Desmond M. Clarke presents a thematic history of French philosophy from the middle of the sixteenth century to the beginning of Louis XIV's reign. While the traditional philosophy of the schools was taught throughout this period by authors who have faded into permanent obscurity, a whole generation of writers who were not professional philosophers--some of whom never even attended a school or college--addressed issues that were prominent in French public life. Clarke explores such topics as the novel political theory (...) espoused by monarchomachs against Bodin's account of absolute sovereignty; the scepticism of Montaigne, Charron, and Sanches; the ethical discussions of Du Vair, Gassendi, and Pascal; innovations in natural philosophy; theories of the human mind from Jean de Silhon to Cureau de la Chambre and Descartes; and novel arguments in support of women's education and equality. The writers involved were lawyers, political leaders, theologians, and independent scholars who acknowledged the authority of the Bible as a source of knowledge, while raising questions about faith and reason. (shrink)
Chapter 13 of "The Reception of Bodin" suggests that the new language of modern politics is not founded on reason of state alone, but on a permanent tension between the language of reason of state and the language of sovereignty. It considers, first, the significant position of Bodin, as both the inventor of modern sovereignty theory and a possible source for Botero's reason of state. It then turns towards the period of Cardinal Richelieu's ministry under Louis XIII (...) (1624-42), considering more particularly the relationship between Richelieu's conception of reason of state in his Testament politique and Cardin Le Bret's theorizing of the king's sovereignty in De la souveraineté du roi. What has become of Bodin's sovereignty in De la souveraineté du roi and in the Testament politique? What can explain that the distinction between sovereignty and reason of state is no longer perceived as such during that period? The author shows how the predominance of reason of state in Richelieu's period is in a way opposed by Hobbes in his De Cive, which was published in 1642, the year of Richelieu's death. That is not to say that Hobbes's De Cive can be seen as a direct answer to Richelieu, or that French conceptions of sovereignty, and in particular Bodin's, would supply the proper context for understanding Hobbes's political writings in 1642, when he had been an exile in France for two years, but to show that the tension within modern political language and thought between reason of state and sovereignty has been intellectually productive between Bodin and Hobbes in the French context of late Richelieu's ministry. (shrink)
It is a widely held belief that one can will to believe, disbelieve, and withhold belief concerning propositions. It is sometimes said that we have a duty to believe certain propositions. These theses have had a long and respected history. In one form or another they receive the support of a large number of philosophers and theologians who have written on the relationship of the will to believing. In the New Testament Jesus holds his disciples responsible for their beliefs, reprimands (...) them for doubting, and speaks of the ability to believe as if it were optional. Paul makes it clear that he thinks propositional belief is a necessary condition for salvation. If a man confesses Christ as Lord with his lips and believes in his heart that God has raised him from the dead, he shall be saved . The writer of Hebrews implies that unless we have certain propositional beliefs we cannot please God . In the New Testament most cases of pistis involve more than a propositional attitude. They involve the idea of trust and faithfulness. Nevertheless, a prima facie case for saying that the volitional theses can be found in the New Testament can be made. Forms of volitionalism can be found stated more explicitly in the writings of the early Church, in the writings of Irenaeus, in the Athanasian Creed, and in Augustine. Acquinas describes faith as an act of the intellect moved by the will. Descartes is perhaps the classic example of a volitionalist, holding that if we were not responsible for our beliefs , then God would be - which is tantamount to blasphemy in that it makes God into a deceiver. (shrink)
The St Bartholomew's Day Massacre of 1572 polarised French constitutional ideas. Appearing on one side was a radicalised version of the French constitution. On the other side was the theory of royal absolutism systematically developed by Bodin. The central thesis of this book is that Bodin's absolutism was as unprecedented as the doctrine it opposed. Prior to the 1570s the mainstream of the French tradition had been tentatively constitutionalist and Bodin himself had given strong expression to that (...) tendency in his Methodus of 1566. His earlier theory of sovereignty, elaborated in that work, was implicitly adapted to a notion of limited supremacy. Professor Franklin's aim is to explain how this absolutist view was formed. In doing so, he has clarified many of the notorious obscurities in Bodin's thought and since much of the absolutist doctrine of the seventeenth century was either based on Bodin's theory or relied on similar assumptions, this study will be of great importance and interest to scholars of a later period. (shrink)
