Results for 'Bjørn Grinde'

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  1.  52
    How Can Science Help Religion Toward Optimal Benefit for Society?Bjorn Grinde - 2005 - Zygon 40 (2):277-288.
  2. An Evolutionary Perspective on Happiness and Mental Health.Bjorn Grinde - 2012 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 33 (1-2).
    The purpose of this article is to present a model of well-being based on current research in neurobiology and psychology, integrated in an evolutionary perspective of the human mind. Briefly, the primary purpose of nervous systems is to direct an animal toward behavior should be conducive to survival and procreation, and as a rule of thumb this implies either approach or avoidance. While behavior originally was based on reflexes, in humans the brain contains a system of negative and positive affect. (...)
     
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  3.  86
    Donald Davidson: Philosophy of Language.Bjorn Ramberg - 1991 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This book is an introduction to and interpretation of the philosophy of language devised by Donald Davidson over the past 25 years. The guiding intuition is that Davidson's work is best understood as an ongoing attempt to purge semantics of theoretical reifications. Seen in this light the recent attack on the notion of language itself emerges as a natural development of his Quinian scepticism towards "meanings" and his rejections of reference-based semantic theories. Linguistic understanding is, for Davidson, essentially dynamic, arising (...)
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  4.  30
    Going Beyond Hate Speech: The Pragmatics of Ethnic Slur Terms.Björn Technau - 2018 - Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 14 (1):25-43.
    Ethnic slur terms and other group-based slurs must be differentiated from general pejoratives and pure expressives. As these terms pejoratively refer to certain groups of people, they are a typical feature of hate speech contexts where they serve xenophobic speakers in expressing their hatred for an entire group of people. However, slur terms are actually far more frequently used in other contexts and are more often exchanged among friends than between enemies. Hate speech can be identified as the most central, (...)
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  5. Consciousness Without a Cerbral Cortex: A Challenge for Neuroscience and Medicine.Bjorn Merker - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):63-81.
    A broad range of evidence regarding the functional organization of the vertebrate brain – spanning from comparative neurology to experimental psychology and neurophysiology to clinical data – is reviewed for its bearing on conceptions of the neural organization of consciousness. A novel principle relating target selection, action selection, and motivation to one another, as a means to optimize integration for action in real time, is introduced. With its help, the principal macrosystems of the vertebrate brain can be seen to form (...)
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  6. Darwinian Happiness: Can the Evolutionary Perspective on Well-Being Help Us Improve Society?Bjørn Grinde - 2005 - World Futures 61 (4):317 – 329.
    The concept of Darwinian Happiness was coined to help people take advantage of knowledge on how evolution has shaped the brain; as processes within this organ are the main contributors to well-being. Fortuitously, the concept has implications that may prove beneficial for society: Compassionate behavior offers more in terms of Darwinian Happiness than malicious behavior; and the probability of obtaining sustainable development may be improved by pointing out that consumption beyond sustenance is not important for well-being. It is difficult to (...)
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  7. Chapter One Virtual Survey on North Mesopotamian Tell Sites by Means of Satellite Remote Sensing Bjorn H. Menze, Simone Muhl.Bjorn H. Menze - 2007 - In Bart Ooghe & Geert Verhoeven (eds.), Broadening Horizons: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Landscape Study. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 5.
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  8.  16
    Dark Data as the New Challenge for Big Data Science and the Introduction of the Scientific Data Officer.Björn Schembera & Juan M. Durán - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology:1-23.
    Many studies in big data focus on the uses of data available to researchers, leaving without treatment data that is on the servers but of which researchers are unaware. We call this dark data, and in this article, we present and discuss it in the context of high-performance computing facilities. To this end, we provide statistics of a major HPC facility in Europe, the High-Performance Computing Center Stuttgart. We also propose a new position tailor-made for coping with dark data and (...)
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  9. The Liabilities of Mobility: A Selection Pressure for the Transition to Consciousness in Animal Evolution.Bjorn H. Merker - 2005 - Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):89-114.
