Results for 'William J. Idsardi'

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  1.  1
    A Phonological Perspective on Locus Equations.William J. Idsardi - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):270-271.
    Locus equations fail to provide adequate abstraction to capture the English phoneme /g/. They also cannot characterize final consonants or their relation to pre-vocalic consonants. However, locus equations are approximately abstract enough to define the upper limit on phonological distinctions for place of articulation. Hence, locus equations seem to mediate phonetic and phonological perceptual abilities.
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  2. Three Books on Language: Pro-Noam, Anti-Noam, Net-Noam.William J. Idsardi - 2006 - Artificial Intelligence 170 (18):1234-1236.
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  3. Social Inference May Guide Early Lexical Learning.Alayo Tripp, Naomi H. Feldman & William J. Idsardi - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    We incorporate social reasoning about groups of informants into a model of word learning, and show that the model accounts for infant looking behavior in tasks of both word learning and recognition. Simulation 1 models an experiment where 16-month-old infants saw familiar objects labeled either correctly or incorrectly, by either adults or audio talkers. Simulation 2 reinterprets puzzling data from the Switch task, an audiovisual habituation procedure wherein infants are tested on familiarized associations between novel objects and labels. Eight-month-olds outperform (...)
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  4. Establishing New Mappings Between Familiar Phones: Neural and Behavioral Evidence for Early Automatic Processing of Nonnative Contrasts.Shannon L. Barrios, Anna M. Namyst, Ellen F. Lau, Naomi H. Feldman & William J. Idsardi - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  5.  41
    Mysticism and Sense Perception: WILLIAM J. WAINWRIGHT.William J. Wainwright - 1973 - Religious Studies 9 (3):257-278.
    In this paper I propose to examine the cognitive status of mystical experience. There are, I think, three distinct but overlapping sorts of religious experience. In the first place, there are two kinds of mystical experience. The extrovertive or nature mystic identifies himself with a world which is both transfigured and one. The introvertive mystic withdraws from the world and, after stripping the mind of concepts and images, experiences union with something which can be described as an undifferentiated unity. Introvertive (...)
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  6.  32
    Games Lawyers Play: Legal Discovery and Social Epistemology: William J. Talbott and Alvin I. Goldman.William J. Talbott - 1998 - Legal Theory 4 (2):93-163.
    In the movie Regarding Henry, the main character, Henry Turner, is a lawyer who suffers brain damage as a result of being shot during a robbery. Before being wounded, the Old Henry Turner had been a successful lawyer, admired as a fierce competitor and well-known for his killer instinct. As a result of the injury to his brain, the New Henry Turner loses the personality traits that had made the Old Henry such a formidable adversary.
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  7.  13
    William James in Focus: Willing to Believe.William J. Gavin - 2013 - Indiana University Press.
    Distilling the main currents of James's thought, William J. Gavin focuses on "latent" and "manifest" ideas in James to disclose the notion of "will to believe," which courses through his work.
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  8. Decision-Making Under Indeterminacy.J. Robert G. Williams - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14.
    Decisions are made under uncertainty when there are distinct outcomes of a given action, and one is uncertain to which the act will lead. Decisions are made under indeterminacy when there are distinct outcomes of a given action, and it is indeterminate to which the act will lead. This paper develops a theory of (synchronic and diachronic) decision-making under indeterminacy that portrays the rational response to such situations as inconstant. Rational agents have to capriciously and randomly choose how to resolve (...)
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  9.  83
    Heidegger: Through Phenomenology to Thought.William J. Richardson - 1963 - Fordham University Press.
    "This book, one of the most frequently cited works on Martin Heidegger in any language, belongs on any short list of classic studies of Continental philosophy. William J. Richardson explores the famous turn in Heidegger's thought after Being in Time and demonstrates how this transformation was radical without amounting to a simple contradiction of his earlier views." "In a full account of the evolution of Heidegger's work as a whole, Richardson provides a detailed, systematic, and illuminating account of both (...)
