Partindo do questionamento acerca daorigem da confiança de Agostinho na objetivida-de inerente à subjetividade humana, ligada essen-cialmente à pergunta pela verdade, o autor desen-volve o modo como Agostinho realiza a passagemdo não-eu para 0 eu, enfocando a investigação deAgostinho sobre a liberdade do ser humano e so-bre a perda da liberdade, bem como o modo comoo ser humano experimenta o desejo, a desordeme a violência do seu próprio eu, podendo perdê-lo.
The article reflects, 1) by way of introduction, on the ontological dimension of event, starting from a phenomenology of birth, as a key to a methodological widening of the exercising of reason and to a broadening of its subject-matter. With this aim, and as a whole, this article moves mainly through the thought of Claude Romano, also picking up precise commentaries of Paul Ricoeur's and Romano Guardini's. Then, it deals with the difference and the relation between "fact" and "event", briefly (...) analyzing the theme's anticipation in decisive instances of philosophical tradition, in which reason's competence is acclaimed . 3) Inasmuch as being born from and for event, concerns appropriately only the self [as I], an inquiry about the rigorous and non transferable conceptual meaning corresponding to the word "self"[as I] is carried out, starting from the experience of self: transcendental and existential. Event, inherent to the complete human dynamics, opens finitude up from top to bottom, and is, as such, transgression of the totality of existence in finitude ; this derives into the correlation of event, transfiguration of the world and exceptionality of the self as upcoming. 5) The mutual implication among ontology of birth, broadening of reason and expansion of freedom finally leads to reflect upon the enigma of ipseity, which is impossible starting from sameness and only eventual from alterity/otherness. The bond between alterity and birth raises the issue of the relation, as regards the [subject] arrived-at-the-world, between the history and his/her history. Being born and existing in the ontological dimension of event is to exceed every power of appropriation, self- as much as others'. In reference to the alterity of the immemorial and non appropriable past, birth opens the upcoming self up to a prospect further than any project, and in doing so, takes the base off future-to-come, to which no limit can be set for it belongs to the regime of event.El artículo reflexiona, 1) a modo de introducción, sobre la dimensión ontológica del acontecimiento, desde una fenomenología del nacimiento, como clave para una ampliación metodológica y temática del ejercicio de la razón. El conjunto de este artículo transita, para ello, principalmente a través del pensamiento Claude Romano, retomando también puntuales acotaciones de Paul Ricoeur y Romano Guardini. 2) Trata luego la diferencia y la relación entre "hecho" y "acontecimiento", analizando brevemente la anticipación del tema en instancias decisivas de la tradición filosófica, donde la competencia de la razón es exaltada . 3) Puesto que nacer desde y para el acontecimiento concierne propiamente sólo al yo, se indaga sobre el significado conceptual riguroso e intransferible correspondiente a la palabra "yo", a partir de la experiencia de sí: trascendental y existencial. 4) El acontecimiento, inherente a toda la dinámica humana, abre de punta a punta la finitud y, como tal, es transgresión de la totalización de la existencia en la finitud ; esto deriva en la correlación entre acontecimiento, transfiguración del mundo y excepcionalidad del yo, como adveniente. 5) La mutua implicación entre ontología del nacimiento, ampliación de la razón y expansión de la libertad conduce, finalmente, a reflexionar sobre el enigma de la ipseidad imposible desde la mismidad y sólo eventual desde la alteridad. El vínculo entre alteridad y nacimiento plantea la relación, en el venido-al-mundo, entre la historia y su historia. Nacer y existir en la dimensión ontológica del acontecimiento es exceder todo poder de apropiación, propia y de otros. Referido a la alteridad del pasado inmemorial e inapropiable, el nacimiento abre el adveniente a un porvenir más adelante que todo proyecto y, así, desfonda también el porvenir, al que no se puede poner límite porque está en régimen de acontecimiento. (shrink)
The abandoned question of the historical subject from the merely negative and rather superficial deconstructions made by mega-narrations belonging to the latest modern philosophy retakes its philosophic actuality at the moment of so-called globalization, coinciding with a general decadence of po..
Para Rawls el problema de la filosofía política es la existencia duradera y estable de la sociedad democrática, profundamente dividida en la instancia cultural. El concepto de ciudadano implica epokhé sobre las identificaciones y la justicia como equidad discrimina uso público y privado de la ..