    The issue of the biological origin of consciousness is linked to that of its function. One source of evidence in this regard is the contrast between the types of information that are and are not included within its compass. Consciousness presents us with a stable arena for our actions—the world—but excludes awareness of the multiple sensory and sensorimotor transformations through which the image of that world is extracted from the confounding influence of self-produced motion of multiple receptor arrays mounted on (...)
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  10.  3
    Dark Data as the New Challenge for Big Data Science and the Introduction of the Scientific Data Officer.Björn Schembera & Juan M. Durán - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (1):93-115.
    Many studies in big data focus on the uses of data available to researchers, leaving without treatment data that is on the servers but of which researchers are unaware. We call this dark data, and in this article, we present and discuss it in the context of high-performance computing facilities. To this end, we provide statistics of a major HPC facility in Europe, the High-Performance Computing Center Stuttgart. We also propose a new position tailor-made for coping with dark data and (...)
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  11.  6
    Music Structure Determines Heart Rate Variability of Singers.Björn Vickhoff, Helge Malmgren, Rickard Åström, Gunnar Nyberg, Seth-Reino Ekström, Mathias Engwall, Johan Snygg, Michael Nilsson & Rebecka Jörnsten - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
  12.  7
    Hearsay in European Languages: Toward an Integrative Account of Grammatical and Lexical Marking.Björn Wiemer - 2010 - In Gabriele Diewald & Elena Smirnova (eds.), Linguistic Realization of Evidentiality in European Languages. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 49--59.
  13. Collectivity And Circularity.Björn Petersson - 2007 - Journal of Philosophy 104 (3):138-156.
    According to a common claim, a necessary condition for a collective action (as opposed to a mere set of intertwined or parallel actions) to take place is that the notion of collective action figures in the content of each participant’s attitudes. Insofar as this claim is part of a conceptual analysis, it gives rise to a circularity challenge that has been explicitly addressed by Michael Bratman and Christopher Kutz.1 I will briefly show how the problem arises within Bratman’s and Kutz’s (...)
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  14.  12
    Beyond the Concept of Anonymity: What is Really at Stake?Björn Lundgren - 2020 - In Kevin Macnish & Jai Galliott (eds.), Big Data and Democracy. pp. 201-216.
    The aim of this paper is to discuss anonymity and the threats against it—in the form of deanonymization technologies. The question in the title is approached by conceptual analysis: I ask what kind of concept we need and how it ought to be conceptualized given what is really at stake. By what is at stake I mean the values that are threatened by various deanonymization technologies. It will be argued that while previous conceptualizations of anonymity may be reasonable—given a standard (...)
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  15. The Second Mistake in Moral Mathematics is Not About the Worth of Mere Participation.Björn Petersson - 2004 - Utilitas 16 (3):288-315.
    ‘The Second Mistake’ (TSM) is to think that if an act is right or wrong because of its effects, the only relevant effects are the effects of this particular act. This is not (as some think) a truism, since ‘the effects of this particular act’ and ‘its effects’ need not co-refer. Derek Parfit's rejection of TSM is based mainly on intuitions concerning sets of acts that over-determine certain harms. In these cases, each act belongs to the relevant set in virtue (...)
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  16.  5
    Getting Ready for the Marriage Market? A Comment.Björn Schneider & Florian Grimps - 2012 - Journal of Biosocial Science 44 (2):229-234.
  17. Collective Omissions and Responsibility.Björn Petersson - 2008 - Philosophical Papers 37 (2):243-261.
    Sometimes it seems intuitively plausible to hold loosely structured sets of individuals morally responsible for failing to act collectively. Virginia Held, Larry May, and Torbj rn T nnsj have all drawn this conclusion from thought experiments concerning small groups, although they apply the conclusion to large-scale omissions as well. On the other hand it is commonly assumed that (collective) agency is a necessary condition for (collective) responsibility. If that is true, then how can we hold sets of people responsible for (...)