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  10. Debunking Evolutionary Debunking of Ethical Realism.William J. FitzPatrick - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (4):883-904.
    What implications, if any, does evolutionary biology have for metaethics? Many believe that our evolutionary background supports a deflationary metaethics, providing a basis at least for debunking ethical realism. Some arguments for this conclusion appeal to claims about the etiology of the mental capacities we employ in ethical judgment, while others appeal to the etiology of the content of our moral beliefs. In both cases the debunkers’ claim is that the causal roles played by evolutionary factors raise deep epistemic problems (...)
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  11. Illusions of Gunk.J. Robert G. Williams - 2006 - Philosophical Perspectives 20 (1):493–513.
    Worlds where things divide forever ("gunk" worlds) are apparently conceivable. The conceivability of such scenarios has been used as an argument against "nihilist" or "near-nihilist" answers to the special composition question. I argue that the mereological nihilist has the resources to explain away the illusion that gunk is possible.
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  12. Indeterminate Oughts.J. Robert G. Williams - 2017 - Ethics 127 (3):645-673.
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  13.  9
    The Presence of Evil and the Falsification of Theistic Assertions: WILLIAM J. WAINWRIGHT.William J. Wainwright - 1969 - Religious Studies 4 (2):213-216.
    The falsifiability of theistic assertions no longer appears to be the burning issue it once was, and perhaps this is all to the good. For one thing, it was never entirely clear just what demand was being made of the theist. In this paper I shall not discuss the nature or legitimacy of the falsification requirement as applied to theistic assertions. Instead I shall argue that some of the reasons which have been offered to show that these assertions are not (...)
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  14.  25
    Wilfred Cantwell Smith on Faith and Belief: WILLIAM J. WAINWRIGHT.William J. Wainwright - 1984 - Religious Studies 20 (3):353-366.
    In a series of important and influential books, Wilfred Cantwell Smith has convincingly argued that religious traditions are misunderstood if one does not grasp the faith which they express, that these traditions are not static but fluid, and that as a result of greater knowledge and increased contact between members of different traditions, we have entered a period in which it is no longer possible for the traditions to develop in relative isolation. This paper is devoted to an important aspect (...)
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  15. Nonclassical Minds and Indeterminate Survival.J. Robert G. Williams - 2014 - Philosophical Review 123 (4):379-428.
    Revisionary theories of logic or truth require revisionary theories of mind. This essay outlines nonclassically based theories of rational belief, desire, and decision making, singling out the supervaluational family for special attention. To see these nonclassical theories of mind in action, this essay examines a debate between David Lewis and Derek Parfit over what matters in survival. Lewis argued that indeterminacy in personal identity allows caring about psychological connectedness and caring about personal identity to amount to the same thing. The (...)
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  16. From Phenomenology to Thought, Errancy, and Desire Essays in Honor of William J. Richardson, S.J.William J. Richardson & Babette E. Babich - 1995
     
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  17. Moral Responsibility and Normative Ignorance: Answering a New Skeptical Challenge.William J. FitzPatrick - 2008 - Ethics 118 (4):589-613.
  18.  32
    Reason and the Heart: A Prolegomenon to a Critique of Passional Reason.William J. Wainwright - 1995 - Cornell University Press.
    Between the opposing claims of reason and religious subjectivity may be a middle ground, William J. Wainwright argues. His book is a philosophical reflection on the role of emotion in guiding reason. There is evidence, he contends, that reason functions properly only when informed by a rightly disposed heart. The idea of passional reason, so rarely discussed today, once dominated religious reflection, and Wainwright pursues it through the writings of three of its past proponents: Jonathan Edwards, John Henry Newman, (...)
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  19. Ethics in Sport.William J. Morgan (ed.) - 2007 - Human Kinetics.
    These new features make this text the ideal choice for sport management and sport studies courses.Ethics in Sport, Second Edition,is composed of five parts.
