The article suggests that the four-factor model of corporate citizenship (CC: economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary responsibilities) does not fairly represent all pertinent dimensions of employees’ CC perceptions. Based on an empirical study with a sample of 316 employees, we show that, at least in some contexts, individuals distinguish seven CC dimensions: (1) economic responsibilities toward customers; (2) economic responsibilities toward owners; (3) legal responsibilities; (4) ethical responsibilities; (5) discretionary responsibilities toward employees; (6) discretionary responsibilities toward the community; and (7) (...) discretionary responsibilities toward the natural environment. We do not suggest that this seven-factor model represents all of the (more) relevant CC dimensions in the employees’ minds. We aim to share evidence showing that the four-factor model proposed by Maignan et al. (Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 27(4):455–469, 1999 ) may be refined, at least when the employees are the stakeholders in question. (shrink)
Through a convenience sample of 260 employees, the study shows how employees' perceptions about corporate citizenship (CC) predict their affective commitment. The study was carried out in Portugal, a high in-group and low societal collectivistic culture. Maignan et al.' s (1999 Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 27(4), 455-469) construct, including economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary responsibilities was used. The main findings are: (a) contrary to what has been presumed in the literature, the discretionary dimension includes two factors: CC (...) toward employees and toward community; (b) perceptions of CC explain 35% of unique variance of affective commitment; (c) the best predictors are perceptions of economic and legal CC and, mainly, perceptions of discretionary CC toward employees; (d) the perceptions of discretionary CC toward employees are significantly better predictors of affective commitment than are perceptions of economic, ethical, and discretionary CC toward the community; (e) perceived inconsistency of the several CC dimensions is detrimental to employees' affective commitment. The study questions the four-dimensional model of the CC construct as operationalized by Maignan et al., suggests that culture should be included as a moderating variable in future research, and stresses that affective commitment may decrease when employees perceive that their organizations act upon the several areas of CC inconsistently. (shrink)
Resumo da dissertação de mestrado LEAL, Jair Souza. Convenção Batista Mineira: estudo de uma trajetória centenária. 2016. Dissertação, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte.
Modern management reporting on its company''s performance is influenced by individuals ethical considerations. Stakeholders philosophies have continued to change over the last 75 years affecting reporting systems for companies reporting information internally and externally. These fundamental changes in philosophy have affected how information is conveyed. We are not claiming that only one philosophical viewpoint dominates companies reporting practices, but there does appear to be a changing trend of philosophies building on one another. We use resource dependence theory in relationship to (...) a decision-making model to explain changing stakeholders positions over time. This paper argues that six dominant philosophical theories have influenced the way individuals and organizations report financial and other information. Further, these philosophies then are depicted in a model that helps us to understand what influences companies to present themselves to the outside world. A vignette is used to depict changing philosophical views for several companies management report over 75 years. (shrink)
Chemical elements are the bricks with which Chemistry is build. Their names had a history, but part of it is forgotten or barely known. In this article the forgotten, no more used, never used, and alternatively used names and symbols of the elements are reviewed, bringing to us some surprises and deeper knowledge about the richness of Chemistry. It should be stressed that chemical elements are important not only for chemists but for all people dealing with science. As in any (...) other aspect of our lives, we tend to better understand something by knowing his history. By knowing them we can have a deeply understanding of how science evolves and how it is influenced by our human aspects. (shrink)
We thank the commentators for the dialog and discussion they have proposed. We begin by remarking that telling and listening to stories are not an original thesis, especially if interpretive hermeneutics and phenomenology are central references. Academic and institutional settings are diverse if we consider the universe of empirical research grounded on philosophical methods and the teaching universe of practical and clinical disciplines, like psychiatry. The teaching of these disciplines frequently presents them merely as technics. A double reduction is performed: (...) the philosophical dimension of any and every technic is removed, and those who would benefit from this knowledge are presented as simple data... (shrink)
The end of the 1990s witnessed the development of evidence-based medicine, which proposed to screen, organize, and classify knowledge production in the health sciences. In this period, an increasing number of scientific publications started to incorporate the digital format and became easily accessible through the Internet. Since then, we have become used to the idea that there is a hierarchy in medical evidence. Its upper stratum, the gold standard of evidence, contains systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials. The (...) base of such hierarchy contains case studies, clinical cases, and personal opinions.This knowledge hierarchy is not harmless. It has practical influences on... (shrink)