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  18.  55
    Human Rights in the Void? Due Diligence in the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights.Björn Fasterling & Geert Demuijnck - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 116 (4):799-814.
    The ‘Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights’ (Principles) that provide guidance for the implementation of the United Nations’ ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ framework (Framework) will probably succeed in making human rights matters more customary in corporate management procedures. They are likely to contribute to higher levels of accountability and awareness within corporations in respect of the negative impact of business activities on human rights. However, we identify tensions between the idea that the respect of human rights is a perfect (...)
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  19.  8
    Prestigious Science Journals Struggle to Reach Even Average Reliability.Björn Brembs - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  20.  72
    Co-Responsibility and Causal Involvement.Björn Petersson - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (3):847-866.
    In discussions of moral responsibility for collectively produced effects, it is not uncommon to assume that we have to abandon the view that causal involvement is a necessary condition for individual co-responsibility. In general, considerations of cases where there is “a mismatch between the wrong a group commits and the apparent causal contributions for which we can hold individuals responsible” motivate this move. According to Brian Lawson, “solving this problem requires an approach that deemphasizes the importance of causal contributions”. Christopher (...)
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  21.  33
    Co-Responsibility and Causal Involvement.Petersson Björn - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (3):847-866.
    In discussions of moral responsibility for collectively produced effects, it is not uncommon to assume that we have to abandon the view that causal involvement is a necessary condition for individual co-responsibility. In general, considerations of cases where there is "a mismatch between the wrong a group commits and the apparent causal contributions for which we can hold individuals responsible" motivate this move. According to Brian Lawson, "solving this problem requires an approach that deemphasizes the importance of causal contributions". Christopher (...)
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  22.  27
    Bratman, Searle, and Simplicity : Comments on Bratman, Shared Agency, Planning Theory of Acting Together.Björn Petersson - 2015 - Journal of Social Ontology 1 (1):27–37.
    Michael Bratman’s work is established as one of the most important philosophical approaches to group agency so far, and Shared Agency, A Planning Theory of Acting Together confirms that impression. In this paper I attempt to challenge the book’s central claim that considerations of theoretical simplicity will favor Bratman’s theory of collective action over its main rivals. I do that, firstly, by questioning whether there must be a fundamental difference in kind between Searle style we-intentions and I-intentions within that type (...)
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  23.  4
    Structure Induction in Diagnostic Causal Reasoning.Björn Meder, Ralf Mayrhofer & Michael R. Waldmann - 2014 - Psychological Review 121 (3):277-301.
  24.  12
    Evaluating Facts and Facting Evaluations: On the Fact-Value Relationship in HTA.Bjorn Hofmann, Ken Bond & Lars Sandman - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):957-965.
    Health technology assessment is an evaluation of health technologies in terms of facts and evidence. However, the relationship between facts and values is still not clear in HTA. This is problematic in an era of fake facts and truth production. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to clarify the relationship between facts and values in HTA. We start with the perspectives of the traditional positivist account of evaluating facts and the social-constructivist account of facting values. Our analysis reveals diverse (...)
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  25.  61
    Team Reasoning and Collective Intentionality.Björn Petersson - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 8 (2):199-218.
    Different versions of the idea that individualism about agency is the root of standard game theoretical puzzles have been defended by Regan 1980, Bacharach, Hurley, Sugden :165–181, 2003), and Tuomela 2013, among others. While collectivistic game theorists like Michael Bacharach provide formal frameworks designed to avert some of the standard dilemmas, philosophers of collective action like Raimo Tuomela aim at substantive accounts of collective action that may explain how agents overcoming such social dilemmas would be motivated. This paper focuses on (...)
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  26.  15
    Decolonization of the West, Desuperiorisation of Thought, and Elative Ethics.Björn Freter - 2019 - In Elvis Imafidon (ed.), Handbook of African Philosophy of Difference: The Othering of the Other. Cham: Springer. pp. 1-24.