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  20.  31
    Broad Internalism, Deep Conventions, Moral Entrepreneurs, and Sport.William J. Morgan - 2012 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 39 (1):65-100.
    My argument will proceed as follows. I will first sketch out the broad internalist case for pitching its normative account of sport in the abstract manner that following Dworkin?s lead in the philosophy of law its adherents insist upon. I will next show that the normative deficiencies in social conventions broad internalists uncover are indeed telling but misplaced since they hold only for what David Lewis famously called ?coordinating? conventions. I will then distinguish coordinating conventions from deep ones and make (...)
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  21. About Time: Inventing the Fourth Dimension.William J. Friedman - 1990 - Cambridge: MIT Press.
    In About Time, William Friedman provides a new integrated look at research on the psychological processes that underlie the human experience of time.
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  22. Cognitive and Computer Systems for Understanding Narrative Text.William J. Rapaport, Erwin M. Segal, Stuart C. Shapiro, David A. Zubin, Gail A. Bruder, Judith Felson Duchan & David M. Mark - manuscript
    This project continues our interdisciplinary research into computational and cognitive aspects of narrative comprehension. Our ultimate goal is the development of a computational theory of how humans understand narrative texts. The theory will be informed by joint research from the viewpoints of linguistics, cognitive psychology, the study of language acquisition, literary theory, geography, philosophy, and artificial intelligence. The linguists, literary theorists, and geographers in our group are developing theories of narrative language and spatial understanding that are being tested by the (...)
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  23. The Practical Turn in Ethical Theory: Korsgaard’s Constructivism, Realism, and the Nature of Normativity.William J. FitzPatrick - 2005 - Ethics 115 (4):651-691.
  24.  76
    Meinongian Theories and a Russellian Paradox.William J. Rapaport - 1978 - Noûs 12 (2):153-180.
    This essay re-examines Meinong's "Über Gegenstandstheorie" and undertakes a clarification and revision of it that is faithful to Meinong, overcomes the various objections to his theory, and is capable of offering solutions to various problems in philosophy of mind and philosophy of language. I then turn to a discussion of a historically and technically interesting Russell-style paradox (now known as "Clark's Paradox") that arises in the modified theory. I also examine the alternative Meinong-inspired theories of Hector-Neri Castañeda and Terence Parsons.
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  25.  53
    Non-Existent Objects and Epistemological Ontology.William J. Rapaport - 1985 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 25 (1):61-95.
    This essay examines the role of non-existent objects in "epistemological ontology" — the study of the entities that make thinking possible. An earlier revision of Meinong's Theory of Objects is reviewed, Meinong's notions of Quasisein and Außersein are discussed, and a theory of Meinongian objects as "combinatorially possible" entities is presented.
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  26. Perfect Markets and Easy Virtue Business Ethics and the Invisible Hand.William J. Baumol & Sue Anne Batey Blackman - 1991
     
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  27. Semiotic Systems, Computers, and the Mind: How Cognition Could Be Computing.William J. Rapaport - 2012 - International Journal of Signs and Semiotic Systems 2 (1):32-71.
    In this reply to James H. Fetzer’s “Minds and Machines: Limits to Simulations of Thought and Action”, I argue that computationalism should not be the view that (human) cognition is computation, but that it should be the view that cognition (simpliciter) is computable. It follows that computationalism can be true even if (human) cognition is not the result of computations in the brain. I also argue that, if semiotic systems are systems that interpret signs, then both humans and computers are (...)
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  28. The Reconfigured Eye: Visual Truth in the Post-Photographic Era.William J. Mitchell - 1994 - MIT Press.
    Continuing William Mitchell's investigations of how we understand, reason about, anduse images, The Reconfigured Eye provides the first systematic, critical analysis of the digitalimaging revolution.
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  29.  27
    The Normativity of Sport: A Historicist Take on Broad Internalism.William J. Morgan - 2016 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 43 (1):27-39.