La abandonada cuestión del sujeto histórico desde la des-construcción meramente negativa y algo superficial de los mega-relatos propios de la filosofía moderna culminante, retoma su actualidad filosófica en el momento de la denominada globalización, coincidente con una general decadencia de la cultura y de la responsabilidad políticas. La mencionada cuestión es acuciante para quienes, por diversas razones, no se conforman con el desconcierto o no pueden quedar conformados en él, sea por la conciencia de la tarea que la existencia histórica (...) implica, sea por el apremio que recibe su posición de algún modo determinante en la historia contemporánea. El A. aborda el tema desde un planteo preliminar -dividido en dos partes- que intenta primero demostrar, desde el actual redimensionamiento de la decisiva importancia de la sociedad civil para una democracia viva, la necesidad de abordar el sentido de la configuración del sujeto histórico; en segundo lugar, muestra lo decisivo de una recapitulación, en paralelo con lo anterior, de la experiencia fundante y de las tesis básicas que determinaron el potente resurgimiento moderno de esta cuestión, bajo el signo del "sujeto colectivo", para deslindar el horizonte de un nuevo tratamiento de la misma. The abandoned issue of the historical subject since the merely negative and somewhat superficial de-construction of the mega-narration proper of the uppermost modern philosophy, retakes its philosphical actuality at the moment of the so called globalization, coincident with a general decadence of the political culture and responsability. This matter is pressing for those who, for different reasons, do not adjust themselves to the bewilderment or cannot agree with it, either because of the concience of the task that historical existence implies, or because of the pressure that its position, in some way determinating, recieves in contemporary history. A. approaches the subject from a preliminary raising of the -divided in two parts- that tries to demonstrate first, from the actual redimensioning of the decisive importance of the civil society for an alive democracy, the necesity to approach the sense of the configuration of the historical subject; secondly, it shows the decisiveness of a recapitulation, in connection with the previous matter of the founding experience and of the basic theses that determinated the powerful modern revival of this question, under the sign of the "colective subject", to define the horizon of a new tratement of it. (shrink)
The present work speaks about the antinomy in the binominal faith-reason and brings the theme of the mobile and live unity of the reason in its opening to the whole and its anchoring in the experience. The implication of the freedom in the basic disposition of reason conditions and makes responsi..
Giuseppe Fornari’s groundbreaking inquiry shows that Friedrich Nietzsche’s neglected importance as a religious thinker and his “untimeliness” place him at the forefront of modern thought. Capable of exploiting his own failures as a cognitive tool to discover what other philosophers never wanted to see, Nietzsche ultimately drove himself to mental collapse. Fornari analyzes the tragic reports of Nietzsche’s madness and seeks out the cause of this self-destructive destiny, which, he argues, began earlier than his rivalry with the composer (...) and polemicist Richard Wagner, dating back to the premature loss of Nietzsche’s father. Dramatic experience enabled Nietzsche to detect a more general tendency of European culture, leading to his archaeological and prophetic discovery of the death of God, which he understood as a primordial assassination from which all humankind took its origin. Fornari concludes that Nietzsche’s fatal rebellion against a Christian awareness, which he identified as the greatest threat to his plan, led him to become one and the same not only with Dionysus but also with the crucified Christ. His effort, Fornari argues, was a dramatic way to recognize the silent, inner meaning of Christ’s figure, and perhaps to be forgiven. (shrink)
Although social justice is an integral component of medical professionalism, there is little discussion in medical education about how to teach it to future physicians. Using adult learning theory and the work of Brazilian educator Paulo Freire, medical educators can teach a socially-conscious professionalism through educational content and teaching strategies. Such teaching can model non-hierarchical relationships to learners, which can translate to their clinical interactions with patients. Freirian teaching can additionally foster professionalism in both teachers and learners by ensuring that (...) they are involved citizens in their local, national and international communities. (shrink)
125. The madman. Have you not heard of that madman who lighted a lantern at the bright sunshine of the morning, ran to the market, and began ceaselessly screaming: "I seek God! I seek God!"?This present essay is a shortened and adapted version of the first chapter of a large book of mine devoted to a comparison between ancient Greece and Christianity, shortly to be published in English by Michigan State University Press. Its theoretical core is the idea of mediation, (...) that is to say, the intangible connective element acting as a medium capable of linking humans to the world and the divine sphere that made the world possible in ancient times2. All this is related to our experience of object meant not only as a... (shrink)
En Humanismo burgués y humanismo proletario, publicado por primera vez en 1938, Aníbal Ponce examina dos concepciones contrapuestas del humanismo. Entre los muchos méritos del estudio de Ponce se pueden destacar tres en particular. En primer lugar, el análisis de Ponce pone de manifiesto que el huma..
