and Referring: The Semantics and Pragmatics of Singular Terms.David S. Schwarz - 1979 - De Gruyter.
    I. Introduction As I sketched in my Preface, what frames this discussion is the opposition between the conceptual and the objective approaches to the ...
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  5.  26
    Book Reviews. [REVIEW]Kenneth S. Friedman, Donald Gotterbarn, M. Glouberman, Bryan G. Norton, David S. Schwarz & Walter P. Van Stigt - 1979 - Philosophia 9 (1):805-813.
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  6. Systematicity and the Cognition of Structured Domains.Robert Cummins, James Blackmon, David Byrd, Pierre Poirier, Martin Roth & Georg Schwarz - 2001 - Journal of Philosophy 98 (4):167 - 185.
    The current debate over systematicity concerns the formal conditions a scheme of mental representation must satisfy in order to explain the systematicity of thought.1 The systematicity of thought is assumed to be a pervasive property of minds, and can be characterized (roughly) as follows: anyone who can think T can think systematic variants of T, where the systematic variants of T are found by permuting T’s constituents. So, for example, it is an alleged fact that anyone who can think the (...)
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  7.  12
    Review: Stuart Hall with Bill Schwarz, Stuart Hall: Familiar Stranger; Sally Davison, David Featherstone and Bill Schwarz , Stuart Hall: Selected Political Writings. [REVIEW]Tony Jefferson - 2017 - Theory, Culture and Society 34 (7-8):305-313.
    This is a review of two books, one Stuart Hall’s memoir, the other an edited volume of some of his most significant political writings. The former offers a psychosocial portrait of Hall, from Jamaica’s brown middle class, feeling alienated from the cultural norms and beliefs of his thoroughly colonized family of origin and coming to identify with Jamaica’s black masses and the post-colonial. Crucial to the transition was re-locating to England via a scholarship to Oxford. Despite ongoing disenchantment, this move (...)
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  8.  24
    Medical Metaphors Matter: Experiments Can Determine the Impact of Metaphors on Bioethical Issues.David J. Hauser & Norbert Schwarz - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (10):18-19.
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  9.  5
    Grounded Procedures: A Proximate Mechanism for the Psychology of Cleansing and Other Physical Actions.Spike W. S. Lee & Norbert Schwarz - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:1-78.
    Experimental work has revealed causal links between physical cleansing and various psychological variables. Empirically, how robust are they? Theoretically, how do they operate? Major prevailing accounts focus on morality or disgust, capturing a subset of cleansing effects, but cannot easily handle cleansing effects in non-moral, non-disgusting contexts. Building on grounded views on cognitive processes and known properties of mental procedures, we propose grounded procedures of separation as a proximate mechanism underlying cleansing effects. This account differs from prevailing accounts in terms (...)
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  10. The Role of Naturalness in Lewis's Theory of Meaning.Brian Weatherson - 2013 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 1 (10).
    Many writers have held that in his later work, David Lewis adopted a theory of predicate meaning such that the meaning of a predicate is the most natural property that is (mostly) consistent with the way the predicate is used. That orthodox interpretation is shared by both supporters and critics of Lewis's theory of meaning, but it has recently been strongly criticised by Wolfgang Schwarz. In this paper, I accept many of Schwarze's criticisms of the orthodox interpretation, and (...)
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  11.  13
    Semantic Prosody and Judgment.David J. Hauser & Norbert Schwarz - 2016 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 145 (7):882-896.
  12.  8
    Dikastic Participation.David C. Mirhady & Carl Schwarz - 2011 - Classical Quarterly 61 (2):744-748.
  13.  11
    Logic.Kirk D. Wilson, Immanuel Kant, Robert S. Hartman & Wolfgang Schwarz - 1976 - Philosophical Review 85 (1):97.
  14. Essence and Properties.David S. Oderberg - unknown
    The distinction between the essence of an object and its properties has been obscured in contemporary discussion of essentialism. Locke held that the properties of an object are exclusively those features that ‘flow’ from its essence. Here he follows the Aristotelian theory, leaving aside Locke’s own scepticism about the knowability of essence. I defend the need to distinguish sharply between essence and properties, arguing that essence must be given by form and that properties flow from form. I give a precise (...)
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  15. The Ways of Confucianism Investigations in Chinese Philosophy.David S. Nivison & Bryan W. Van Norden - 1996
     
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  16.  37
    Hippocampus, Space, and Memory.David S. Olton, James T. Becker & Gail E. Handelmann - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (3):313-322.