  30.  57
    The Logical Incompatibility Thesis and Rules: A Reconsideration of Formalism as an Account of Games.William J. Morgan - 1987 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 14 (1):1-20.
  31. Non-Existent Objects and Epistemological Ontology.William J. Rapaport - 1985 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 25 (1):61-95.
    This essay examines the role of non-existent objects in "epistemological ontology" — the study of the entities that make thinking possible. An earlier revision of Meinong's Theory of Objects is reviewed, Meinong's notions of Quasisein and Außersein are discussed, and a theory of Meinongian objects as "combinatorially possible" entities is presented.
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  32.  1
    Capacity and Volition: A History of the Distinction of Absolute and Ordained Power.William J. Courtenay - 1990 - P. Lubrina.
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  33.  64
    Which Rights Should Be Universal?William J. Talbott - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    "We hold these truths to be self-evident..." So begins the U.S. Declaration of Independence. What follows those words is a ringing endorsement of universal rights, but it is far from self-evident. Why did the authors claim that it was? William Talbott suggests that they were trapped by a presupposition of Enlightenment philosophy: That there was only one way to rationally justify universal truths, by proving them from self-evident premises. With the benefit of hindsight, it is clear that the authors (...)
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  34. The Intend/Foresee Distinction and the Problem of “Closeness”.William J. Fitzpatrick - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 128 (3):585-617.
    The distinction between harm that is intended as a means or end, and harm that is merely a foreseen side-effect of one’s action, is widely cited as a significant factor in a variety of ethical contexts. Many use it, for example, to distinguish terrorist acts from certain acts of war that may have similar results as side-effects. Yet Bennett and others have argued that its application is so arbitrary that if it can be used to cast certain harmful actions in (...)
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  35. Syntax, Semantics, and Computer Programs.William J. Rapaport - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (2):309-321.
    Turner argues that computer programs must have purposes, that implementation is not a kind of semantics, and that computers might need to understand what they do. I respectfully disagree: Computer programs need not have purposes, implementation is a kind of semantic interpretation, and neither human computers nor computing machines need to understand what they do.
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  36. Philosophy of Computer Science: An Introductory Course.William J. Rapaport - 2005 - Teaching Philosophy 28 (4):319-341.
    There are many branches of philosophy called “the philosophy of X,” where X = disciplines ranging from history to physics. The philosophy of artificial intelligence has a long history, and there are many courses and texts with that title. Surprisingly, the philosophy of computer science is not nearly as well-developed. This article proposes topics that might constitute the philosophy of computer science and describes a course covering those topics, along with suggested readings and assignments.
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  37. The Doctrine of Double Effect: Intention and Permissibility.William J. FitzPatrick - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (3):183-196.
    The Doctrine of Double Effect (DDE) is an influential non-consequentialist principle positing a role for intention in affecting the moral permissibility of some actions. In particular, the DDE focuses on the intend/foresee distinction, the core claim being that it is sometimes permissible to bring about as a foreseen but unintended side-effect of one’s action some harm it would have been impermissible to aim at as a means or as an end, all else being equal. This article explores the meaning and (...)
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  38.  1
    Reason and the Heart: A Prolegomenon to a Critique of Passional Reason.William J. Wainwright - 2019 - Cornell University Press.
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  39.  50
    Athletic Perfection, Performance-Enhancing Drugs, and the Treatment-Enhancement Distinction.William J. Morgan - 2009 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 36 (2):162-181.
  40. Syntactic Semantics: Foundations of Computational Natural Language Understanding.William J. Rapaport - 1988 - In James H. Fetzer (ed.), Aspects of AI. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    This essay considers what it means to understand natural language and whether a computer running an artificial-intelligence program designed to understand natural language does in fact do so. It is argued that a certain kind of semantics is needed to understand natural language, that this kind of semantics is mere symbol manipulation (i.e., syntax), and that, hence, it is available to AI systems. Recent arguments by Searle and Dretske to the effect that computers cannot understand natural language are discussed, and (...)