    Through the vehicle of Nicolas Sarkozy’s so-called “Dakar Address” we will analyse the West’s persisting lack of insight into the need for a Western decolonization. We will try to identify the dangers that come from this refusal, such as the abidance in colonial patterns, the enduring self-understanding as superior com-pared to Africa, and the persisting unwillingness to accept the colonial guilt. Decolonization has to be understood as a two-fold business. Decolonization is over-coming endured and perpetrated violence. It is not only (...)
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  27.  83
    What is Natural Selection?Björn Brunnander - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):231-246.
    ‘Natural selection’ is, it seems, an ambiguous term. It is sometimes held to denote a consequence of variation, heredity, and environment, while at other times as denoting a force that creates adaptations. I argue that the latter, the force interpretation, is a redundant notion of natural selection. I will point to difficulties in making sense of this linguistic practise, and argue that it is frequently at odds with standard interpretations of evolutionary theory. I provide examples to show this; one example (...)
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  28.  17
    Emotion Processing Facilitates Working Memory Performance.Björn R. Lindström & Gunilla Bohlin - 2011 - Cognition and Emotion 25 (7):1196-1204.
  29.  21
    Not Out of Date, But Out of Value.Bjorn Hofmann - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (7):30-32.
    Volume 19, Issue 7, July 2019, Page 30-32.
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  30. On the Theoretical Motivation for Positing Etiological Functions.Björn Brunnander - 2011 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (3):371-390.
    It is a plain fact that biology makes use of terms and expressions commonly spoken of as teleological. Biologists frequently speak of the function of biological items. They may also say that traits are 'supposed to' perform some of their effects, claim that traits are 'for' specific effects, or that organisms have particular traits 'in order to' engage in specific interactions. There is general agreement that there must be something useful about this linguistic practice but it is controversial whether it (...)
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  31. Rorty, Davidson, and the Future of Metaphysics in America.Bjorn Ramberg - 2008 - In Cheryl Misak (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of American Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
  32.  10
    A Dilemma for Privacy as Control.Björn Lundgren - 2020 - Journal of Ethics 24 (2):165-175.
    Although popular, control accounts of privacy suffer from various counterexamples. In this article, it is argued that two such counterexamples—while individually resolvable—can be combined to yield a dilemma for control accounts of privacy. Furthermore, it is argued that it is implausible that control accounts of privacy can defend against this dilemma. Thus, it is concluded that we ought not define privacy in terms of control. Lastly, it is argued that since the concept of privacy is the object of the right (...)
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  33.  21
    From Probabilities to Percepts.Bjorn Merker - 2012 - In Shimon Edelman, Tomer Fekete & Neta Zach (eds.), Being in Time: Dynamical Models of Phenomenal Experience. John Benjamins. pp. 88--37.
  34.  8
    Managing Value Tensions in Collective Social Entrepreneurship: The Role of Temporal, Structural, and Collaborative Compromise.Björn C. Mitzinneck & Marya L. Besharov - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 159 (2):381-400.
    Social entrepreneurship increasingly involves collective, voluntary organizing efforts where success depends on generating and sustaining members’ participation. To investigate how such participatory social ventures achieve member engagement in pluralistic institutional settings, we conducted a qualitative, inductive study of German Renewable Energy Source Cooperatives. Our findings show how value tensions emerge from differences in RESCoop members’ relative prioritization of community, environmental, and commercial logics, and how cooperative leaders manage these tensions and sustain member participation through temporal, structural, and collaborative compromise strategies. (...)
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  35.  23
    Over-Determined Harms and Harmless Pluralities.Björn Petersson - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (4):841-850.