En el texto abordamos la trayectoria del pensador peruano Aníbal Quijano y cómo es que llegó a la formulación por la que se le conoce, el par explicativo modernidad/colonialidad. Proponemos una lectura problematizadora de su itinerario intelectual recuperando una metáfora recurrente y altamente propositiva en su planteamiento, la alegoría explicativa del nudo. Consideramos que esta figura tiene una potencialidad múltiple, tanto en la dimensión epistémico-filosófica como político-cultural.
Why is it so important to study Nietzsche? Many works about Nietzsche’s thought have been published over the years, from every conceivable position, including analytical philosophy.1 One more essay on Nietzsche may seem a bit repetitive. Yet, as Giuseppe Fornari wrote in the preface of Il Caso Nietzsche (The Nietzsche Case), it is fundamental to analyze Nietzsche deeply, because the most important themes of his works are still hidden among the pages of his books.2 René Girard has made an (...) original contribution to understanding Nietzsche by underlining the close connections between Nietzsche’s philosophy and the personal relationships he established during his life. In particular, Girard’s .. (shrink)
Philosophy and the Frontiers of the Political is the title of a biographical-theoretical interview between Emanuela Fornari and Étienne Balibar. The interview falls into three parts. The first part retraces the theoretical and intellectual climate in which Balibar received his education in the early 1960s: in this context the study of classical thinkers such as Spinoza went hand in hand with a radical rethinking of the relations between politics and philosophy, conducted in the context of an attempt to provide (...) a critical reconstruction of Marxism that drew upon the revolutionary perspective of structuralism. Through his friendship and association with his teacher Louis Althusser, Balibar developed a specific conception of philosophy as a "Kampfplatz," or battle-field, where we must struggle to forge a significant relationship between theory and practice, or between philosophy and politics. The second part of the interview focusses on questions of European nationalism and "neo-racism," and the way in which these questions come to explode the classical perspective of Marxism. In this context Balibar discusses his intellectual relations with Jacques Derrida and with Immanuel Wallerstein, and his attitude to the latter's theory of the "system-world." Balibar explains how his own conception of the relation between ideological formations and processes of accumulation can be described as a disjunctive synthesis: as a heterogeneous union of problems that have no determining "final instance." Finally, the third part of the interview is dedicated to a discussion of "cosmopolitics" and the role of Europe in the transition from the modern system of nation states to the new transnational and postnational constellation. Balibar's approach essentially undertakes to reactivate, in the context of global modernity, a Machiavellian conception of "conflictual democracy" which identifies the very core of the democratic principle in the constant interaction between the logic of conflict and the logic of institutions. (shrink)
An important source for 19th century church history is conserved in the Acta Episcoporum Brugensium of the Archive of the Diocese of Bruges. The Acta of Bishop Jean-Baptist Malou contain the transcripts of some letters and a rather lengthy report, dated July 10, 1852: Notes sur les erreurs nouvelles, contraires à la religion révélée, à ses dogmes, à sa morale. Ecoles qui méritent une attention spéciale. It appears that this text was to be sent to the Consultors on the (...) class='Hi'>Fornari Commission in Rome, who at that time were preparing a draft for the Bull on the Immaculate Conception, and who wanted to insert a solemn condemnation of modern errors. Towards that end, the Commission contacted several outstanding scholars all over Europe. Though the identity of these scholars is known, the response of the marquis Donoso Cortes was the only one known until now. The particular contribution of this article is to also make known the full text of the response of the Bishop of Bruges, and the related correspondence. In addition, when compared with the documentation already known, these documents help to clarify the rather confusing history of the earliest efforts to draft a Syllabus Errorum. For example, it appears that immediately after the revolution of 1848, some of the scholars contacted by the Commission in June of 1852, and by Fornari in August of the same year, were not prepared at that time to devote their efforts to a condemnation of errors. Secondly, it seems that a substantial discussion of what was intended to be the second chapter of the Bull unduly delayed the proclamation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, and so the Syllabus project was subsequently postponed. (shrink)