Philosophers debate over the truth of the Doctrine of Doing and Allowing, the thesis that there is a morally significant difference between doing harm and merely allowing harm to happen. Deontologists tend to accept this doctrine, whereas consequentialists tend to reject it. A robust defence of this doctrine would require a conceptual distinction between doing and allowing that both matches our ordinary use of the concepts in a wide range of cases and enables a justification for the alleged moral difference. (...) In this article, I argue not only that a robust defence of this doctrine is available, but also that it is available within a consequentialist framework. (shrink)
This paper is an attempt to improve the practical argument for beliefs in God. Some theists, most famously Kant and William James, called our attention to a particular set of beliefs, the Jamesian-type beliefs, which are justified by virtue of their practical significance, and these theists tried to justify theistic beliefs on the exact same ground. I argue, contra the Jamesian tradition, that theistic beliefs are different from the Jamesian-type beliefs and thus cannot be justified on the same ground. I (...) also argue that the practical argument, as it stands, faces a problem of self-defeat. I then construct a new practical argument that avoids both problems. According to this new argument, theistic beliefs are rational to accept because such beliefs best supply us with motivation strong enough to carry out demanding moral tasks. (shrink)
A frequent caveat in online dating profiles – “No fats, femmes, or Asians” – caused an LGBT activist to complain about the bias against Asians in the American gay community, which he called “racial looksism”. In response, he was asked that, if he himself would not date a fat person, why he should find others not dating Asians so upsetting. This response embodies a popular attitude that personal preferences or tastes are simply personal matters – they are not subject to (...) moral evaluation. In this paper, I argue, against this popular attitude, that a personal preference like racial looksism is indeed wrong. A preference like racial looksism is wrong because it is an overgeneralization that disrespects individuality by treating people as exchangeable tokens of one type, and such disrespect denies its objects appreciation that their dignity entitles them to. As it turns out, there is on my account a relevant moral difference between racial looksism and simple looksism. (shrink)
We have assessed the genetic types of hydrocarbon gas in the Fangzheng Basin by analyzing the effects of geologic settings on gas generation, kerogen types in source rocks, gas compositions, stable carbon isotopes of individual alkanes, and biomarkers in gas-associated oil. The primary compounds of source rocks in the Eocene Xinancun Formation and Paleocene Wuyun Formation are found as type II and III kerogens, respectively. The hydrocarbon gas in the Fangzheng Basin can be classified into three families. Family I is (...) affected by biodegradation, and it is dry gas generated from low-maturity lacustrine mudstones of the Xinancun Formation. Family II is coal-derived wet gas accompanied by oil, and it is typically generated by type III kerogen of mudstones in coal measures of the Wuyun Formation. Family III is mixed-type wet gas whose primary compound is oil-associated gas, and it is mainly generated by type II kerogen in the Xinancun Formation and partly from type III kerogen in the Wuyun Formation in the Daluomi Uplift. The family I and II hydrocarbon gases are located in the Zhuozhugang Sag. Family III hydrocarbon gas was formed in the mixing process of different genesis gas through the active faults because the late Miocene transpressional strength of uplift in the DLM Uplift was more intense than that in the ZSG Sag after the development of increased accommodation space coeval with intrabasinal rifting before Oligocene. (shrink)
As an unconventional resource, shale reservoirs recently have attracted considerable attention in the petroleum industry. Shale plays are highly heterogenous vertically and laterally and are characterized by rapid changes in mineral composition. Thus, identification of dominant lithofacies is a key issue in the development of shale oil and gas reservoirs. In this study, various existing lithofacies in a shale section as a target unit in the Qingshankou Formation are divided based on organic matter content, sedimentary structure, and mineral composition. To (...) delineate the electrofacies from the log, the multiresolution graph-based clustering is used to optimize the conventional logs that are sensitive to the electrofacies clustering analyses. Based on the principle of lithofacies identification, the electrofacies are artificially related to the lithofacies as well. This was done by analyzing the petrophysical characteristics of various shale lithofacies, to enable obtaining the main log parameters for the facies of the lacustrine shale section understudy. The results showed that by considering the underlying geologic criterion of each lithofacies, the MRGC method is able to correlate geophysical characteristics of each identified electrofacies for an optimal selection of six lithofacies. (shrink)
One type of soft-line reply to manipulation arguments, which I call ‘the another-agent reply’, focuses on the existence of some controlling agent and how this can undermine the actor's moral responsibility. A well-known challenge to this type of reply is the so-called ‘machine induction’ case. This paper provides an argument for why ‘machine induction’ presents no real challenge to the another-agent reply. It further argues that any soft-liner who does not leave room for the existence of some controlling agent in (...) their explanation of why manipulation undermines responsibility will face a dilemma. Thus, instead of presenting a challenge to the another-agent reply, ‘machine induction’ actually presents a reason in support of it. (shrink)
In a recent article, Xiaofei Liu seeks to defend, from the standpoint of consequentialism, the Doctrine of Doing and Allowing: DDA. While there are various conceptions of DDA, Liu understands it as the view that it is more difficult to justify doing harm than allowing harm. Liu argues that a typical harm doing involves the production of one more evil and one less good than a typical harm allowing. Thus, prima facie, it takes a greater amount of good to (...) justify doing a certain harm than it does to justify allowing that same harm. In this reply, I argue that Liu fails to show, from within a consequentialist framework, that there is an asymmetry between the evils produced by doing and allowing harm. I conclude with some brief remarks on what may establish such an asymmetry. (shrink)