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  41.  32
    William J. Morgan’s ‘Conventionalist Internalism’ Approach. Furthering Internalism? A Critical Hermeneutical Response.Francisco Javier López Frías - 2014 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 8 (2):157-171.
    Several authors, such as William J. Morgan, John S. Russell and R. Scott Kretchmar, have claimed that the limits between the diverse normative theories of sport need to be revisited. Most of these works are philosophically grounded in Anglo-American philosophical approaches. For instance, William J. Morgan’s proposal is mainly based on Richard Rorty’s philosophy. But he also discusses with some European philosophers like Jürgen Habermas. However, Habermas’ central ideas are rejected by Morgan. The purpose of this paper is (...)
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  42. The Oxford Handbook of the Epistemology of Theology.William J. Abraham & Frederick D. Aquino (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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  43.  57
    Teleology and the Norms of Nature.William J. FitzPatrick - 2000 - Routledge.
    This work is an examination of teleological attributions i.e. ascriptions of proper functions and natural ends) to the features and behavior of living things with a view to understanding their application to human life.
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  44.  85
    Meaning-Making in an Atheist World.William J. F. Keenan & Tatjana Schnell - 2011 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 33 (1):55-78.
    This article explores atheist meaning-making by employing a multidimensional model of meaning operationalized by the Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire. When compared to a representative sample of “religionists” and “nones”, atheists show lower degrees of meaningfulness, but they do not suffer from crises of meaning more frequently. However, subsequent cluster analysis reveals that heterogeneity within atheism has to be taken into account. Three types of atheists are identified. ‘Low-commitment’ atheists are characterised by generally low commitment; they report (...)
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  45. Skepticism About Naturalizing Normativity: In Defense of Ethical Nonnaturalism.William J. FitzPatrick - 2014 - Res Philosophica 91 (4):559-588.
    There is perhaps no more widely shared conviction in contemporary metaethics, even among those who hold otherwise divergent views, than that practical normativity must be capable of being naturalized . My aim is to illuminate the central reasons for skepticism about this. While certain naturalizing projects are plausible for very limited purposes, it is unlikely that any can provide everything we might reasonably want from an account of goodness and badness, rightness and wrongness, and unqualified reasons for acting—at least if (...)
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  46. Understanding Understanding: Syntactic Semantics and Computational Cognition.William J. Rapaport - 1995 - Philosophical Perspectives 9:49-88.
    John Searle once said: "The Chinese room shows what we knew all along: syntax by itself is not sufficient for semantics. (Does anyone actually deny this point, I mean straight out? Is anyone actually willing to say, straight out, that they think that syntax, in the sense of formal symbols, is really the same as semantic content, in the sense of meanings, thought contents, understanding, etc.?)." I say: "Yes". Stuart C. Shapiro has said: "Does that make any sense? Yes: Everything (...)
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  47. Holism, Conceptual-Role Semantics, and Syntactic Semantics.William J. Rapaport - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (1):3-59.
    This essay continues my investigation of `syntactic semantics': the theory that, pace Searle's Chinese-Room Argument, syntax does suffice for semantics (in particular, for the semantics needed for a computational cognitive theory of natural-language understanding). Here, I argue that syntactic semantics (which is internal and first-person) is what has been called a conceptual-role semantics: The meaning of any expression is the role that it plays in the complete system of expressions. Such a `narrow', conceptual-role semantics is the appropriate sort of semantics (...)
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  48.  19
    Moral Antirealism, Internalism, and Sport.William J. Morgan - 2004 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 31 (2):161-183.
  49.  44
    What is a Computer? A Survey.William J. Rapaport - 2018 - Minds and Machines 28 (3):385-426.
    A critical survey of some attempts to define ‘computer’, beginning with some informal ones, then critically evaluating those of three philosophers, and concluding with an examination of whether the brain and the universe are computers.
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  50.  10
    How Effective Is Online Outrage?William J. Brady & M. J. Crockett - 2019 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 23 (2):79-80.
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