In debate on faith and reason two opposing positions have dominated the field. The first position asserts that faith and reason are commensurable and the second position denies that assertion. Those holding to the first position differ among themselves as to the extent of the compatibility between faith and reason, most adherents relegating the compatibility to the ‘preambles of faith’ over against the ‘articles of faith’ . Few have maintained complete harmony between reason and faith, i.e. a religious belief within (...) the realm of reason alone. The second position divides into two sub-positions: that which asserts that faith is opposed to reason , placing faith in the area of irrationality; and that which asserts that faith is higher than reason, is transrational. Calvin and Barth assert that a natural theology is inappropriate because it seeks to meet unbelief on its own ground . Revelation, however, is ‘self-authenticating’, ‘carrying with it its own evidence’. 1 We may call this position the ‘transrationalist’ view of faith. Faith is not so much against reason as above it and beyond its proper domain. Actually, Kierkegaard shows that the two sub-positions are compatible. He holds both that faith is above reason and against reason . The irrationalist and transrationalist positions are sometimes hard to separate in the incommensurabilist's arguments. At least, it seems that faith gets such a high value that reason comes off looking not simply inadequate but culpable. To use reason where faith claims the field is not only inappropriate but irreverent or faithless. (shrink)
No figure among the western Marxist theoreticians has loomed larger in the postwar period than Louis Althusser. A rebel against the Catholic tradition in which he was raised, Althusser studied philosophy and later joined both the faculty of the Ecole normal superieure and the French Communist Party in 1948. Viewed as a "structuralist Marxist," Althusser was as much admired for his independence of intellect as he was for his rigorous defense of Marx. The latter was best illustrated in For (...) Marx (1965), and Reading Capital (1968). These works, along with Lenin and Philosophy (1971) had an enormous influence on the New Left of the 1960s and continues to influence modern Marxist scholarship. This classic work, which to date has sold more than 30,000 copies, covers the range of Louis Althusser's interests and contributions in philosophy, economics, psychology, aesthetics, and political science. Marx, in Althusser's view, was subject in his earlier writings to the ruling ideology of his day. Thus for Althusser, the interpretation of Marx involves a repudiation of all efforts to draw from Marx's early writings a view of Marx as a "humanist" and "historicist." Lenin and Philosophy also contains Althusser's essay on Lenin's study of Hegel; a major essay on the state, "Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses," "Freud and Lacan: A letter on Art in Reply to Andre Daspre," and "Cremonini, Painter of the Abstract." The book opens with a 1968 interview in which Althusser discusses his personal, political, and intellectual history. (shrink)
The similarities between madness and modernism are striking: defiance of convention, nihilism, extreme relativism, distortions of time, strange transformations of self, and much more. In this revised edition of a now classic work, Louis Sass, a clinical psychologist, offers a radically new vision of schizophrenia, comparing it with the works of such artists and writers as Kafka, Beckett, and Duchamp, and considering the ideas of philosophers including Nietzsche, Heidegger, Foucault, and Derrida. Here is a highly original portrait of the (...) world of insanity, along with a provocative commentary on modernist and postmodernist culture. (shrink)
This note corrects a lemma in the recent paper 1] of one of the authors by rst correcting problems with Poole's rule for speci city of arguments. It also responds to the criticism of Touretzky, et al. 9].
For several centuries prior to the founding of the Theosophical Society in 1875, individual 'theosophers' in Britain and Europe were quietly in touch with one another all seekers of the inward way. Theosophic Correspondence (1792 1797) is a series of inspiring letters, personal and philosophic, exchanged during the climactic days of the French Revolution between Kirchberger, member of the Sovereign Council at Berne, Switzerland, and Saint-Martin, whom Kirchberger regarded as 'the most eminent writer . . . and most profound of (...) his age'. (shrink)
In this essay, I compare and contrast how Boethius, the author of Beowulf, J. R. R. Tolkien, and C. S. Lewis found ways to integrate their Christian theological and philosophical beliefs into a work that is set in a time and place that possesses the general revelation of creation, conscience, reason, and desire, but lacks the special revelation of Christ and the Bible. I begin by using Lewis’s own analysis of the Consolation in his Discarded Image to discuss what it (...) means for a Christian author to write in a pre-Christian mode. I find a model for such writing in Ecclesiastes, and discuss how Boethius, while confining himself to the pagan wisdom of Greece and Rome, points the way from philosophical consolation to theological transformation. I then use Tolkien’s ‘Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics’ to unpack the distinction between the author’s Christian faith and the purely pagan consolation he offers to his characters, and locate that dynamic in the epic itself. Next, I explore how Tolkien, in imitation of Beowulf, balances a deep sense of loss and fatalism with an intimation of a higher providence guiding all. Finally, I show how Lewis, in imitation of Boethius, finds in the pagan world of his novel seeds of a greater revelation to come. (shrink)