It will be settled out for the open problem of designing an r-order finite-time state observer for reaction-diffusion genetic regulatory networks with time-varying delays. By assuming the Dirichlet boundary conditions, aiming to estimate the mRNA and protein concentrations via available network measurements. Firstly, sufficient F-T stability conditions for the filtering error system have been investigated via constructing an appropriate Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional and using several integral inequalities and convex technique simultaneously. These conditions are delay-dependent and reaction-diffusion-dependent and can be checked by (...) MATLAB toolbox. Furthermore, a method is proposed to design an r-order F-T state observer, and the explicit expressions of observer gains are given. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. (shrink)
The processes in construction are more likely than others to breed unsafe behaviors, and the consequences of these actions can be serious. This paper first reviews the research status on unsafe behavior in construction teams. It then analyzes the complex mechanisms that lead to unsafe behavior and constructs a three-layer structural model based on agent-based modeling technology. This modeling deals with complexity and elaborates on key points and potential research ideas in the study of unsafe behavior in construction teams. Using (...) the ABM method, the effects of different incentive strategies on the safe behavior of construction teams under different management scenarios were studied. The results showed that when members have a fair perception of the situation, the effect of the excess performance reward distribution, according to the member’s safety awareness level, is better than the average distribution effect. This is the case whether the member’s safety behavior level is positively or negatively related to the member’s safety awareness level. This study proves the feasibility, validity, and universality of the three-layer structural model. It also reaches certain management conclusions and ideas for further development. The purpose of this paper is to provide a reference for research on the containment and prevention of unsafe behavior in construction teams. (shrink)
New Confucianism is comparative philosophy par excellence. It stands or falls with the validity of the comparisons its thinkers have made regarding Western and Asian religious and philosophical systems and conceptions. Yet comparative philosophy and comparative religion in and beyond Asia have recently received criticisms. Questions that have been raised include: is it not a fallacy to take Asian philosophy and religion out of their historical and social contexts and to present them as unchanging entities? Are the across-space-and-time comparisons between (...) Asian and Western philosophy and religion far-fetched and forced? To answer these questions, this paper presents a case study of comparative philosophy: Mou Zongsan’s post-Kantian Confucian metaphysics. After showcasing Mou, in the second part of this paper I shall consider the validity of comparative philosophy in general and the implications to my appraisal of Mou in particular. (shrink)
The “Asian disease” problem (Tversky & Kahneman, 1981) demonstrated behaviour in contradiction to the invariance axiom of EU theory. However, the risky choice behaviour was simply seen by the equate-to-differentiate model as a choice between the best possible outcomes or a choice between the worst possible outcomes. It was then argued that a way in which frame influences choice is through the perceived difference between possible outcomes. A “judgement” task was designed to examine whether the knowledge of “the value difference (...) between each possible outcome and the certain outcome” will permit prediction of preference in the choice pattern related to the Asian disease problem. Participants were exposed to an anthrax disease problem (the original or probabilistic version of the Asian disease problem) and a SARS problem (the fuzzy version of the Asian disease problem). It was shown that the empirical evidence in relation to the Asian disease problem could be satisfactorily accounted for by the generalised weak dominance strategy revealed by the judgement results. (shrink)
In _Sino-Theology and the Philosophy of History_ Leopold Leeb presents the ideas of an influential Chinese intellectual, Liu Xiaofeng, whose approach to the question of a Christian theology for China is both controversial and inspiring.
It is the continuity between epistemology and empirical science that the naturalism in contemporary philosophy of science emphasizes. After its individual and social dimensions, the philosophy of scientific practice takes a stand on naturalism in order to observe complex scientific activities through practice. However, regarding the naturalism’s problem of normativity, the philosophy of scientific practice today has deconstructed more than it has constructed.
This paper studies the dependence structure and information spillover effect between the RMB exchange rate and the Chinese stock market based on the R-vine copula model and spillover index model. The results show that due to the occurrence of the trade war, the correlation between the three RMB exchange rate indicators and the two stock market indicators increases in varying degrees. In the intensity of spillover, the information spillover of the stock market to the RMB exchange rate is significantly enhanced, (...) and the information spillover intensity of the RMB Index to the stock market increases, but the information spillover of the US dollar and Hong Kong dollar exchange rates to the stock market is significantly weakened. In the direction of spillover, the spillover of the RMB Index and stock market shows the characteristics of alternating transformation, while the exchange rate of a single currency and the stock market shows a one-way transmission from the stock market to the exchange rate. Additionally, the information spillover between the RMB exchange rate and the stock market is closely related to the degree of market openness. The RMB Index contains more information than the exchange rate of a single currency. (shrink)
The Ministry of Health in China has enacted a revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTP) guidelines and clinical pathway (CP) on new smear‐positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) inpatients to improve the quality of TB care and asked doctors' compliance to them on the treatment of TB inpatients. However, it remains unknown whether doctors adhere to them well. So this study focuses on evaluating the doctors' compliance with them in one representative TB hospital for medical quality improvement.