Philosophical argumentation presents a puzzle for pragma-dialectics: both from the perspective of 2500 years of history and from what we can ourselves witness in the present, philosophers seem to be exclusively intent on strengthening and elaborating their differences of opinion. Nothing like that happens in other academic endeavors. This is an anomaly in pragma-dialectical terms because, if philosophical discussants do not want to resolve their differences of opinion, then they would seem to be unreasonable by definition. In other words, no (...) critical discussion would be possible in philosophy because of the peculiar way philosophers argue. The anomaly can, however, be dispelled by using the elementary distinction between single and multiple differences of opinion. It is argued that, in spite of occasional appearances, all philosophical differences of opinion are multiple. From that it is argued that the ‘institutional point’ of philosophy is to create the broadest map of arguable positions. If this is true, then philosophers may after all be pursuing a higher-order kind of consensus, bearing in particular on how many arguments can be marshaled around any given philosophical question. (shrink)
The article proposes that the literature configures spaces where the thought of the outside emerges: a way of thinking that opposes the notions of interiority, common sense and good sense. For this, the categories of transgression, decentralization and absorption of meanings are reviewed, a triad that emerges from the philosophies of Foucault, Deleuze and Baudrillard. It is concluded that evil is articulated as a principle of uncertainty and the notion of literature that is presented alludes to the production of a (...) laboratory where that cursed metaphysics is installed. It is about the deployment of the Dionysiac machine to make sense within the context of the loss of reference and of the breach of the plausibility pact. (shrink)
A teoria pedagógica comporta muitos fenômenos que o educador deve compreender e levar em consideração, dentre eles, a crise. Alguns educadores exercem dignamente o seu ofício. Mesmo diante das situações mais adversas, eles podem ser considerados resilientes. Resiliência é o nome dado à capacidade concreta das pessoas de não só superarem situações críticas, mas também de utilizá-las em seus processos de desenvolvimento pessoal. Os estudos sobre o tema se propõem a enfatizar a promoção de processos educativos que facilitem ou tornem (...) as pessoas mais resistentes e maduras para enfrentar as dificuldades que ocorrem em sua vida. A inclusão da espiritualidade como um fator de favorecimento da resiliência parece ser o de desafiar o futuro numa perspectiva de superação, considerando as adversidades como obstáculos que poderão favorecer o amadurecimento pessoal, através da ampliação da visão de mundo e do estabelecimento de novas formas de equilíbrio. Acredita-se que um professor resiliente poderá mais facilmente manter-se firme em sua tarefa de educar, transcendendo as questões meramente pedagógicas, buscando desenvolver a integralidade na prática formativa, sobretudo porque possui mais possibilidades de vivenciar a sua própria multidimensionalidade. Este texto tem como finalidade estudar a importância da espiritualidade no favorecimento de uma postura resiliente no educador. (shrink)
This paper first illustrates what kind of ethical issues arise from the new information, communication and automation technology. It then argues that we may embrace the popular idea that technology is ethically neutral or even ambivalent without having to close our eyes to those issues and in fact, that the ethical neutrality of technology makes them all the more urgent. Finally, it suggests that the widely ignored fact of normal responsible behaviour offers a new and fruitful starting point for any (...) future thinking about such issues. (shrink)
En este trabajo se estudia la concepción escotista del universal entendido como universallógico y accidente intencional, cuya función cognitiva se entiende como modo de aprehensión oconcepción de la esencia o naturaleza. El artículo se concentra en analizar las cuestiones 4 y 5 del comentario de Duns Escoto a la Isagoge. Se subraya la relación de los análisis escotistas con lateoría aviceniana del triple estatuto de la esencia sobre el telón de fondo de la teoría boeciana de los universales. Al final (...) del artículo se presenta brevemente el momento ontológico del universal tal comose puede ver en la teoría de la naturaleza común. (shrink)
This paper takes a critical look at the rise of the practice of philosophy in the market place in late modernity. Two main forms of such practice are identified: the practice of Socratic Dialogue in small groups in organisations and one-to-one philosophical counselling of individual 'clients'. The relevance of professionalism for commercialised applied practical philosophy is discussed. Philosophical counsellors in particular may be at risk of engaging with vulnerable individuals who are in need of protection from practitioners who are not (...) trained to deal with their problems. Psychology is the discipline which is most related to practical philosophy and it is growing in ethical awareness. This paper emphasises the importance of ethics for philosophy in practice. There is a pressing need for eternal vigilance by practitioners from such disciplines, whether professionalised or not, in the complex modern'runaway world'. (shrink)
En este artículo se hace una lectura hermenéutica del más reciente libro de Comesaña Santalices, De métodos y filosofía feminista, donde se reúnen, por primera vez, un conjunto variado de artículos publicados en diversas revistas en los últimos quince años, en los que encontramos una serie de reflex..
Our proposal is to overcome the limited conception of the masculinity problem. Even when it is true that all women have suffered from the imposition of the patriarchal system, it is not true that all men have always benefited or participated in the power structure that the same offers, and the major..