    We examine two different descriptions of the behavioral functions of the hippocampal system. One emphasizes spatially organized behaviors, especially those using cognitive maps. The other emphasizes memory, particularly working memory, a short-term memory that requires iexible stimulus-response associations and is highly susceptible to interference. The predictive value of the spatial and memory descriptions were evaluated by testing rats with damage to the hippocampal system in a series of experiments, independently manipulating the spatial and memory characteristics of a behavioral task. No (...)
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  17.  16
    A Distributed Connectionist Production System.David S. Touretzky & Geoffrey E. Hinton - 1988 - Cognitive Science 12 (3):423-466.
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  18. David Lewis: Metaphysik Und Analyse.Wolfgang Schwarz - 2009 - Mentis-Verlag.
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  19.  40
    Death, Unity and the Brain.David S. Oderberg - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (5):359-379.
    The Dead Donor Rule holds that removing organs from a living human being without their consent is wrongful killing. The rule still prevails in most countries, and I assume it without argument in order to pose the question: is it possible to have a metaphysically correct, clinically relevant analysis of human death that makes organ donation possible? I argue that the two dominant criteria of death, brain death and circulatory death, are both empirically and metaphysically inadequate as definitions of human (...)
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  20. Clinical Applications of Machine Learning Algorithms: Beyond the Black Box.David S. Watson, Jenny Krutzinna, Ian N. Bruce, Christopher E. M. Griffiths, Iain B. McInnes, Michael R. Barnes & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - British Medical Journal 364:I886.
  21.  99
    Finality Revived: Powers and Intentionality.David S. Oderberg - 2017 - Synthese 194 (7):2387-2425.
    Proponents of physical intentionality argue that the classic hallmarks of intentionality highlighted by Brentano are also found in purely physical powers. Critics worry that this idea is metaphysically obscure at best, and at worst leads to panpsychism or animism. I examine the debate in detail, finding both confusion and illumination in the physical intentionalist thesis. Analysing a number of the canonical features of intentionality, I show that they all point to one overarching phenomenon of which both the mental and the (...)
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  22.  24
    The explanation game: a formal framework for interpretable machine learning.David S. Watson & Luciano Floridi - forthcoming - Synthese:1-32.
    We propose a formal framework for interpretable machine learning. Combining elements from statistical learning, causal interventionism, and decision theory, we design an idealised explanation game in which players collaborate to find the best explanation for a given algorithmic prediction. Through an iterative procedure of questions and answers, the players establish a three-dimensional Pareto frontier that describes the optimal trade-offs between explanatory accuracy, simplicity, and relevance. Multiple rounds are played at different levels of abstraction, allowing the players to explore overlapping causal (...)
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  23. The World is Not an Asymmetric Graph.David S. Oderberg - unknown
    mix of the concrete and the abstract (if we include universals, laws, propositions and the like), but whichever of these is the case, the world is not purely abstract, as a formal structure is. One might claim, however, that the world is a structure1 in the sense that it instantiates a structure and is nothing else. In other words, all there is to the..
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  24.  81
    Coincidence Under a Sortal.David S. Oderberg - 1996 - Philosophical Review 105 (2):145-171.
    The question whether two things can be in the same place at the same time is an ambiguous one. At least three distinct questions could be meant: Can two things simpliciter be in the same place at the same time? Can two things of the same kind be in the same place at the same time? Can two substances of the same kind be in the same place at the same time? The answers to these questions vary. In what follows, (...)
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  25.  73
    Reconsidering Virtue: Differences of Perspective in Virtue Ethics and the Positive Social Sciences.David S. Bright, Bradley A. Winn & Jason Kanov - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 119 (4):1-16.
    This paper describes differences in two perspectives on the idea of virtue as a theoretical foundation for positive organizational ethics (POE). The virtue ethics perspective is grounded in the philosophical tradition, has classical roots, and focuses attention on virtue as a property of character. The positive social science perspective is a recent movement (e.g., positive psychology and positive organizational scholarship) that has implications for POE. The positive social science movement operationalizes virtue through an empirical lens that emphasizes virtuous behaviors. From (...)
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  26. Grounded Procedures in Mind and Society.Spike W. S. Lee & Norbert Schwarz - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Our commentators explore the operation of grounded procedures across all levels of analysis in the behavioral sciences, from mental to social, developmental, and evolutionary/functional. Building on them, we offer two integrative principles for systematic effects of grounded procedures to occur. We discuss theoretical topics at each level of analysis, address methodological recommendations, and highlight further extensions of grounded procedures.