Face à la croissante prévalence des maladies chroniques, notre santé est intrinsèquement liée à notre relation avec l’environnement. Elle ne dépend plus seulement de soins, mais aussi et surtout de sa prévention. L’alimentation est une interaction quotidienne avec l’environnement, elle peut soit contribuer à prévenir des maladies chroniques, soit les favoriser. Si s’alimenter représente un pouvoir d’agir au quotidien sur notre santé, ce pouvoir se retrouve contraint par des facteurs socioéconomiques, ainsi que largement influencé par des facteurs culturels. Les plus (...) précaires sont les plus affectés par les maladies chroniques, tout en ayant une alimentation susceptible de contribuer à leur développement. La sociologie de l’alimentation peut aider à élaborer une prévention adaptée, via l’étude des représentations alimentaires de ces populations. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the prevalence of infectious diseases has gradually decreased, while that of chronic diseases is growing exponentially: this phenomenon is known as the epidemiological transition. In this context, health is no longer to be understood as merely the absence of disease, but as a complex whole, also described as ‘environmental health’. Indeed our daily interactions with the environment in the long term are what will influence our health. Chronic diseases are difficult to cure: public health should no longer focus solely on care, but also and especially on prevention. Diet is particularly interesting in this context: it can be considered as a notable part of our interaction with the environment, on which each individual has the power to act, although under the constraint of economic factors and conditioned by culture. It can also be beneficial in preventing the development of chronic diseases, or harmful in promoting it. There are links between the growth of social inequalities in health and the prevalence of chronic diseases; the most socially disadvantaged populations are the most affected and are the greatest consumers of ultra-processed foods, which are identified as causing chronic diseases. Sociology can contribute to these issues by providing insight into the food and nutrition representations and behaviors of socially disadvantaged populations, ultimately to help develop appropriate prevention campaigns. (shrink)
Challenging the common conception of Jean Bodin as an ‘anti-Aristotelian’ thinker, this article places Bodin's political thought in the context of oeconomics—the science, or art of the household—as it had developed in medieval and Renaissance commentaries on Aristotle's practical philosophy. The article argues that he thereby took part in a longstanding discussion in European political thought which saw the household as possessing a political dimension. Bodin's thought on the family is central to both his universal claims pertaining (...) to his notion of the political and his more particular interest in sovereignty and the origins of absolutism. The article explores Bodin's analysis of the household as the starting point of his inquiry into the nature of a commonwealth and the foundation of his conception of the state; it examines the relationship of la police and l'oeconomie in detail, and argues that the conjugal relationship is the determinant for Bodin's conception of absolute rule and of the origins of supreme power. (shrink)
Professor Franklin shows how the humanist approach of Jean Bodin and other French jurists of the 16th century led to a break, at least in principle, with the intellectual authority of Roman law and to the attempt to reconstruct juristic science through a comparison and synthesis of all the juridical experience of the most famous states.
This article analyses the definition of sovereignty that Bodin provides in his 1576 Six livres de la république, which outlines sovereignty using French, Greek, Latin, Italian and Hebrew terms. It argues that, despite this attention to more than one language, Bodin wishes to present sovereignty as an unbound ideality beyond any and every language. Nevertheless, it is argued that Bodin in fact privileges the French souveraineté as that which sets up the analogical continuity between Greek, Latin, Italian (...) and Hebrew. Accordingly, the article tracks the importance of French for Bodin in the wake of the 1539 Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts, as well Bodin's claim that one of the ‘true marks of sovereignty’ is the power of the sovereign to change the language of his subjects. It ends by suggesting that the status of the exception in translation is not a species of sovereign exception, as Jean-Luc Nancy proposes, but a matter of linguistic justice. (shrink)
The need for quantitative measurement represents a unifying bond that links all the physical, biological, and social sciences. Measurements of such disparate phenomena as subatomic masses, uncertainty, information, and human values share common features whose explication is central to the achievement of foundational work in any particular mathematical science as well as for the development of a coherent philosophy of science. This book presents a theory of measurement, one that is "abstract" in that it is concerned with highly general axiomatizations (...) of empirical and qualitative settings and how these can be represented quantitatively. It was inspired by, and represents a generalization and extension of, the last major research work in this field, Foundations of Measurement Vol. I, by Krantz, Luce, Suppes, and Tversky published in 1971. (shrink)
This essay reconsiders Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s debt to Jean Bodin, on the basis of Daniel Lee’s recent revision of Bodin as a theorist of popular sovereignty. It argues that Rousseau took a key feature of his own theory of democratic sovereignty from Bodin—namely, the dual identity of political members as both citizens and subjects of the state. It further makes the case that this dual identity originates in medieval corporatist law, which Bodin was summarizing. Finally, it demonstrates (...) the lasting impact of corporatist law in eighteenth-century France, highlighting Rousseau’s direct borrowings from the corporatist language and logic of contemporary commercial societies. In this regard, the article revisits and updates Otto von Gierke’s classic argument about the origins of the state in corporatist thought. (shrink)