El propósito de este artículo es analizar la perspectiva de Hannah Arendt sobre el problema de la originalidad e incomprensibilidad del horror de los regímenes totalitarios, utilizando los testimonios de Primo Levi en Si esto es un hombre y Los hundidos y los salvados. Arendt considera que los campos de concentración y exterminio son la institución central de los regímenes totalitarios, en los cuales se intenta destruir la humanidad de las víctimas a través de prácticas de terror que no solo (...) acaban con su cuerpo, sino con su espíritu. Así, los testimonios de los sobrevivientes se convierten en las piezas clave para comprender la esencia y los ideales de estos sistemas políticos. De ahí que la memoria salte a la escena política para develar la verdad de este tipo de acontecimientos políticos y, a su vez, plantee una serie de problemas cuando se intenta definir su estatus investigativo. (shrink)
A escola é um espaço importantíssimo para o desenvolvimento de trabalhos e ações que envolvem a gestão de resíduos sólidos, tema cada vez mais discutido em trabalhos e eventos científicos. Com o objetivo de sensibilizar educandos para o problema, um grupo de bolsistas do Pibid Interdisciplinar – Educação ambiental realizou um experimento em que ações socioambientais foram propostas e desenvolvidas junto com educandos de uma escola parceira. As experiências vivenciadas no cotidiano escolar dos dois grupos tiveram como técnicas de coleta (...) de dados necessários à elaboração coletiva das ações, observações e oficinas teórico-práticas, em quatro encontros, nos quais o tema foi abordado teoricamente, através de exibição de documentários e realização de algumas dinâmicas. A ação resultante foi um trabalho de reciclagem com o reaproveitamento de materiais que seriam descartados, ao longo do qual ocorreram discussões que consistiam em uma problematização que, a partir da realidade dos alunos, tentava contribuir para que eles percebessem problemas ambientais presentes em seu dia a dia, convidando-os a refletir sobre os seus hábitos de consumo, a forma de descarte dos resíduos provenientes do seu ato de consumir e os prejuízos por eles causado na natureza. (shrink)
Rorty enfrentou as contingências do mundo contemporâneo apostando no partilhamento da “retórica das democracias liberais”, como a mais aceita e mais adequada em uma sociedade caracterizada pelo fim das metanarrativas e das condutas de moral absoluta. Mas essa aposta resvala claramente num pragmatismo moral mal disfarçado. Luhmann, ao contrário, levou até o fim a preocupação, abandonada por Rorty, de elaborar uma teoria antimetafísica e despida de um projeto normativo para a sociedade contemporânea. Sua teoria dos sistemas enfrenta as contingências do (...) mundo, excluindo tudo que for externo ao sistema, ou seja, tudo que não possa se tornar um mecanismo de manutenção da identidade dos sistemas face à complexidade do mundo. Rorty faces the contingencies of contemporary world by betting on the sharing of liberal democracies rhetorics as most fitted for a society characterized by the end of meta-narratives and absolute moral conducts. This bet clearly presents a moral pragmatism contrary to the ideas of Luhmann, who takes to its final consequences the project abandoned by Rorty of elaborating an antimetaphysics without a normative project for contemporary society. Luhmann’s theory of systems faces the contingencies of the world by excluding all that is external to the system, that is, all that cannot be converted into a mechanism of the maintenance of the identity of systems in facing the complexity of the world. (shrink)
Each one of the five books authored or co-authored by Frans van Eemeren which have so far been translated into Spanish clearly fulfills a different role. Following the chronological order, we first have Speech Acts in Argumentative Discussions (van Eemeren and Grootendorst 1984; Spanish translation 2013), a book that contains the theoretical spadework in the field of pragmatics on which the whole edifice of pragma-dialectics is erected. Then follows Argumentation, Communication, and Fallacies (van Eemeren and Grootendorst 1992; Spanish translation 2002, (...) 22007), which is the first full presentation of the Standard Theory of Pragma-Dialectics complete with its explanation of fallacies as violations of the rules of critical discussion. In the third place comes my favourite book—Argumentation: Analysis, Evaluation, Presentation (van Eemeren, Grootendorst, and Snoeck Henkemans 2002; Spanish translation, 2006)—a rare combination of sophisticated theory (again, the Standard Theory) tersely an. (shrink)
It is in the failure to achieve integration ... that personalities too often make shipwreck, either breaking down (physically or mentally) under the strain of conflict or abandoning any real desire for effective synthesis.
This study analyzes the influence of womens advances on changes that have altered mens lives and their definition of masculinity. These changes are expressed in the development of new manifestations of masculinity, some of which, due to their non-sexist and non-homophobic character, are catalogued..
Autocracies draw their political power from cronyism and organized repression. The opacity of business information protects these regimes and their crony firms from any opposition. However, autocracies might also desire to eliminate cronyism because it dampens economic growth. Autocracies survive through repression that engenders tensions, as evident in the Spanish newspaper industry during the Francoist dictatorship. State control over this industry was important because the press disseminated news to the public. From 1939 to 1957, the autocracy institutionalized both cronyism and (...) the opacity of circulation figures to sustain the political powers of Franco and the single party state. Opacity concealed the economic performance of newspapers owned by sole legal party and any distribution of resources in its favor. Franco authorized voluntary disclosure of reliable circulation figures in 1964, after eliminating cronyism in favor of a freer market. Repression guaranteed support for this industry until Franco's death. (shrink)