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  27.  11
    The World of Thought in Ancient China.David S. Nivison - 1988 - Philosophy East and West 38 (4):411-419.
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  28.  14
    Comparative Analysis of Episodic Memory.David S. Olton - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (2):250.
  29.  13
    The Global Language of Human Rights: A Computational Linguistic Analysis.David S. Law - 2018 - The Law and Ethics of Human Rights 12 (1):111-150.
    Human rights discourse has been likened to a global lingua franca, and in more ways than one, the analogy seems apt. Human rights discourse is a language that is used by all yet belongs uniquely to no particular place. It crosses not only the borders between nation-states, but also the divide between national law and international law: it appears in national constitutions and international treaties alike. But is it possible to conceive of human rights as a global language or lingua (...)
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  30. Hylemorphic Dualism.David S. Oderberg - 2005 - Social Philosophy and Policy 22 (2):70-99.
    To the extent that dualism is even taken to be a serious option in contemporary discussions of personal identity and the philosophy of mind, it is almost exclusively either Cartesian dualism or property dualism that is considered. The more traditional dualism defended by Aristotelians and Thomists, what I call hylemorphic dualism, has only received scattered attention. In this essay I set out the main lines of the hylemorphic dualist position, with particular reference to personal identity. First I argue that overemphasis (...)
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  31.  77
    The Metaphysical Status of the Embryo: Some Arguments Revisited.David S. Oderberg - 2008 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 25 (4):263-276.
    abstract This paper re-examines some well-known and commonly accepted arguments for the non-individuality of the embryo, due mainly to the work of John Harris. The first concerns the alleged non-differentiation of the embryoblast from the trophoblast. The second concerns monozygotic twinning and the relevance of the primitive streak. The third concerns the totipotency of the cells of the early embryo. I argue that on a proper analysis of both the empirical facts of embryological development, and the metaphysical importance or otherwise (...)
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  32.  9
    Action-Effect Binding and Agency.Katharina A. Schwarz, Sebastian Burger, David Dignath, Wilfried Kunde & Roland Pfister - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 65:304-309.
  33. Divine Premotion.David S. Oderberg - unknown
    According to divine premotionism, God does not merely create and sustain the universe. He also moves all secondary causes to action as instruments without undermining their intrinsic causal efficacy. I explain and uphold the premotionist theory, which is the theory of St Thomas Aquinas and his most prominent exponents. I defend the premotionist interpretation of Aquinas in some textual detail, with particular reference to Suarez and to a recent paper by Louis Mancha. Critics, including Molinists and Suarezians, raise various objections (...)
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  34. Survivalism, Corruptionism, and Mereology.David S. Oderberg - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (4):1-26.
    Corruptionism is the view that following physical death, the human being ceases to exist but their soul persists in the afterlife. Survivalism holds that both the human being and their soul persist in the afterlife, as distinct entities, with the soul constituting the human. Each position has its defenders, most of whom appeal both to metaphysical considerations and to the authority of St Thomas Aquinas. Corruptionists claim that survivalism violates a basic principle of any plausible mereology, while survivalists tend to (...)
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  35.  11
    Coincidence Under a Sortal.David S. Oderberg - 1996 - Philosophical Review 105 (2):145-171.
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  36.  52
    The Immanence of Thought: Hegel’s Critique of Foundationalism.David S. Stern - 1990 - The Owl of Minerva 22 (1):19-33.
    From Kierkegaard’s famous polemic against Hegel’s system, and Marx’s rejection of the “mysticism” of reason, to Heidegger’s claim that Hegel completes the tradition of western metaphysics, and contemporary critics’ identification of Hegel as the authoritative spokesman — the “Master” — for the principles of unity and identity, a standard view has governed interpretations and evaluations of Hegel’s philosophy. Though familiarity with the positions just cited reveals considerable disparity, one does not need an especially discerning eye to recognize the common features (...)
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  37. Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Disclosures: An Alternative Explanation for Increased Disclosure. [REVIEW]David S. Gelb & Joyce A. Strawser - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 33 (1):1 - 13.
    Researchers and practitioners have devoted considerable attention to firms'' policies regarding discretionary disclosures. Prior studies argue that firms increase demand for their debt and equity issues and, thus, lower their cost of capital, by providing more informative disclosures. However, empirical research has generally not been able to document significant benefits from increased disclosure.This paper proposes an alternative explanation – firms disclose because it is the socially responsible thing to do. We argue that companies have incentives to engage in stakeholder management (...)
