Descartes is often presented as the "father" of modern subjectivity, because of his identification of thinking and being (cogito ergo sum).However, the autonomy of the cogito rests for its validation on the idea of the infinite. Consequently, what is the relation between the subject and that idea? This article tries to elucidate the complex role of an idea which, as Descartes himself seemed to admit, is very ambiguous, being "cognoscibilis et effabilis" and "ineffabilis et incomprehensibilis" at the same time. This (...) ambiguity, as is argued, determines the very nature of the "Cartesian subject" as such, and that Descartes describes as being "something intermediate between God and nothingness". What is this "between"? (shrink)
Max Weber's century old thesis on christian ethics and the spirit of capitalism, has been the object of an endless discussion. This has much to do with the interest of the author: Weber was neither intrigued by the fact of a connection between protestantism and capitalism, nor by the influence of Calvinism on the development of the modern capitalism. His interest, however, was exclusively focused on the question 'how can the relation between protestant ethic and capitalism be conceived and reconstructed'. (...) We try to explain many misconceptions by recovering what Weber really has said. Therefore the concepts of 'spirit of capitalism' and 'protestant ethic' are clarified and discussed. First, the spirit of capitalism is not an economic system, but an ethos. The definition of it in respect with the content, the motivation, the aim, and morality is elaborated in a comparison with the commercial ethos of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. This makes clear that Weber's first concern was an analysis of the origin of the modern spirit, not as an intellectual construction, but as an expression of behavior. Second, we investigate what is meant by the terms 'protestantism' and 'ethics' and what the religious roots of the new spirit are: innerworldly ascetism, the notion of calling, and the concepts of wealth and poverty. It is no wonder that there was a lot of criticism because Weber's writings on the above topic were situated on the crossroads of sociology, theology, history and economy. We present and comment on the main criticisms: protestantism rejects capitalism; the spirit of capitalism is much older than the Reformation; there is no monocausal relation between the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism; the role of catholicism in this development was as/more important in the rise of capitalism. Most of these criticisms result from a superficial presentation of Weber's writings and explanations in his own Anticritics, and don't do justice to Weber's 'idealtypische' and 'verstehende' approach. This approach was not intended to give a complete and exhaustive 'last' explanation of the essence of a social phenomenon. (shrink)
This article (in two parts : first part in Tijdschrift voor Filosofie , Vol. 43 (1981), p. 235-268) is an analysis and interpretation of Hegel's „definition” of spirit in Encyclopedia A. 299-302 and BC. 381-384. It reconstructs the argumentation from which this definition results, shows the coherence of these sections and clarifies their structure.
There has recently been a wave of attempts to make sense of the role of de se thoughts in linguistic communication. A majority of the attempts assume a Perryan or a Lewisian view of de se thought. Views with these assumptions, I suggest, come in four varieties: uncentering (Egan 2007, Kölbel 2013, Moss 2012), recentering (Heim 2004, Weber 2012), multicentering (Kindermann 2014, Ninan 2010, Torre 2009), and no centering (Kaplan 1989, Perry 1979). I argue first that all four varieties of (...) centering are committed to what I call a shifting operation on the hearer's part. I argue second that, against common assumption, there is no real choice to make between the views. By showing that attempts to establish an advantage for some view over the others fail across the board, I make the case for neutralism regarding the varieties of centering – the claim that coverage of the empirical data is exactly the same for each view, and that the views are broadly equal in simplicity and elegance. (shrink)
In vrijwel iedere mythologie zijn verhalen te vinden die de relatie tussen het vergaren van kennis en noodlottigheid aangeven. Kennis komt volgens zulke verhalen voort uit ongehoorzaamheid en onwettigheid. Toch is het najagen van kennis ook de bekrachtiging van menselijke voortreffelijkheid. Maar, zo zegt Steiner in een lofzang op het leven van de geest, we moeten ons er altijd terdege van bewust zijn dat het antwoord op onze vragen fout, ideologisch of gecorrumpeerd kan zijn, zoals de geschiedenis talloze gruwelijke (...) keren heeft uitgewezen. We mogen ons dan ook nooit tevreden stellen met antwoorden die voorbijgaan aan dat onvatbare van de verschrikking en het kwaad. (shrink)
This study is an analysis and interpretation of § 377, with which Hegel opens, in the second and the third edition of his Encyclopedia, his philosophy of spirit. By comparing this text with earlier fragments of an introduction to the philosophy of spirit, which are also analysed and interpreted, this article is at the same time a contribution to the genetic study of Hegel's system. Although the interpretation presented here tries to explain every detail of § 377, particular stress is (...) put upon 1) the radical unity of true selfknowledge and the knowledge of the Absolute, and 2) the logical structure of Hegel's thought as expressed in the analysed texts. (shrink)
ABSTRACT. The received picture of linguistic communication understands communication as the transmission of information from speaker's head to hearer's head. This picture is in conflict with the attractive Lewisian view of belief as self-location, which is motivated by de se attitudes – first-personal attitudes about oneself – as well as attitudes about subjective matters such as personal taste. In this paper, I provide a solution to the conflict that reconciles these views. I argue for an account of mental attitudes and (...) communication on which mental content and speech act content is understood as sets of multicentered worlds – roughly, possible worlds ‘centered’ on a sequence of individuals at a time. I develop a Stalnakerian model of communication based on multicentered worlds content, and I provide a suitable semantics for personal pronouns and predicates of personal taste. The resulting picture is one on which the point of conversation is the coordination of individual perspectives. (shrink)
BackgroundPediatric oncology has a strong research culture. Most pediatric oncologists are investigators, involved in clinical care as well as research. As a result, a remarkable proportion of children with cancer enrolls in a trial during treatment. This paper discusses the ethical consequences of the unprecedented integration of research and care in pediatric oncology from the perspective of parents and physicians.MethodologyAn empirical ethical approach, combining a narrative review of qualitative studies on parents' and physicians' experiences of the pediatric oncology research practice, (...) and comparison of these experiences with existing theoretical ethical concepts about research. The use of empirical evidence enriches these concepts by taking into account the peculiarities that ethical challenges pose in practice.ResultsAnalysis of the 22 studies reviewed revealed that the integration of research and care has consequences for the informed consent process, the promotion of the child's best interests, and the role of the physician . True consent to research is difficult to achieve due to the complexity of research protocols, emotional stress and parents' dependency on their child's physician. Parents' role is to promote their child's best interests, also when they are asked to consider enrolling their child in a trial. Parents are almost never in equipoise on trial participation, which leaves them with the agonizing situation of wanting to do what is best for their child, while being fearful of making the wrong decision. Furthermore, a therapeutic misconception endangers correct assessment of participation, making parents inaccurately attribute therapeutic intent to research procedures. Physicians prefer the perspective of a therapist over a researcher. Consequently they may truly believe that in the research setting they promote the child's best interests, which maintains the existence of a therapeutic misconception between them and parents.ConclusionDue to the integration of research and care, their different ethical perspectives become intertwined in the daily practice of pediatric oncology. Increasing awareness of what this means for the communication between parents and physicians is essential. Future research should focus on efforts that overcome the problems that the synchronicity of research and care evokes. (shrink)
En este artículo, partiendo de un análisis del "De beata uita" y del "Praeceptum", el autor quiere demostrar que las directrices de la antigua filosofía tuvieron un efecto más prolongado sobre Agustín, más allá de lo que puedan aportarnos los estudios sobre su punto de vista sobre la gracia o incluso sus propias palabras en "Confessiones".