There is a long-standing disagreement in the philosophy of probability and Bayesian decision theory about whether an agent can hold a meaningful credence about an upcoming action, while she deliberates about what to do. Can she believe that it is, say, 70% probable that she will do A, while she chooses whether to do A? No, say some philosophers, for Deliberation Crowds Out Prediction (DCOP), but others disagree. In this paper, we propose a valid core for DCOP, and identify terminological (...) causes for some of the apparent disputes. (shrink)
Can an agent deliberating about an action A hold a meaningful credence that she will do A? 'No', say some authors, for 'Deliberation Crowds Out Prediction' (DCOP). Others disagree, but we argue here that such disagreements are often terminological. We explain why DCOP holds in a Ramseyian operationalist model of credence, but show that it is trivial to extend this model so that DCOP fails. We then discuss a model due to Joyce, and show that Joyce's rejection of DCOP rests (...) on terminological choices about terms such as 'intention', 'prediction', and 'belief'. Once these choices are in view, they reveal underlying agreement between Joyce and the DCOP-favouring tradition that descends from Ramsey. Joyce's Evidential Autonomy Thesis (EAT) is effectively DCOP, in different terminological clothing. Both principles rest on the so-called 'transparency' of first-person present-tensed reflection on one's own mental states. (shrink)
In this paper we explore the relationship between norms of belief revision that may be adopted by members of a community and the resulting dynamic properties of the distribution of beliefs across that community. We show that at a qualitative level many aspects of social belief change can be obtained from a very simple model, which we call ‘threshold influence’. In particular, we focus on the question of what makes the beliefs of a community stable under various dynamical situations. We (...) also consider refinements and alternatives to the ‘threshold’ model, the most significant of which is to consider changes to plausibility judgements rather than mere beliefs. We show first that some such change is mandated by difficult problems with belief-based dynamics related to the need to decide on an order in which different beliefs are considered. Secondly, we show that the resulting plausibility-based account results in a deterministic dynamical system that is non-deterministic at the level of beliefs. (shrink)
: Confucianism is often valued as a doctrine that highlights both the individual and social dimensions of the ideal person, for it indeed puts special emphasis on such lofty goals as loving all humanity and cultivating the self. Through a close and critical analysis of the texts of the Analects and the Mencius, however, it is attempted to demonstrate that because Confucius and Mencius always take filial piety, or, more generally, consanguineous affection, as not only the foundation but also the (...) supreme principle of human life, the individual and social dimensions are inevitably subordinated to and substantially negated by the filial precisely within the Confucian framework, with the result that Confucianism in essence is neither collectivism nor individualism, but "consanguinitism.". (shrink)
_An Introduction to Chinese Philosophy_ unlocks the mystery of ancient Chinese philosophy and unravels the complexity of Chinese Buddhism by placing them in the contemporary context of discourse. Elucidates the central issues and debates in Chinese philosophy, its different schools of thought, and its major philosophers. Covers eight major philosophers in the ancient period, among them Confucius, Laozi, and Zhuangzi. Illuminates the links between different schools of philosophy. Opens the door to further study of the relationship between Chinese and Western (...) philosophy. (shrink)
Two alternative accounts of quantum spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) are compared and one of them, the decompositional account in the algebraic approach, is argued to be superior for understanding quantum SSB. Two exactly solvable models are given as applications of our account -- the Weiss-Heisenberg model for ferromagnetism and the BCS model for superconductivity. Finally, the decompositional account is shown to be more conducive to the causal explanation of quantum SSB.
In this paper, we first propose a simple formal language to specify types of agents in terms of necessary conditions for their announcements. Based on this language, types of agents are treated as ‘first-class citizens’ and studied extensively in various dynamic epistemic frameworks which are suitable for reasoning about knowledge and agent types via announcements and questions. To demonstrate our approach, we discuss various versions of Smullyan’s Knights and Knaves puzzles, including the Hardest Logic Puzzle Ever (HLPE) proposed by Boolos (...) (in Harv Rev Philos 6:62–65, 1996). In particular, we formalize HLPE and verify a classic solution to it. Moreover, we propose a spectrum of new puzzles based on HLPE by considering subjective (knowledge-based) agent types and relaxing the implicit epistemic assumptions in the original puzzle. The new puzzles are harder than the previously proposed ones in the literature, in the sense that they require deeper epistemic reasoning. Surprisingly, we also show that a version of HLPE in which the agents do not know the others’ types does not have a solution at all. Our formalism paves the way for studying these new puzzles using automatic model checking techniques. (shrink)