    A popular strategy for meeting over-determination and pre-emption challenges to the comparative counterfactual conception of harm is Derek Parfit’s suggestion, more recently defended by Neil Feit, that a plurality of events harms A if and only if that plurality is the smallest plurality of events such that, if none of them had occurred, A would have been better off. This analysis of ‘harm’ rests on a simple but natural mistake about the relevant counterfactual comparison. Pluralities fulfilling these conditions make no (...)
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  36.  38
    Models as Icons: Modeling Models in the Semiotic Framework of Peirce’s Theory of Signs.Björn Kralemann & Claas Lattmann - 2013 - Synthese 190 (16):3397-3420.
    In this paper, we try to shed light on the ontological puzzle pertaining to models and to contribute to a better understanding of what models are. Our suggestion is that models should be regarded as a specific kind of signs according to the sign theory put forward by Charles S. Peirce, and, more precisely, as icons, i.e. as signs which are characterized by a similarity relation between sign (model) and object (original). We argue for this (1) by analyzing from a (...)
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  37.  29
    Social Theory and Global History: The Three Cultural Crystallizations.Wittrock Björn - 2001 - Thesis Eleven 65 (1):27-50.
    In the course of their disciplinary consolidation during the 19th and 20th centuries, the social sciences came increasingly to be less historically orientated. Analogously, global history became increasingly a marginal concern for professional historical scholarship. At the present juncture, however, there is a coincidence of a rethinking of the formation of modernity in cultural terms and the need to locate European modernity in a global context. Social theory must be able to provide an account of global historical developments that is (...)
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  38.  48
    Analysis of Generative Mechanisms.Björn Blom & Stefan Morén - 2011 - Journal of Critical Realism 10 (1):60-79.
    The focus of this article is the analysis of generative mechanisms, a basic concept and phenomenon within the metatheoretical perspective of critical realism. It is emphasized that research questions and methods, as well as the knowledge it is possible to attain, depend on the basic view – ontologically and epistemologically – regarding the phenomenon under scrutiny. A generative mechanism is described as a trans empirical but real existing entity, explaining why observable events occur. Mechanisms are mostly possible to grasp only (...)
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  39.  75
    Is Forgetting Reprehensible? Holocaust Remembrance and the Task of Oblivion.Björn Krondorfer - 2008 - Journal of Religious Ethics 36 (2):233-267.
    "Forgetting" plays an important role in the lives of individuals and communities. Although a few Holocaust scholars have begun to take forgetting more seriously in relation to the task of remembering—in popular parlance as well as in academic discourse on the Holocaust—forgetting is usually perceived as a negative force. In the decades following 1945, the terms remembering and forgetting have often been used antithetically, with the communities of victims insisting on the duty to remember and a society of perpetrators desiring (...)
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  40.  48
    The Information Liar Paradox: A Problem for Floridi’s RSDI Definition.Björn Lundgren - 2015 - Philosophy and Technology 28 (2):323-327.
    In this commentary, I discuss the effects of the liar paradox on Floridi’s definition on semantic information. In particular, I show that there is at least one sentence that creates a contradictory result for Floridi’s definition of semantic information that does not affect the standard definition.
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  41.  22
    Falsification, Rejection, and Modification.Björn Wittrock - 1977 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 8 (2):379-382.
    Summary In two articles Friedrich Rapp argues that there is a methodological symmetry between falsification and verification in contradistinction to the logical asymmetry that obtains between them. (The Methodological Symmetry between Verification and Falsification,Ztschr. f. Allg. Wissth., Band VI/1 (1975), pp 139–144; A Helpful Argument — Reply to K. Eichner,Ztschr. f. Allg. Wissth., Band VII/1 (1976), pp. 121–123). Rapp puts forward the thesis that methodological falsification of a theory T implies the acceptance of an inference from ~ (x) Tx to (...)
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  42.  18
    American Indian Thought (Review).Donald Grinde - 2005 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 41 (4):863-864.
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  43. God in the Hands of Future Science.Bjørn Grinde - 2010 - World Futures 66 (5):351-362.