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  38.  46
    The Amplifying and Buffering Effects of Virtuousness in Downsized Organizations.David S. Bright, Kim S. Cameron & Arran Caza - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (3):249-269.
    Virtuousness refers to the pursuit of the highest aspirations in the human condition. It is characterized by human impact, moral goodness, and unconditional societal betterment. Several writers have recently argued that corporations, in addition to being concerned with ethics, should also emphasize an ethos of virtuousness in corporate action. Virtuousness emphasizes actions that go beyond the “do no harm” assumption embedded in most ethical codes of conduct. Instead, it emphasizes the highest and best of the human condition. This research empirically (...)
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  39.  95
    Further Clarity on Cooperation and Morality.David S. Oderberg - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (4):192-200.
    I explore the increasingly important issue of co-operation in immoral actions, particularly in connection with health care. Conscientious objection, especially as pertains to religious freedom in health care, has become a pressing issue in the light of the US Supreme Court judgment in Hobby Lobby. Section 2 outlines a theory of co-operation inspired by Catholic moral theologians such as those cited by the Court. The theory has independent plausibility and is at least worthy of serious consideration – in part because (...)
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  40. Applied Ethics: A Non-Consequentialist Approach.David S. Oderberg - 2000 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Most of these books, however, defend approaches that are consequentialist or specifically utilitarian in nature.
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  41.  12
    A Grounded Cognition Perspective on Folk-Economic Beliefs.Spike W. S. Lee & Norbert Schwarz - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
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  42.  61
    Being and Goodness.David S. Oderberg - unknown
    The old scholastic principle of the "convertibility" of being and goodness strikes nearly all moderns as either barely comprehensible or plain false. "Convertible" is a term of art meaning "interchangeable" in respect of predication, where the predicates can be exchanged salva veritate albeit not salva sensu: their referents are, as the maxim goes, really the same albeit conceptually different. The principle seems, at first blush, absurd. Did the scholastics literally mean that every being is good? Is that supposed to include (...)
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  43.  9
    A Re-Examination of the Role of Hippocampus in Working Memory.David S. Olton, James T. Becker & Gail E. Handelmann - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (3):352-365.
  44.  26
    David Bentley Hart's The Beauty of the Infinite: Critical Responses.David S. Cunningham - 2007 - New Blackfriars 88 (1017):581-584.
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  45.  10
    Between Reason and History: Habermas and the Idea of Progress.David S. Owen - 2002 - State University of New York Press.
    The first book-length treatment in English of Habermas’s theory of social evolution and progress.
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  46.  28
    Is Form Structure?David S. Oderberg - 2014 - In D. D. Novotny & L. Novak (eds.), Neo-Aristotelian Perspectives in Metaphysics. pp. 164-180.
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  47.  12
    Opting Out: Conscience and Cooperation in a Pluralistic Society.David S. Oderberg - 2018 - In Opting Out: Conscience and Cooperation in a Pluralistic Society. pp. 1-155.
    We live in a liberal, pluralistic, largely secular society where, in theory, there is fundamental protection for freedom of conscience generally and freedom of religion in particular. There is, however, both in statute and common law, increasing pressure on religious believers and conscientious objectors to act in ways that violate their sincere, deeply held beliefs. This is particularly so in health care, where conscientious objection is coming under extreme pressure. I argue that freedom of religion and conscience need to be (...)
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  48.  18
    Listening Subjects: Music, Psychoanalysis, Culture.David Schwarz - 1997 - Duke University Press.
    In Listening Subjects, David Schwarz uses psychoanalytic techniques to probe the visceral experiences of music listeners.
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  49.  20
    Hönigswald, Ernst Haeckel, der monistische Philosoph. S. 230. — Schwarz, Psychologie des Willens.Hermann Schwarz - 1901 - Kant-Studien 5 (1-3).
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  50.  88
    Divine Premotion.David S. Oderberg - 2016 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 79 (3):207-222.
    According to divine premotionism, God does not merely create and sustain the universe. He also moves all secondary causes to action as instruments without undermining their intrinsic causal efficacy. I explain and uphold the premotionist theory, which is the theory of St Thomas Aquinas and his most prominent exponents. I defend the premotionist interpretation of Aquinas in some textual detail, with particular reference to Suarez and to a recent paper by Louis Mancha. Critics, including Molinists and Suarezians, raise various objections (...)
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