    There is reasonable evidence suggesting that humans have an innate tendency toward being religious. Consequently, religion is unlikely to disappear; the question then is how this feature will impact on future society. Three scenarios are discussed: One, science will dominate; two, religion will dominate; and three, the present conflict between the two is resolved. The latter scenario may happen through a realization that religion has the potential for doing more good than bad, in terms of individual quality of life and (...)
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  44.  38
    Review: Edited by Anne Waters. American Indian Thought. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2004. [REVIEW]Donald Grinde - 2005 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 41 (4):863-864.
  45.  35
    The Evolutionary Rationale for Consciousness.Bjørn Grinde - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (3):227-236.
    To answer the question of why we have consciousness, I propose the following evolutionary trajectory leading to this feature: Nervous systems appeared for the purpose of orchestrating behavior. As a rule of thumb the challenges facing an animal concern either approach or avoidance. These two options were originally hard-wired as reflexes. Improvements in adaptability of response came with an expansion of the computational aspect of the system and a concomitant shift from simple reflexes to instinctual behavior, learning, and eventually, feelings. (...)
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  46.  4
    Which Evolutionary Process, and Where Do We Want to Go?Bjørn Grinde - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):425-426.
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  47.  10
    Why We Don’T Need “Unmet Needs”! On the Concepts of Unmet Need and Severity in Health-Care Priority Setting.Lars Sandman & Bjorn Hofmann - 2019 - Health Care Analysis 27 (1):26-44.
    In health care priority setting different criteria are used to reflect the relevant values that should guide decision-making. During recent years there has been a development of value frameworks implying the use of multiple criteria, a development that has not been accompanied by a structured conceptual and normative analysis of how different criteria relate to each other and to underlying normative considerations. Examples of such criteria are unmet need and severity. In this article these crucial criteria are conceptually clarified and (...)
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  48.  2
    Wirklichkeit und existentiale Praxis. Vorarbeiten zu einer Phänomenologie der Normativität entwickelt an narrativen Texten der altgriechischen, neutestamentlichen, mittelhoch-deutschen und klassischen deutschen Literatur.Björn Freter - 2016 - Berlin, Germany: Lit.
    Diese Studie möchte eine existenzphilosophische Vorarbeit zu einer Phänomenologie der Normativität leisten. Durch Auslegungen vor allem griechischer, mittelhochdeutscher und klassischer deutscher Dichtung werden zunächst die Grundbegriffe von Faktizität und Existentialität herausgearbeitet. Auf dieser Grundlage erfolgt sodann die Beschreibung von Anlass und Gestalt normativer Praxis. Diese Beschreibung wird endlich als anthropologische Grundlage philosophischer Ethik vorgeschlagen.
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  49.  18
    Modern Chinese Court Buildings, Regime Legitimacy and the Public.Björn Ahl & Hendrik Tieben - 2015 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 28 (3):603-626.
    This study investigates the interrelation of outer appearance and spatial configuration of modern Chinese court buildings with the party-state’s strategy of building regime legitimacy. The spatial element of this relation is explored in four different court buildings in Kunming, Chongqing, Shanghai and Xi’an. It is argued that court buildings contribute to the empowerment of individuals who appear as parties in trials. Courthouses also facilitate the courts’ function of exercising social control and the application of an instrumentalist approach to the principle (...)
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  50.  20
    From Eminent Men to Excellent Universities: University Rankings as Calculative Devices.Björn Hammarfelt, Sarah de Rijcke & Paul Wouters - 2017 - Minerva 55 (4):391-411.
    Global university rankings have become increasingly important ‘calculative devices’ for assessing the ‘quality’ of higher education and research. Their ability to make characteristics of universities ‘calculable’ is here exemplified by the first proper university ranking ever, produced as early as 1910 by the American psychologist James McKeen Cattell. Our paper links the epistemological rationales behind the construction of this ranking to the sociopolitical context in which Cattell operated: an era in which psychology became institutionalized against the backdrop of the eugenics (...)
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